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ARAL LAKE DISASTER: WHAT TO DO AS DIFFERENCES IN EXPECTATIONS AND PRIORITIES ENDURE?

Yıl 2017, Cilt: 2 Sayı: 4, 150 - 162, 17.12.2017

Öz

Environmental
problems have increased since the half of the 20th century, and they have
become one of the major concerns of international politics since the beginning
of the 21st century. Global warming, air pollution, desertification, depletion
of existing water resources, reduction of plant and animal species are some of
the leading causes of the problem to list. Primarily the result of careless and
unplanned industrialization, these problems for the most part associated with
colonial/industrialized powers’ unrestrictive use of natural resources.
European colonization is the fundamental cause of environmental issues in the
Afro-Eurasia region. This paper is concerned with shrinking of Aral Sea as a
result of Moscow's excessive cotton production in the era of Soviet Union. The
efforts particularly by Kazakhstan and other Central Asian republics after
independence to reverse the process is evaluated with. The achievements of
these attempts are evaluated with respect to current situation. Taking the
effects of these initiatives into consideration, to end the environmental
disaster in the Aral Sea, the need for decisive cooperation is highlighted. It
is also argued that Russia should share the cost this program.

Kaynakça

  • Aral Sea “one of the planet’s worst environmental disasters,” 2010.
  • 66. Regular Meeting of the Interstate Commission for Water Coordination (2015), http://sic.icwc-aral.uz/releases/eng/258.htm 25.09.2016 (28.09.2016)
  • Baburajan, R. (2016). Kazakistan to Continue Renewable Energy Regardless of Oil Prices, http://www.greentechlead.com/renewable-energy/kazakhstan-continue-renewable-energy-development-regardless-oil-prices-30837 (21.09.2016)
  • Doğan, İ. (2013). Devletler Hukuku. Ankara, Astana.
  • Dugin, A. (1999). Geopolticheskoe Budushee Rossii, Myslit Prostranstovm. Arktogeya, Moskova. (Rus Jeopolitiği ve Avrasyacı Yaklaşım (2005). Beşinci Baskı. Terc.: Vugar Imanov. İstanbul, Küre Yayınları).
  • Gamba-Stonehouse, V., 1992. Environmental Crisis Cause or Consequence of International Conflict? Gleditsch NP Convers. Environ. Oslo IPCRI.
  • Gao, H. (2011). “On the Case of the Shrinking of Lake Chad”. IOP PUBLISHING ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Environ. Res. Lett.
  • Gleditsch, N.P., (1997). Conflict and the Environment. Springer Science & Business Media.
  • Hauge, W., Ellıngsen, T., 1998. Beyond environmental scarcity: Causal pathways to conflict. J. Peace Res. 35, 299–317.
  • History of IFAS and its Executive Committee (2016), http://ec-ifas.waterunites-ca.org/about/organization/history/97-history-of-ifas-and-its-executive-committee.html (25.09.2016)
  • Koşan, E. (2015). Russia’s Policies with regard to UNFCCC: An Entireliy Different Path from the EU?”, Enerji ve Diplomasi, Cilt 1, Sayı 2, Yaz, ss.66-87
  • Micklin, D.P., (2004). The Aral Sea Crisis, in: Nihoul, J.C.J., Zavialov, P.O., Micklin, P.P. (Eds.), Dying and Dead Seas Climatic Versus Anthropic Causes, NATO Science Series: IV: Earth and Environmental Sciences. Springer Netherlands, pp. 99–123. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-0967-6_5
  • Milman, O., (2016). Oil industry knew of “serious” climate concerns more than 45 years ago. The Guardian.
  • Raleıgh, C., Urdal, H., (2007). Climate change, environmental degradation and armed conflict. Polit. Geogr. 26, 674–694.
  • Sakson-Boulet, A., (2016). Water Deficit as a Security Threat. Przegląd Strateg. 239–251.
  • Sencar, P. (2007). Türkiye’de Çevre Koruma ve Ekonomik Büyüme İlişkisi. Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Trakya Üniversitesi, SBE.
  • Small, Ian, J. Van Der Meer, And R. E. Upshur. (2001) "Acting on an environmental health disaster: the case of the Aral Sea." Environmental Health Perspectives 109.6 (2001): 547.
  • Subregional Action Programme for the Central Asian Countrie on Combating Desertification within the UCCD Context (2003). http://www.unccd.int/ActionProgrammes/srapcd-eng2003.pdf (25.09.2016).
  • Syria: The worst humanitarian crisis of our time [WWW Document], 2015. . Amnesty Int. URL https://www.amnesty.org.nz/syria-worst-humanitarian-crisis-our-time (accessed 3.18.17).
  • Twenty Years of Water Cooperation among the Central Asian Countries: Past Experience and Future Challenges (2012). http://www.icwc-aral.uz/20years/index_e.htm 25.09.2016 (25.09.2016).
  • Yalçınkaya, A. (2016). Türkistan Aksakalları Kerimov ve Nazarbayev’den Beklenen Son Görev: Aral Gölünün Kurtarılması. Öncevatan, 23 Ağustos.
  • Ziganshina, D. (2014). Promoting Transboundary Water Security in the Aral Sea Basin through International Law. Leiden, Boston: Brill Nijhoff.

ARAL GÖLÜ FELAKETİ: BEKLENTİLER VE ÖNCELİKLERDE FARKLILIKLAR DEVAM EDERKEN NE YAPILMALI?

Yıl 2017, Cilt: 2 Sayı: 4, 150 - 162, 17.12.2017

Öz

Çevre sorunları 20. Yüzyılın ikinci yarısından itibaren varlığını duyurmaya başlamış ve 21. Yüzyıl başı itibarıyla uluslararası politikanın temel sorunlarından biri haline gelmiştir. Sorunun önde gelen konuları arasında küresel ısınma, hava kirliliği, çölleşme, mevcut su kaynaklarının, bitki ve hayvan türlerinin azalması gibi başlıklar sayılabilir. Öncelikle öngörüsüz, plansız sanayileşmenin sonucu olan bu durum, daha çok eski sömürgeci/sanayileşmiş ülkelerin doğal kaynakları hesapsız kullanması sonucu ortaya çıkmıştır. Afro-Avrasya’da çevresel sorunların temelinde ise Avrupa’nın Afrasya’yı sömürüsü yer almaktadır. Bu çalışmada SSCB döneminde Moskova’nın aşırı pamuk üretimi programı sonucu Aral Gölü’nün kuruma sürecine girmesi ele alınmaktadır. Bağımsızlık sonrası başta Kazakistan olmak üzere Orta Asya cumhuriyetlerinin, Aral Gölü’nü kurtarma yolundaki girişimleri ile bu çabaların ulaştığı sonuçlar, bugünkü durum çerçevesinde değerlendirilmektedir. Bu yöndeki girişimlerin sonucu dikkate alınarak Aral Gölü kaynaklı çevresel felaketlerin sona erdirilmesi konusunda kararlı işbirliğinin gereği üzerinde durulmaktadır. Bu programın maliyetine Rusya’nın da katılması gereğine işaret edilmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Aral Sea “one of the planet’s worst environmental disasters,” 2010.
  • 66. Regular Meeting of the Interstate Commission for Water Coordination (2015), http://sic.icwc-aral.uz/releases/eng/258.htm 25.09.2016 (28.09.2016)
  • Baburajan, R. (2016). Kazakistan to Continue Renewable Energy Regardless of Oil Prices, http://www.greentechlead.com/renewable-energy/kazakhstan-continue-renewable-energy-development-regardless-oil-prices-30837 (21.09.2016)
  • Doğan, İ. (2013). Devletler Hukuku. Ankara, Astana.
  • Dugin, A. (1999). Geopolticheskoe Budushee Rossii, Myslit Prostranstovm. Arktogeya, Moskova. (Rus Jeopolitiği ve Avrasyacı Yaklaşım (2005). Beşinci Baskı. Terc.: Vugar Imanov. İstanbul, Küre Yayınları).
  • Gamba-Stonehouse, V., 1992. Environmental Crisis Cause or Consequence of International Conflict? Gleditsch NP Convers. Environ. Oslo IPCRI.
  • Gao, H. (2011). “On the Case of the Shrinking of Lake Chad”. IOP PUBLISHING ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Environ. Res. Lett.
  • Gleditsch, N.P., (1997). Conflict and the Environment. Springer Science & Business Media.
  • Hauge, W., Ellıngsen, T., 1998. Beyond environmental scarcity: Causal pathways to conflict. J. Peace Res. 35, 299–317.
  • History of IFAS and its Executive Committee (2016), http://ec-ifas.waterunites-ca.org/about/organization/history/97-history-of-ifas-and-its-executive-committee.html (25.09.2016)
  • Koşan, E. (2015). Russia’s Policies with regard to UNFCCC: An Entireliy Different Path from the EU?”, Enerji ve Diplomasi, Cilt 1, Sayı 2, Yaz, ss.66-87
  • Micklin, D.P., (2004). The Aral Sea Crisis, in: Nihoul, J.C.J., Zavialov, P.O., Micklin, P.P. (Eds.), Dying and Dead Seas Climatic Versus Anthropic Causes, NATO Science Series: IV: Earth and Environmental Sciences. Springer Netherlands, pp. 99–123. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-0967-6_5
  • Milman, O., (2016). Oil industry knew of “serious” climate concerns more than 45 years ago. The Guardian.
  • Raleıgh, C., Urdal, H., (2007). Climate change, environmental degradation and armed conflict. Polit. Geogr. 26, 674–694.
  • Sakson-Boulet, A., (2016). Water Deficit as a Security Threat. Przegląd Strateg. 239–251.
  • Sencar, P. (2007). Türkiye’de Çevre Koruma ve Ekonomik Büyüme İlişkisi. Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Trakya Üniversitesi, SBE.
  • Small, Ian, J. Van Der Meer, And R. E. Upshur. (2001) "Acting on an environmental health disaster: the case of the Aral Sea." Environmental Health Perspectives 109.6 (2001): 547.
  • Subregional Action Programme for the Central Asian Countrie on Combating Desertification within the UCCD Context (2003). http://www.unccd.int/ActionProgrammes/srapcd-eng2003.pdf (25.09.2016).
  • Syria: The worst humanitarian crisis of our time [WWW Document], 2015. . Amnesty Int. URL https://www.amnesty.org.nz/syria-worst-humanitarian-crisis-our-time (accessed 3.18.17).
  • Twenty Years of Water Cooperation among the Central Asian Countries: Past Experience and Future Challenges (2012). http://www.icwc-aral.uz/20years/index_e.htm 25.09.2016 (25.09.2016).
  • Yalçınkaya, A. (2016). Türkistan Aksakalları Kerimov ve Nazarbayev’den Beklenen Son Görev: Aral Gölünün Kurtarılması. Öncevatan, 23 Ağustos.
  • Ziganshina, D. (2014). Promoting Transboundary Water Security in the Aral Sea Basin through International Law. Leiden, Boston: Brill Nijhoff.

Ayrıntılar

Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Alaeddin YALÇINKAYA

Hakan MEHMETCİK

Yayımlanma Tarihi 17 Aralık 2017
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2017 Cilt: 2 Sayı: 4

Kaynak Göster

APA YALÇINKAYA, A., & MEHMETCİK, H. (2017). ARAL GÖLÜ FELAKETİ: BEKLENTİLER VE ÖNCELİKLERDE FARKLILIKLAR DEVAM EDERKEN NE YAPILMALI?. Uluslararası Afro-Avrasya Araştırmaları Dergisi, 2(4), 150-162.

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