Araştırma Makalesi
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COVID-19 SALGIN DÖNEMİNDE BİR KAMU HASTANESİNDE KİŞİSEL KORUYUCU EKİPMAN KULLANIMINDAKİ DEĞİŞİMİN İNCELENMESİ

Yıl 2021, Cilt 9, Sayı 2, 642 - 654, 25.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.33715/inonusaglik.850185

Öz

Bu çalışmanın amacı hastanelerde kullanılan kişisel koruyucu ekipmanların COVID-19 salgın dönemindeki değişim oranlarını değerlendirmektir. Araştırma retrospektif tipte bir araştırmadır. Araştırma, Türkiye’de bir kamu hastanesinde yapılmıştır. Araştırma kapsamında 2019 ve 2020 yılına ait 6 aylık (Nisan-Eylül) veriler kullanılmıştır. Araştırma verileri hastane bilgi yönetim sistemi ve malzeme kaynak yönetim sisteminden alınmıştır. Analiz sonuçlarına göre kişisel koruyucu ekipmanlar arasında toplam kullanım miktarına göre en fazla artışın %1.975 ile "maske" kullanımında olduğu görülmüştür. El antiseptiği kullanım miktarında %217,61, poşet eldiven kullanımında %151,56, bone kullanımında %123,41 ve non-steril eldiven kullanımında %3,15’lik artışların olduğu görülmüştür. Toplam kullanım miktarına göre azalışın görüldüğü tek koruyucu ekipman olan steril eldivendeki azalış oranı ise %10,66’dır. Ayrıca, hastaneye başvuran hasta sayısında %50’ye yakın azalma olmasına rağmen personel başı, hasta başı ve günlük kullanım miktarlarına göre yapılan değerlendirmelerde tüm malzeme kullanım miktarında önemli artışların olduğu saptanmıştır. Araştırma sonuçları, sağlık yönetimi literatürüne katkı sağlarken, salgın döneminde hasta ve personel başına düşen kişisel koruyucu ekipmanların kullanım miktarlarının ve değişim oranlarının bilinmesine ve de hastaneler için malzeme tedarik süreçlerinin doğru miktarda ve zamanında yapılmasına katkı sağlayacaktır.

Kaynakça

  • Adeleye, O. O., Adeyemi, A. S., Oyem, J. C., Akindokun, S. S., Ayanlade, I. J. (2020). Rational use of personal protective equipment (ppe) among health workers in COVID-19 frontline. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research, 7(12), 445-451.
  • Araghi, F., Tabary, M., Gheisari, M., Abdollahimajd, F., Dadkhahfar, S. (2020). Hand hygiene among health care workers during COVID-19 pandemic: challenges and recommendations. Dermatitis, 31(4), 233-237.
  • Aravindakshan, A., Boehnke, J., Gholami, E., Nayak, A. (2020). Mask-Wearing During the COVID-19 Pandemic. medRxiv. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.11.20192971
  • Bhattacharya, S., Hossain, M., Singh, A. (2020). Addressing the shortage of personal protective equipment during the COVID-19 pandemic in India-A public health perspective. AIMS Public Health, 7(2), 223–227.
  • Bundgaard, H., Bundgaard, J. S., Raaschou-Pedersen, D. E. T., Mariager, A. F., Schytte, N., von Buchwald, C., ... Benfield, T. (2020). Face masks for the prevention of COVID-19-rationale and design of the randomised controlled trial DANMASK-19. Dan Med J, 67(9), 1-10.
  • Casanova, L., Alfano-Sobsey, E., Rutala, W. A., Weber, D. J., Sobsey, M. (2008). Virus transfer from personal protective equipment to healthcare employees’ skin and clothing. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1291-1293.
  • Cook, T. M. (2020). Personal protective equipment during the coronavirus disease (COVID) 2019 pandemic–a narrative review. Anaesthesia, 75(7), 920-927.
  • Cunha, C. B., Cunha, B. A. (2008). Great plagues of the past and remaining questions. In Paleomicrobiology (ss. 1-20). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
  • Chu, D. K., Akl, E. A., Duda, S., Solo, K., Yaacoub, S., Schünemann, H. J., ... Hajizadeh, A. (2020). Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet, 395(10242), 1973-1987.
  • Dargaville, T., Spann, K., Celina, M. (2020). Opinion to address the personal protective equipment shortage in the global community during the COVID-19 outbreak. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 176 (2020), 109162.
  • Fix, G. M., Reisinger, H. S., Etchin, A., McDannold, S., Eagan, A., Findley, K., ... McInnes, D. K. (2019). Health care workers’ perceptions and reported use of respiratory protective equipment: A qualitative analysis. American journal of infection control, 47(10), 1162-1166.
  • Harrod, M., Weston, L. E., Gregory, L., Petersen, L., Mayer, J., Drews, F. A., Krein, S. L. (2020). A qualitative study of factors affecting personal protective equipment use among health care personnel. American Journal of İnfection Control, 48(4), 410-415.
  • Hassan, M. Z., Monjur, M. R., Styczynski, A. R., Rahman, M., Banu, S. (2020). Protecting frontline healthcare workers should be the top priority in low-resource health systems: Bangladesh and COVID-19. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 1-2.
  • Herron, J. B. T., Hay-David, A. G. C., Gilliam, A. D., Brennan, P. A. (2020). Personal protective equipment and COVID 19-a risk to healthcare staff ? British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 58(5), 500-502.
  • Honda, H., Iwata, K. (2016). Personal protective equipment and improving compliance among healthcare workers in high-risk settings. Current opinion in infectious diseases, 29(4), 400-406.
  • Jessop, Z. M., Dobbs, T. D., Ali, S. R., Combellack, E., Clancy, R., Ibrahim, N., ... Whitaker, I. S. (2020). Personal protective equipment for surgeons during. British Journal of Surgery, 107(10), 1262-1280.
  • John, A., Tomas, M. E., Cadnum, J. L., Mana, T. S., Jencson, A., Shaikh, A., ... Donskey, C. J. (2016). Are health care personnel trained in correct use of personal protective equipment ? American Journal Of İnfection Control, 44(7), 840-842.
  • Kang, J., O'Donnell, J. M., Colaianne, B., Bircher, N., Ren, D., Smith, K. J. (2017). Use of personal protective equipment among health care personnel: results of clinical observations and simulations. American Journal of Infection Control, 45(1), 17-23.
  • Liu, M., Cheng, S. Z., Xu, K. W., Yang, Y., Zhu, Q. T., Zhang, H., ... Yao, H. R. (2020). Use of personal protective equipment against coronavirus disease 2019 by healthcare professionals in Wuhan, China: Cross sectional study. BMJ, 369, m2195.
  • Liu, Z., Zhang, Y., Wang, X., Zhang, D., Diao, D., Chandramohan, K., Booth, C. M. (2020). Recommendations for surgery during the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemic. The Indian Journal of Surgery, 82(2), 124–128.
  • Littman, R. J., Littman, M. L. (1973). Galen and the Antonine plague. The American Journal of Philology, 94(3), 243-255.
  • Lockhart, S. L., Naidu, J. J., Badh, C. S., Duggan, L. V. (2020). Simulation as a tool for assessing and evolving your current personal protective equipment: lessons learned during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d'anesthésie, 67, 895–896.
  • Lotfinejad, N., Peters, A., Pittet, D., (2020). Hand hygiene and the novel coronavirus pandemic: The role of healthcare workers. Journal of Hospital Infection, 105, 776-777.
  • McMahon, D. E., Peters, G. A., Ivers, L. C., Freeman, E. E. (2020). Global resource shortages during COVID-19: Bad news for low-income countries. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 14(7), e0008412.
  • Nerli, R. B., Ghagane, S. C. (2020). Safety of health-care workers during COVID-19 times. Indian Journal of Health Sciences and Biomedical Research (KLEU), 13(2), 61-63.
  • Nogueras, M., Marinsalta, N., Roussell, M., Notario, R. (2001). Importance of hand germ contamination in health-care workers as possible carriers of nosocomial infections. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, 43(3), 149-152.
  • Park, S. H. (2020). Personal protective equipment for healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Infection & Chemotherapy, 52(2), 165-182.
  • Rondinelli, I., Dougherty, G., Madevu-Matson, C. A., Toure, M., Akinjeji, A., Ogongo, I., ... Benya, H. (2020). An innovative quality improvement approach for rapid improvement of infection prevention and control at health facilities in Sierra Leone. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 32(2), 85-92.
  • Roshan, R., Feroz, A. S., Rafique, Z., Virani, N. (2020). Rigorous hand hygiene practices among health care workers reduce hospital-associated infections during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Primary Care & Community Health, 11, 1-4.
  • Royal Australian College of Surgeon, (2020). Guidelines for Personal Protective Equipment. 2 Aralık 2020 tarihinde https://umbraco.surgeons.org/media/5302/2020-05-05-covid19-ppe-guidelines.pdf adresinden erişildi.
  • Martin, S. (2011). Kara Ölüm Orta Çağda Veba, İstanbul: Kalkedon Yayınları.
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). (2020). 1 Aralık 2020 tarihinde, https://www.osha.gov/ personal-protective-equipment adresinden erişildi.
  • Seto, W. H., Tsang, D., Yung, R. W. H., Ching, T. Y., Ng, T. K., Ho, M., ... Advisors of Expert SARS group of Hospital Authority. (2003). Effectiveness of precautions against droplets and contact in prevention of nosocomial transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The Lancet, 361(9368), 1519-1520.
  • Smith, C. A. (1996). Plague in the ancient world. A study of Thucidides to Justinian, The student Historical Journal, 28, 1-19.
  • Snowden, F.M. (2019), Epidemics and society from the black death to the present, Yale University Press.
  • Thomas, J. P., Srinivasan, A., Wickramarachchi, C. S., Dhesi, P. K., Hung, Y. M., Kamath, A. V. (2020). Evaluating the national PPE guidance for NHS healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinical Medicine, 20(3), 1-6.
  • Tian, Z., Stedman, M., Whyte, M., Anderson, S. G., Thomson, G., Heald, A. (2020). Personal protective equipment (PPE) and infection among healthcare workers–what is the evidence?. International journal of clinical practice, 74(11), e13617. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.13617
  • Torres-Castro, R., Vilaró, J., Vera-Uribe, R. (2020). COVID-19: The risk of respiratory techniques in healthcare workers. Spinal Cord, 58, 724-725.
  • Wang, D., Hu, B., Hu, C., Zhu, F., Liu, X., Zhang, J., ... Zhao, Y. (2020). Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA, 323(11), 1061-1069.
  • World Health Organization (WHO). (2009). WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care. WHO Publication. 3 Aralık 2020 tarihinde, https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241597906 adresinden erişildi.
  • World Health Organization (WHO). (2020). Rational use of personal protective equipment for COVID-19 and considerations during severe shortages. 3 Aralık 2020 tarihinde, https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/ rational-use-of-personal-protective-equipment-for-coronavirus-disease-(covid-19)-and-considerations-during-severe-shortages adresinden erişildi.
  • Williams, C. K., Carnahan, H. (2013). Development and validation of tools for assessing use of personal protective equipment in health care. American Journal of İnfection Control, 41(1), 28-32.
  • Young, S., Osman, B. M., Urman, R. D., Shapiro, F. E. (2020). Patients, procedures, and PPE: Safe office-based anesthesia recommendations in the COVID-19 era. Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpa.2020.11.006
  • Zhao, Y., Liang, W., Luo, Y., Chen, Y., Liang, P., Zhong, R., ... He, J. (2020). Personal protective equipment protecting healthcare workers in the Chinese epicentre of COVID-19. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 26(12), 1716-1718.
  • Zimmermann, M., Nkenke, E. (2020). Approaches to the management of patients in oral and maxillofacial surgery during COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery. 48(2020), 521-526.

Investigation of the Change in the Personal Protective Equipment Usage in a Public Hospital during the COVID-19 Outbreak

Yıl 2021, Cilt 9, Sayı 2, 642 - 654, 25.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.33715/inonusaglik.850185

Öz

The aim of this study is to assess the change rates of personal protective equipment used in hospitals during the COVID-19 epidemic period. The research is a retrospective study. The study has been conducted at a state hospital in Turkey. Within the scope of the research, 6-month (April-September) data of 2019 and 2020 have been used. Research data have been taken from hospital information management system and material resource management system. According to the analysis results, it has been seen that the highest increase in the use of personal protective equipment was in the "mask" usage with a 1975%. It has been seen that there was an increase of; 217.61% in the amount of hand antiseptic usage, 151.56% in the use of polythene gloves, 123.41% in the use of head cap and 3.15% in the use of non-sterile nitrile gloves. The reduction rate in sterile gloves, which is the only protective equipment that has been observed to decrease according to the total usage amount, is 10.66%. Furthermore, although there was a 50% decrease in the number of patients who admitted to the hospital, it has been determined that there was a significant increase in the amount of all material usage in the evaluations made according to; per personnel, per patients and the amount of daily use. While the results of the research will contribute to the health management literature, they will contribute to know the usage amounts and change rates of personal protective equipment per patient and per personnel during the epidemic period, and also to make the material supply processes in hospitals in the right amount and on time.

Kaynakça

  • Adeleye, O. O., Adeyemi, A. S., Oyem, J. C., Akindokun, S. S., Ayanlade, I. J. (2020). Rational use of personal protective equipment (ppe) among health workers in COVID-19 frontline. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research, 7(12), 445-451.
  • Araghi, F., Tabary, M., Gheisari, M., Abdollahimajd, F., Dadkhahfar, S. (2020). Hand hygiene among health care workers during COVID-19 pandemic: challenges and recommendations. Dermatitis, 31(4), 233-237.
  • Aravindakshan, A., Boehnke, J., Gholami, E., Nayak, A. (2020). Mask-Wearing During the COVID-19 Pandemic. medRxiv. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.11.20192971
  • Bhattacharya, S., Hossain, M., Singh, A. (2020). Addressing the shortage of personal protective equipment during the COVID-19 pandemic in India-A public health perspective. AIMS Public Health, 7(2), 223–227.
  • Bundgaard, H., Bundgaard, J. S., Raaschou-Pedersen, D. E. T., Mariager, A. F., Schytte, N., von Buchwald, C., ... Benfield, T. (2020). Face masks for the prevention of COVID-19-rationale and design of the randomised controlled trial DANMASK-19. Dan Med J, 67(9), 1-10.
  • Casanova, L., Alfano-Sobsey, E., Rutala, W. A., Weber, D. J., Sobsey, M. (2008). Virus transfer from personal protective equipment to healthcare employees’ skin and clothing. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(8), 1291-1293.
  • Cook, T. M. (2020). Personal protective equipment during the coronavirus disease (COVID) 2019 pandemic–a narrative review. Anaesthesia, 75(7), 920-927.
  • Cunha, C. B., Cunha, B. A. (2008). Great plagues of the past and remaining questions. In Paleomicrobiology (ss. 1-20). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
  • Chu, D. K., Akl, E. A., Duda, S., Solo, K., Yaacoub, S., Schünemann, H. J., ... Hajizadeh, A. (2020). Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet, 395(10242), 1973-1987.
  • Dargaville, T., Spann, K., Celina, M. (2020). Opinion to address the personal protective equipment shortage in the global community during the COVID-19 outbreak. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 176 (2020), 109162.
  • Fix, G. M., Reisinger, H. S., Etchin, A., McDannold, S., Eagan, A., Findley, K., ... McInnes, D. K. (2019). Health care workers’ perceptions and reported use of respiratory protective equipment: A qualitative analysis. American journal of infection control, 47(10), 1162-1166.
  • Harrod, M., Weston, L. E., Gregory, L., Petersen, L., Mayer, J., Drews, F. A., Krein, S. L. (2020). A qualitative study of factors affecting personal protective equipment use among health care personnel. American Journal of İnfection Control, 48(4), 410-415.
  • Hassan, M. Z., Monjur, M. R., Styczynski, A. R., Rahman, M., Banu, S. (2020). Protecting frontline healthcare workers should be the top priority in low-resource health systems: Bangladesh and COVID-19. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 1-2.
  • Herron, J. B. T., Hay-David, A. G. C., Gilliam, A. D., Brennan, P. A. (2020). Personal protective equipment and COVID 19-a risk to healthcare staff ? British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 58(5), 500-502.
  • Honda, H., Iwata, K. (2016). Personal protective equipment and improving compliance among healthcare workers in high-risk settings. Current opinion in infectious diseases, 29(4), 400-406.
  • Jessop, Z. M., Dobbs, T. D., Ali, S. R., Combellack, E., Clancy, R., Ibrahim, N., ... Whitaker, I. S. (2020). Personal protective equipment for surgeons during. British Journal of Surgery, 107(10), 1262-1280.
  • John, A., Tomas, M. E., Cadnum, J. L., Mana, T. S., Jencson, A., Shaikh, A., ... Donskey, C. J. (2016). Are health care personnel trained in correct use of personal protective equipment ? American Journal Of İnfection Control, 44(7), 840-842.
  • Kang, J., O'Donnell, J. M., Colaianne, B., Bircher, N., Ren, D., Smith, K. J. (2017). Use of personal protective equipment among health care personnel: results of clinical observations and simulations. American Journal of Infection Control, 45(1), 17-23.
  • Liu, M., Cheng, S. Z., Xu, K. W., Yang, Y., Zhu, Q. T., Zhang, H., ... Yao, H. R. (2020). Use of personal protective equipment against coronavirus disease 2019 by healthcare professionals in Wuhan, China: Cross sectional study. BMJ, 369, m2195.
  • Liu, Z., Zhang, Y., Wang, X., Zhang, D., Diao, D., Chandramohan, K., Booth, C. M. (2020). Recommendations for surgery during the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemic. The Indian Journal of Surgery, 82(2), 124–128.
  • Littman, R. J., Littman, M. L. (1973). Galen and the Antonine plague. The American Journal of Philology, 94(3), 243-255.
  • Lockhart, S. L., Naidu, J. J., Badh, C. S., Duggan, L. V. (2020). Simulation as a tool for assessing and evolving your current personal protective equipment: lessons learned during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d'anesthésie, 67, 895–896.
  • Lotfinejad, N., Peters, A., Pittet, D., (2020). Hand hygiene and the novel coronavirus pandemic: The role of healthcare workers. Journal of Hospital Infection, 105, 776-777.
  • McMahon, D. E., Peters, G. A., Ivers, L. C., Freeman, E. E. (2020). Global resource shortages during COVID-19: Bad news for low-income countries. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 14(7), e0008412.
  • Nerli, R. B., Ghagane, S. C. (2020). Safety of health-care workers during COVID-19 times. Indian Journal of Health Sciences and Biomedical Research (KLEU), 13(2), 61-63.
  • Nogueras, M., Marinsalta, N., Roussell, M., Notario, R. (2001). Importance of hand germ contamination in health-care workers as possible carriers of nosocomial infections. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, 43(3), 149-152.
  • Park, S. H. (2020). Personal protective equipment for healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Infection & Chemotherapy, 52(2), 165-182.
  • Rondinelli, I., Dougherty, G., Madevu-Matson, C. A., Toure, M., Akinjeji, A., Ogongo, I., ... Benya, H. (2020). An innovative quality improvement approach for rapid improvement of infection prevention and control at health facilities in Sierra Leone. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 32(2), 85-92.
  • Roshan, R., Feroz, A. S., Rafique, Z., Virani, N. (2020). Rigorous hand hygiene practices among health care workers reduce hospital-associated infections during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Primary Care & Community Health, 11, 1-4.
  • Royal Australian College of Surgeon, (2020). Guidelines for Personal Protective Equipment. 2 Aralık 2020 tarihinde https://umbraco.surgeons.org/media/5302/2020-05-05-covid19-ppe-guidelines.pdf adresinden erişildi.
  • Martin, S. (2011). Kara Ölüm Orta Çağda Veba, İstanbul: Kalkedon Yayınları.
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). (2020). 1 Aralık 2020 tarihinde, https://www.osha.gov/ personal-protective-equipment adresinden erişildi.
  • Seto, W. H., Tsang, D., Yung, R. W. H., Ching, T. Y., Ng, T. K., Ho, M., ... Advisors of Expert SARS group of Hospital Authority. (2003). Effectiveness of precautions against droplets and contact in prevention of nosocomial transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The Lancet, 361(9368), 1519-1520.
  • Smith, C. A. (1996). Plague in the ancient world. A study of Thucidides to Justinian, The student Historical Journal, 28, 1-19.
  • Snowden, F.M. (2019), Epidemics and society from the black death to the present, Yale University Press.
  • Thomas, J. P., Srinivasan, A., Wickramarachchi, C. S., Dhesi, P. K., Hung, Y. M., Kamath, A. V. (2020). Evaluating the national PPE guidance for NHS healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinical Medicine, 20(3), 1-6.
  • Tian, Z., Stedman, M., Whyte, M., Anderson, S. G., Thomson, G., Heald, A. (2020). Personal protective equipment (PPE) and infection among healthcare workers–what is the evidence?. International journal of clinical practice, 74(11), e13617. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.13617
  • Torres-Castro, R., Vilaró, J., Vera-Uribe, R. (2020). COVID-19: The risk of respiratory techniques in healthcare workers. Spinal Cord, 58, 724-725.
  • Wang, D., Hu, B., Hu, C., Zhu, F., Liu, X., Zhang, J., ... Zhao, Y. (2020). Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA, 323(11), 1061-1069.
  • World Health Organization (WHO). (2009). WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care. WHO Publication. 3 Aralık 2020 tarihinde, https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241597906 adresinden erişildi.
  • World Health Organization (WHO). (2020). Rational use of personal protective equipment for COVID-19 and considerations during severe shortages. 3 Aralık 2020 tarihinde, https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/ rational-use-of-personal-protective-equipment-for-coronavirus-disease-(covid-19)-and-considerations-during-severe-shortages adresinden erişildi.
  • Williams, C. K., Carnahan, H. (2013). Development and validation of tools for assessing use of personal protective equipment in health care. American Journal of İnfection Control, 41(1), 28-32.
  • Young, S., Osman, B. M., Urman, R. D., Shapiro, F. E. (2020). Patients, procedures, and PPE: Safe office-based anesthesia recommendations in the COVID-19 era. Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpa.2020.11.006
  • Zhao, Y., Liang, W., Luo, Y., Chen, Y., Liang, P., Zhong, R., ... He, J. (2020). Personal protective equipment protecting healthcare workers in the Chinese epicentre of COVID-19. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 26(12), 1716-1718.
  • Zimmermann, M., Nkenke, E. (2020). Approaches to the management of patients in oral and maxillofacial surgery during COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery. 48(2020), 521-526.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Tıp
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Erhan EKİNGEN (Sorumlu Yazar)
BATMAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SAĞLIK YÜKSEKOKULU
0000-0002-0558-7299
Türkiye


Bayram DEMİR
BATMAN İL SAĞLIK MÜDÜRLÜĞÜ
0000-0003-2547-2664
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 25 Haziran 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 30 Aralık 2020
Kabul Tarihi 22 Şubat 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 9, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Ekingen, E. & Demir, B. (2021). COVID-19 SALGIN DÖNEMİNDE BİR KAMU HASTANESİNDE KİŞİSEL KORUYUCU EKİPMAN KULLANIMINDAKİ DEĞİŞİMİN İNCELENMESİ . İnönü Üniversitesi Sağlık Hizmetleri Meslek Yüksek Okulu Dergisi , 9 (2) , 642-654 . DOI: 10.33715/inonusaglik.850185

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