Araştırma Makalesi
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Yıl 2021, Cilt 8, Sayı 15, 53 - 73, 30.04.2021
https://doi.org/10.29129/inujgse.756716

Öz

Kaynakça

  • Akyol, G., Tekkaya, C. ve Sungur, S. (2010). The contribution of understandings of evolutionary theory and nature of science to pre-service science teachers’ acceptance of evolutionary theory. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9, 1889-1893.
  • Allmon, W. D. (2011). Why don’t people think evolution is true? Implications for teaching, in and out of the classroom. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 4 (4), 648-665.
  • Arpacı, A. (2011). Fen bilgisi öğretmen adaylarının biyoloji öğretimine yönelik öz-yeterlik algıları, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, İnönü Üniversitesi, Malatya.
  • Asghar, A. (2013). Canadian and Pakistani Muslim teachers’ perceptions of evolutionary science and evolution education. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 6: 10.
  • Athanasiou, K., Katakos, E. & Papadopoulou, P. (2012). Conceptual ecology of evolution acceptance among Greek education students: the contribution of knowledge increase. Journal of Biological Education, 46, 234–241.
  • Bakanay, Ç.D. (2008). Biyoloji öğretmen adaylarının evrim teorisine yaklaşımları ve bilimin doğasına bakış açıları. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Marmara Üniversitesi, İstanbul.
  • Balgopal, M. M. (2014). Learning and intending to teach evolution: Concerns of preservice biology teachers. Research in Science Education, 44 (1), 27-52.
  • Berkman M.B., Pachecho J.S. & Plutzer, E. (2008). Evolution and creationism in America’s classrooms: a national portrait. PLoS Biol, 6, 0920–0924.
  • Boldrin, A. & Mason,L. (2009). Distinguishing between knowledge and beliefs: students’ epistemic criteria for differentiating, Instr Sci, 37:107–127.
  • Brem, SK., Ranney, M., & Schindel, J. (2003). Perceived consequences of evolution: College students perceive negative personal and social impact in evolutionary theory. Science Education, 87, 181–206.
  • Butler, W., Jr. (2009). Does the nature of science influence college students' learning of biological evolution?(Order No. 3373974). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (304882646). Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/304882646?accountid=12251 adresinden 8 Nisan 2017 tarihinde edinilmiştir.
  • Cobern, W.W. (2000). The Nature of Science and the Role of Knowledge and Belief, Science & Education, 9, 219–246.
  • Coleman, J., Stears, M. & Dempster, E. (2015). Student teachers’ understanding and acceptance of evolution and the nature of science. South African Journal of Education, 35(2), 1079.
  • Dagher, Z. R. & BouJaoude, S. (1997). Scientific views and religious beliefs of college students: The case of biological evolution. Journal of research in Science Teaching, 34(5), 429-445.
  • Dee Goldston, M. J., & Kyzer, P. (2009). Teaching evolution: Narratives with a view from three southern biology teachers in the USA. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 46 (7), 762-790.
  • Demir, Ö. (2009). Bilim Felsefesi. Vadi Yayınları: Ankara.
  • Deniz, H. ve Şahin, A. (2016). Exploring the factors related to acceptance of evolutionary theory amongTurkish preservice biology teachers and the relationship between acceptance and teaching preference. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 20(4), 21–43.
  • Deniz, H., Çetin, F. ve Yılmaz, I. (2011). Examining the relationships among acceptance of evolution, religiosity, and teaching preference for evolution in Turkish preservice biology teachers. Reports of the National Center for Science Education, 31(4), 1.1–1.9.
  • Deniz, H., Donnelly, L. ve Yılmaz, I. (2008). Exploring the factors related to acceptance of evolutionary theory among Turkish preservice biology teachers: toward a more informative conceptual ecology for biological evolution. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 45, (4), 420-443.
  • Ergezen, S.S., (2007). Biyoloji eğitiminde “evrim” konusunun öğretimi ve lise biyoloji öğretmenlerinin yeterlikleri, Biyoloji Eğitiminde Evrim Sempozyumu, Mayıs 2007, Malatya, İnönü Üniversitesi, 173-178.
  • Evans, E.M. (2008). Conceptual change and evolutionary biology: A developmental analysis. In S. Vosniadou (Ed.), International handbook of research on conceptual change (pp. 263–294). New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Glaze, A. L., Goldston, M. J. & Dantzler, J. (2014). Evolution in the southeastern USA: Factors influencing acceptance and rejection in pre-service science teachers. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 13, 1189–1209.
  • Großschedl, J., Konnemann, C. & Basel, N. (2014). Pre-service biology teachers’ acceptance of evolutionary theory and their preference for its teaching. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 7, 1–16. Ha, M., Baldwin, B. C. & Nehm, R. H. (2015). The long-term impacts of short-term Professional development: Science teachers and evolution. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 8, 11.
  • Ha, M., Haury, D. L. & Nehm, R. H. (2012). Feeling of certainty: Uncovering a missing link between knowledge and acceptance of evolution. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 49(1), 95-121.
  • Hameed, S. (2008). Bracing for Islamic creationism. Science, 322(5908), 1637–1638.
  • Hermann, R.S. (2008). Evolution as a controversial issue: A review of instructional approaches. Science and Education, 17, 1011–1032.
  • Ingram, E. L. & Nelson C. E. (2006). Relationship between achivement and student’s acceptance of evolution or creation in an upper-level evolution course. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 43 (1), 7-24.
  • Inter-Academy Panel (IAP) statement on the teaching of evolution. Inter-Academy Panel. (2006). Kahyaoğlu, M. (2013). The teacher candidates’ attitudes towards teaching of evolution theory. Necatibey Faculty of Education Electronic Journal of Science & Mathematics Education, 7(1).
  • Kelly, M., Stoddard, K. I. ve Allard, D.W. (2016). Simultaneous measurement of the acceptance of the theory of evolution at regionally distinct colleges, Journal of Academic Perspectives. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/315114268 adresinden 10 Nisan 2018 tarihinde edinilmiştir.
  • Keskin, B. (2015). Biyoloji öğretmen adaylarının evrimle İlgili kavram yanılgılarının ve biyolojik evrim konusunu içeren web sitelerinin incelenmesi. Doktora Tezi, Atatürk Üniversitesi, Erzurum.
  • Kim, S. Y. & Nehm, R. H. (2011). A cross‐cultural comparison of Korean and American science teachers’ views of evolution and the nature of science. International Journal of Science Education, 33(2), 197-227.
  • Kohl, H. R. (1994). "I won’t learn from you" and other thoughts on creative maladjustment. New York: New Press. https://wikieducator.org/images/5/59/Kohl_I_Won't_Learn_from_You.pdf adresinden 16 Eylül 2016 tarihinde edinilmiştir.
  • Korte, S. E. (2003). The acceptance and understanding of evolutionary theory among Ohio secondary life science teachers, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio University. https://etd.ohiolink.edu/rws_etd/document/get/ohiou1070473022/inline adresinden 3 Eylül 2017 tarihinde edinilmiştir.
  • Kozalak, G. (2013). Üniversite fen bilimleri birinci sınıf öğrencilerinin evrim teorisini algılama düzeyleri. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Necmettin Erbakan Üniversitesi, Konya. ,
  • Köse, A. (2010). Fen bilgisi öğretmen adaylarının öğrenme stilleri, ders çalışma stratejileri ile fen bilgisi öğretimi öz yeterlik inançları arasındaki ilişki (ÇOMÜ örneği). Yayınlanmış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi, Çanakkale.
  • Köse-Özay, E. (2010). Biology students’ and teachers’ religious beliefs and attitudes towards theory of evolution. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 38, 189-200.
  • Larkin, D. B. & Perry‐Ryder, G. M. (2015). Without the light of evolution: A case study of resistance and avoidance in learning to teach high school biology. Science Education, 99(3), 549-576.
  • Miller, J.D., Scott, E.J. & Okamoto, S. (2006). Science communication: public acceptance of evolution. Science, 313, 765-766. Moore R. (2007). What are students taught about evolution? McGill J Educ 42, 177–187.
  • Nehm, R. H. & Schonfeld, IS. (2007). Does increasing biology teacher knowledge of evolution and the nature of science lead to greater preference for the teaching of evolution in schools? Journal of Science Teacher Education, 18 (5), 699–723.
  • Nickels, M. K., Nelson, C. E. & Beard, J. (1996). Better biology teaching by emphasizing evolution and the nature of science. The American Biology Teacher, 59, 332-336.
  • NRC (National Research Council).(1998). Teaching about evolution and the nature of science. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
  • Nunez, E., Pringle, R. & Showalter, K. (2012). Evolution in the Caribbean Classroom: A critical analysis of the role of biology teachers and science standards in shaping evolution instruction in Belize. International Journal of Science Education.
  • Paz-y-Mino, C. G. & Espinosa, A. (2009). Assessment of biology majors’ versus nonmajors’ views on evolution, creationism, and intelligent design. Evol Educ Outreach 2, 75–83.
  • Quessada, M.P. & Clément, P. (2007). An epistemological approach to French syllabi on human origins during the 19th & 20th centuries. Science & Education, 16 (9-10), 991- 1006.
  • Rahmawati, D. (2015). Biology education student acceptance of evolution theory before learn evolutıonary. Etnomathematics (Mathematical Concepts in Minangkabau Traditional Game) (s.328-333) Padang: Pandang State University, Indonesia. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/314094862 adresinden 10 Nisan 2018 tarihinde edinilmiştir.
  • Rice, J. W. (2007). Evolution education at iowa state university: Student understanding and acceptance of evolution, creationism, and intelligent design (Order No. 1447531). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (304856908). https://search.proquest.com/docview/304856908?accountid=12251 adresinden 4 Temmuz 2017 tarihinde edinilmiştir.
  • Rice, J. W. (2012). Understanding and acceptance of biological evolution and the nature of science: Studies on university faculty (Order No. 3539413). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1095736558). https://search.proquest.com/docview/1095736558?accountid=12251 adresinden 1 Temmuz 2017 tarihinde edinilmiştir.
  • Rice, J. W., Olson, J. K. & Colbert, J. T. (2011). University evolution education: the effect of evolution instruction on biology majors’ content knowledge, attitude toward evolution, and theistic position. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 4 (1), 137-144.
  • Rudolph, J. L. & Stewart, J. (1998). Evolution and the nature of science: On the historical discord and its implications for education. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 35(10), 1069-1089.
  • Rutledge, M. L. (1996). Indiana high school biology teachers and evolutionary theory: Acceptance and understanding (Order No. 9632834). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (304320583). Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/304320583?accountid=12251 adresinden 5 Nisan 2017 tarihinde edinilmiştir.
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  • Rutledge, M. L. & Sadler, K. C. (2007). Reliability of the Measure of Acceptance of theTheory of Evolution (MATE) Instrument with University Students. The American Biology Teacher, 332-335.
  • Rutledge, M.L. & Warden, M. A. (1999). The Development and Validation of the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution Instrument. School Science and Mathematics. (99) 1, 13–18.
  • Rutledge, M. L. ve Warden, M. A. (2000). Evolutionary theory, the natüre of science & high school biology teachers: Critical relationships. The American Biology Teacher, 62 (1), 123-31.
  • Scharmann, L. C. & Harris, W. M. (1991). Teaching evolution: Understanding, concerns, and instructional approaches. Paper presented at the Annual international conference of the national association of research in science teaching (NARST), Lake Geneva, WI.
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Türkiye’deki Biyoloji Öğretmen Adaylarının Evrim Teorisini Kabul Düzeyleri Üzerine Bir Araştırma

Yıl 2021, Cilt 8, Sayı 15, 53 - 73, 30.04.2021
https://doi.org/10.29129/inujgse.756716

Öz

Amaç: Bu çalışma Türkiye’deki biyoloji öğretmen adaylarının evrim teorisini kabul düzeylerini belirlemeyi amaçlamıştır. Yöntem: Çalışmaya Türkiye’deki 12 farklı üniversitede öğrenim gören 579 biyoloji öğretmen adayı katılmıştır. Araştırmada betimsel tarama yöntemi temel alınarak yürütülmüştür. Veriler Evrim Teorisi Kabul Ölçeği kullanılarak toplanmıştır. Verilerin analiz edilmesinde yüzde, ortalama ve frekans kullanılmıştır. Bulgular: Katılımcıların ölçekten aldıkları ortalama puanı 53,13 olup bunların yaklaşık yarısı (%52,2) evrim teorisini kabul etmede kararsız, önemli bir kısmı (%37,7) reddeden ve sadece %10’u kabul edenler grubunda yer almaktadır. Katılımcıların çoğunluğunun canlılardaki değişim ve çeşitlilik olgusunu kabul etmekte olduğu, önemli bir kısmının ise yaratılış görüşüyle uyuşmadığı için evrim teorisinin kabul etmemekte veya kararsız olduğu bulunmuştur. Ayrıca katılımcılar genel olarak değişimin insanlar için de geçerli olduğunu kabul etseler de bunun evrim mekanizmasıyla gerçekleştiği söz konusu olduğunda kabul oranında azalma olmuştur. Sonuçlar ve Öneriler: Ortaya çıkan sonuç ulusal ve uluslararası çalışmaların sonuçları ile uyumludur. Evrim teorisi ile ilgili eğitimde başarı elde etmek için biyoloji ve biyoloji eğitimi bölümlerinde evrim eğitiminin kalitesi artırılmalı ve evrim teorisi ile ilgili etkili öğretim stratejileri geliştirilmeli ve uygulanmalıdır.

Kaynakça

  • Akyol, G., Tekkaya, C. ve Sungur, S. (2010). The contribution of understandings of evolutionary theory and nature of science to pre-service science teachers’ acceptance of evolutionary theory. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9, 1889-1893.
  • Allmon, W. D. (2011). Why don’t people think evolution is true? Implications for teaching, in and out of the classroom. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 4 (4), 648-665.
  • Arpacı, A. (2011). Fen bilgisi öğretmen adaylarının biyoloji öğretimine yönelik öz-yeterlik algıları, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, İnönü Üniversitesi, Malatya.
  • Asghar, A. (2013). Canadian and Pakistani Muslim teachers’ perceptions of evolutionary science and evolution education. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 6: 10.
  • Athanasiou, K., Katakos, E. & Papadopoulou, P. (2012). Conceptual ecology of evolution acceptance among Greek education students: the contribution of knowledge increase. Journal of Biological Education, 46, 234–241.
  • Bakanay, Ç.D. (2008). Biyoloji öğretmen adaylarının evrim teorisine yaklaşımları ve bilimin doğasına bakış açıları. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Marmara Üniversitesi, İstanbul.
  • Balgopal, M. M. (2014). Learning and intending to teach evolution: Concerns of preservice biology teachers. Research in Science Education, 44 (1), 27-52.
  • Berkman M.B., Pachecho J.S. & Plutzer, E. (2008). Evolution and creationism in America’s classrooms: a national portrait. PLoS Biol, 6, 0920–0924.
  • Boldrin, A. & Mason,L. (2009). Distinguishing between knowledge and beliefs: students’ epistemic criteria for differentiating, Instr Sci, 37:107–127.
  • Brem, SK., Ranney, M., & Schindel, J. (2003). Perceived consequences of evolution: College students perceive negative personal and social impact in evolutionary theory. Science Education, 87, 181–206.
  • Butler, W., Jr. (2009). Does the nature of science influence college students' learning of biological evolution?(Order No. 3373974). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (304882646). Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/304882646?accountid=12251 adresinden 8 Nisan 2017 tarihinde edinilmiştir.
  • Cobern, W.W. (2000). The Nature of Science and the Role of Knowledge and Belief, Science & Education, 9, 219–246.
  • Coleman, J., Stears, M. & Dempster, E. (2015). Student teachers’ understanding and acceptance of evolution and the nature of science. South African Journal of Education, 35(2), 1079.
  • Dagher, Z. R. & BouJaoude, S. (1997). Scientific views and religious beliefs of college students: The case of biological evolution. Journal of research in Science Teaching, 34(5), 429-445.
  • Dee Goldston, M. J., & Kyzer, P. (2009). Teaching evolution: Narratives with a view from three southern biology teachers in the USA. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 46 (7), 762-790.
  • Demir, Ö. (2009). Bilim Felsefesi. Vadi Yayınları: Ankara.
  • Deniz, H. ve Şahin, A. (2016). Exploring the factors related to acceptance of evolutionary theory amongTurkish preservice biology teachers and the relationship between acceptance and teaching preference. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 20(4), 21–43.
  • Deniz, H., Çetin, F. ve Yılmaz, I. (2011). Examining the relationships among acceptance of evolution, religiosity, and teaching preference for evolution in Turkish preservice biology teachers. Reports of the National Center for Science Education, 31(4), 1.1–1.9.
  • Deniz, H., Donnelly, L. ve Yılmaz, I. (2008). Exploring the factors related to acceptance of evolutionary theory among Turkish preservice biology teachers: toward a more informative conceptual ecology for biological evolution. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 45, (4), 420-443.
  • Ergezen, S.S., (2007). Biyoloji eğitiminde “evrim” konusunun öğretimi ve lise biyoloji öğretmenlerinin yeterlikleri, Biyoloji Eğitiminde Evrim Sempozyumu, Mayıs 2007, Malatya, İnönü Üniversitesi, 173-178.
  • Evans, E.M. (2008). Conceptual change and evolutionary biology: A developmental analysis. In S. Vosniadou (Ed.), International handbook of research on conceptual change (pp. 263–294). New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Glaze, A. L., Goldston, M. J. & Dantzler, J. (2014). Evolution in the southeastern USA: Factors influencing acceptance and rejection in pre-service science teachers. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 13, 1189–1209.
  • Großschedl, J., Konnemann, C. & Basel, N. (2014). Pre-service biology teachers’ acceptance of evolutionary theory and their preference for its teaching. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 7, 1–16. Ha, M., Baldwin, B. C. & Nehm, R. H. (2015). The long-term impacts of short-term Professional development: Science teachers and evolution. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 8, 11.
  • Ha, M., Haury, D. L. & Nehm, R. H. (2012). Feeling of certainty: Uncovering a missing link between knowledge and acceptance of evolution. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 49(1), 95-121.
  • Hameed, S. (2008). Bracing for Islamic creationism. Science, 322(5908), 1637–1638.
  • Hermann, R.S. (2008). Evolution as a controversial issue: A review of instructional approaches. Science and Education, 17, 1011–1032.
  • Ingram, E. L. & Nelson C. E. (2006). Relationship between achivement and student’s acceptance of evolution or creation in an upper-level evolution course. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 43 (1), 7-24.
  • Inter-Academy Panel (IAP) statement on the teaching of evolution. Inter-Academy Panel. (2006). Kahyaoğlu, M. (2013). The teacher candidates’ attitudes towards teaching of evolution theory. Necatibey Faculty of Education Electronic Journal of Science & Mathematics Education, 7(1).
  • Kelly, M., Stoddard, K. I. ve Allard, D.W. (2016). Simultaneous measurement of the acceptance of the theory of evolution at regionally distinct colleges, Journal of Academic Perspectives. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/315114268 adresinden 10 Nisan 2018 tarihinde edinilmiştir.
  • Keskin, B. (2015). Biyoloji öğretmen adaylarının evrimle İlgili kavram yanılgılarının ve biyolojik evrim konusunu içeren web sitelerinin incelenmesi. Doktora Tezi, Atatürk Üniversitesi, Erzurum.
  • Kim, S. Y. & Nehm, R. H. (2011). A cross‐cultural comparison of Korean and American science teachers’ views of evolution and the nature of science. International Journal of Science Education, 33(2), 197-227.
  • Kohl, H. R. (1994). "I won’t learn from you" and other thoughts on creative maladjustment. New York: New Press. https://wikieducator.org/images/5/59/Kohl_I_Won't_Learn_from_You.pdf adresinden 16 Eylül 2016 tarihinde edinilmiştir.
  • Korte, S. E. (2003). The acceptance and understanding of evolutionary theory among Ohio secondary life science teachers, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio University. https://etd.ohiolink.edu/rws_etd/document/get/ohiou1070473022/inline adresinden 3 Eylül 2017 tarihinde edinilmiştir.
  • Kozalak, G. (2013). Üniversite fen bilimleri birinci sınıf öğrencilerinin evrim teorisini algılama düzeyleri. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Necmettin Erbakan Üniversitesi, Konya. ,
  • Köse, A. (2010). Fen bilgisi öğretmen adaylarının öğrenme stilleri, ders çalışma stratejileri ile fen bilgisi öğretimi öz yeterlik inançları arasındaki ilişki (ÇOMÜ örneği). Yayınlanmış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi, Çanakkale.
  • Köse-Özay, E. (2010). Biology students’ and teachers’ religious beliefs and attitudes towards theory of evolution. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 38, 189-200.
  • Larkin, D. B. & Perry‐Ryder, G. M. (2015). Without the light of evolution: A case study of resistance and avoidance in learning to teach high school biology. Science Education, 99(3), 549-576.
  • Miller, J.D., Scott, E.J. & Okamoto, S. (2006). Science communication: public acceptance of evolution. Science, 313, 765-766. Moore R. (2007). What are students taught about evolution? McGill J Educ 42, 177–187.
  • Nehm, R. H. & Schonfeld, IS. (2007). Does increasing biology teacher knowledge of evolution and the nature of science lead to greater preference for the teaching of evolution in schools? Journal of Science Teacher Education, 18 (5), 699–723.
  • Nickels, M. K., Nelson, C. E. & Beard, J. (1996). Better biology teaching by emphasizing evolution and the nature of science. The American Biology Teacher, 59, 332-336.
  • NRC (National Research Council).(1998). Teaching about evolution and the nature of science. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
  • Nunez, E., Pringle, R. & Showalter, K. (2012). Evolution in the Caribbean Classroom: A critical analysis of the role of biology teachers and science standards in shaping evolution instruction in Belize. International Journal of Science Education.
  • Paz-y-Mino, C. G. & Espinosa, A. (2009). Assessment of biology majors’ versus nonmajors’ views on evolution, creationism, and intelligent design. Evol Educ Outreach 2, 75–83.
  • Quessada, M.P. & Clément, P. (2007). An epistemological approach to French syllabi on human origins during the 19th & 20th centuries. Science & Education, 16 (9-10), 991- 1006.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Sibel İNAN> (Sorumlu Yazar)
T.C. MİLLİ EĞİTİM BAKANLIĞI
0000-0003-2797-5732
Türkiye


Serhat İREZ>
MARMARA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-3294-4666
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Nisan 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 23 Haziran 2020
Kabul Tarihi 21 Ocak 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 8, Sayı 15

Kaynak Göster

APA İnan, S. & İrez, S. (2021). Türkiye’deki Biyoloji Öğretmen Adaylarının Evrim Teorisini Kabul Düzeyleri Üzerine Bir Araştırma . İnönü Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi , 8 (15) , 53-73 . DOI: 10.29129/inujgse.756716