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Besin Destekleri ve İlaçların Ağırlık Regülasyonuna Etkisi

Yıl 2022, Cilt 4, Sayı 1, 22 - 30, 17.05.2022
https://doi.org/10.47769/izufbed.979442

Öz

Obez ve fazla vücut ağırlığına sahip olma durumu, dünyada yaklaşık olarak her üç kişiden birinde var olan metabolik bozukluklardan biri haline gelmiştir. Obezite tedavisi için en etkili çözüm, dengeli bir beslenme planı ile birlikte yaşam tarzı değişikliğinin oluşturulmasıdır. Ancak uzun vadede sürdürülmesi gereken bu yaşam tarzı değişikliği, obez bireylerin çoğu için uyum zorluğu nedeniyle başarısız sonuçlanmaktadır. Ağırlık kaybını sağlamadaki zorluklar bu kişileri, popülerliği artan besin desteklerine yöneltmektedir. Birçok bitkiden elde edilen ürünler, dünya nüfusunun çoğunluğu tarafından sağlığın iyileştirilmesi ve geliştirilmesi için kullanılmaktadır. Buna paralel olarak, obez ve fazla vücut ağırlığına sahip kişiler tarafından ağırlık kaybını destekleyeceği düşünülerek, besin desteklerinin kullanımı artış göstermiştir. Tüketilen besin desteklerinin içeriğindeki biyoaktif bileşikler; sindirim sisteminde görev alan enzimleri inhibe etme, lipit metabolizmasını arttırma, iştahı baskılama gibi çeşitli metabolik yollarla ağırlık regülasyonuna etki edebildiği varsayılarak fazla vücut ağırlığına sahip bireyler tarafından kullanılmaktadır. Bazı besin bileşenlerinin farklı metabolik yolaklarla ağırlık kontrolünü sağladığı bildirilmekle beraber, bunun aksi yönde insan sağlığını tehdit eden yan etkilerinin de olabileceği unutulmamalıdır. Bu nedenle, mevcut bilimsel veriler ve güvenli kullanım tavsiyelerinin dikkatlice araştırılması önem arz etmektedir. Bu derlemede, bazı besin desteklerinin ve ilaçların obeziteyi önlemedeki etki mekanizması araştırılmış, obeziteyi önleme ve tedavi etme stratejilerine bakış açısı sunmak amaçlanmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Aggarwal, B. B. (2010). Targeting inflammation-induced obesity and metabolic diseases by curcumin and other nutraceuticals. Annual Review of Nutrition, 30: 173–199. Alappat, L., & Awad, A. B. (2010). Curcumin and obesity: evidence and mechanisms. Nutrition Reviews, 68(12): 729–738.
  • Alkhatib, A. (2014). Yerba Maté (Illex Paraguariensis) ingestion augments fat oxidation and energy expenditure during exercise at various submaximal intensities. Nutrition & Metabolism, 11(1): 1–7.
  • Alraei, R. G. (2010). Herbal and dietary supplements for weight loss. Topics in Clinical Nutrition, 25(2): 136–150.
  • Askarpour, M., Hadi, A., Miraghajani, M., Symonds, M. E., Sheikhi, A., & Ghaedi, E. (2020). Beneficial effects of l-carnitine supplementation for weight management in overweight and obese adults: An updated systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Pharmacological Research, 151: 104554.
  • Atalay, D., & Erge, H. S. (2018). GIDA TAKVİYELERİ VE SAĞLIK ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ. Food and Health, 4(2): 98–111.
  • Blüher, M. (2019). Obesity: global epidemiology and pathogenesis. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 15(5): 288–298.
  • Çakır, B., Yardım, N., Kocadağ, S., Ağca, A. C., Akbulat, A., Alkan, A., Atilla, S., Baltacı, G., Başkal, N., & Güler, S. (2014). Obezite ile Mücadelede Medyada Yer Alan Zayıflama Amaçlı Yarışma Programları için Bilimsel ve Etik Değerlendirme. Beslenme ve Diyet Dergisi, 42(1): 73–79.
  • Chen, S.-C., Lin, Y.-H., Huang, H.-P., Hsu, W.-L., Houng, J.-Y., & Huang, C.-K. (2012). Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on weight loss and body fat composition in a Chinese population. Nutrition, 28(5): 559–565.
  • Coelho, C. de F., Mota, J. F., Ravagnani, F. C. de P., & Burini, R. C. (2010). The supplementation of L-carnitine does not promote alterations in the resting metabolic rate and in the use of energetic substrates in physically active individuals. Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia, 54(1): 37–44.
  • Doğan, S., Okumuş, E., Bakkalbaşı, E., & Cavidoğlu, İ. (2020). Van İli Kentsel Alanda Takviye Edici Gıdaların Kullanımı ve Tüketicilerin Bilinç Düzeyi. Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 25(2): 75–84.
  • Ejaz, A., Wu, D., Kwan, P., & Meydani, M. (2009). Curcumin inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and angiogenesis and obesity in C57/BL mice. The Journal of Nutrition, 139(5): 919–925.
  • Ercan, P., & El, S. N. (2014). Obeziteyi önleyen gıda bileşenleri. Akademik Gıda, 12(1): 69–77.
  • Gadde, K. M., & Raj, Y. P. (2017). Pharmacotherapy of obesity: clinical trials to clinical practice. Current Diabetes Reports, 17(5): 34.
  • Gaullier, J.-M., Halse, J., Høye, K., Kristiansen, K., Fagertun, H., Vik, H., & Gudmundsen, O. (2005). Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid for 24 months is well tolerated by and reduces body fat mass in healthy, overweight humans. The Journal of Nutrition, 135(4): 778–784.
  • Gurley, B. J., Steelman, S. C., & Thomas, S. L. (2015). Multi-ingredient, caffeine-containing dietary supplements: history, safety, and efficacy. Clinical Therapeutics, 37(2): 275–301.
  • Harpaz, E., Tamir, S., Weinstein, A., & Weinstein, Y. (2017). The effect of caffeine on energy balance. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, 28(1): 1–10.
  • Heck, A. M., Yanovski, J. A., & Calis, K. A. (2000). Orlistat, a new lipase inhibitor for the management of obesity. Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy, 20(3): 270–279.
  • Hsu, C.-H., Tsai, T.-H., Kao, Y.-H., Hwang, K.-C., Tseng, T.-Y., & Chou, P. (2008). Effect of green tea extract on obese women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Clinical Nutrition, 27(3): 363–370.
  • Hursel, R., Viechtbauer, W., & Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. (2009). The effects of green tea on weight loss and weight maintenance: a meta-analysis. International Journal of Obesity, 33(9): 956–961.
  • Izadi, V., Larijani, B., & Azadbakht, L. (2018). Is coffee and green tea consumption related to serum levels of adiponectin and leptin? International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 9 (1): 106.
  • Jurgens, T. M., Whelan, A. M., Killian, L., Doucette, S., Kirk, S., & Foy, E. (2012). Green tea for weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 12.
  • Kempf, K., Herder, C., Erlund, I., Kolb, H., Martin, S., Carstensen, M., Koenig, W., Sundvall, J., Bidel, S., & Kuha, S. (2010). Effects of coffee consumption on subclinical inflammation and other risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a clinical trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 91(4): 950–957.
  • Kennedy, A., Martinez, K., Schmidt, S., Mandrup, S., LaPoint, K., & McIntosh, M. (2010). Antiobesity mechanisms of action of conjugated linoleic acid. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 21(3): 171–179.
  • Kim, J. H., Kang, S. A., Han, S., & Shim, I. (2009). Comparison of the antiobesity effects of the protopanaxadiol‐and protopanaxatriol‐type saponins of red ginseng. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives, 23(1): 78–85.
  • Kim, S.-Y., Oh, M.-R., Kim, M.-G., Chae, H.-J., & Chae, S.-W. (2015). Anti-obesity effects of Yerba Mate (Ilex Paraguariensis): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 15(1): 1–8.
  • Kim, S., Kim, J.-H., Seok, S. H., & Park, E.-S. (2020). Anti-obesity effect with reduced adverse effect of the co-administration of mini-tablets containing orlistat and mini-tablets containing xanthan gum: In vitro and in vivo evaluation. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 591: 119998.
  • KİSMİROĞLU, C., Cengiz, S., & Yaman, M. (2020). AMPK’nin Biyokimyası: Etki mekanizmaları ve diyabetin tedavisindeki önemi. Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi, 18: 162–170. Kumar, V., Bhandari, U., Tripathi, C. D., & Khanna, G. (2012). Evaluation of antiobesity and cardioprotective effect of Gymnema sylvestre extract in murine model. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 44(5): 607.
  • Lee, M. R., Kim, B. C., Kim, R., Oh, H. I., Kim, H. K., Choi, K. J., & Sung, C. K. (2013). Anti-obesity effects of black ginseng extract in high fat diet-fed mice. Journal of Ginseng Research, 37(3): 308.
  • Lehnen, T. E., da Silva, M. R., Camacho, A., Marcadenti, A., & Lehnen, A. M. (2015). A review on effects of conjugated linoleic fatty acid (CLA) upon body composition and energetic metabolism. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(1): 1–11.
  • Li, Z., & Ji, G. E. (2018). Ginseng and obesity. Journal of Ginseng Research, 42(1), 1–8.
  • Lutomski, P., Goździewska, M., & Florek-Łuszczki, M. (2020). Health properties of Yerba Mate. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM, 27(2): 310–313. McNeill, S., Almallouhi, E., Lowe, F. J., & Turan, T. N. (2018). Phentermine associated recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 393: 135–137.
  • Miraghajani, M., Hadi, A., Hajishafiee, M., Arab, A., Ghaedi, E., & Moody, V. (2020). The effects of ginseng supplementation on anthropometric indices and body composition: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Herbal Medicine, 100379.
  • Mohammadi, A., Sahebkar, A., Iranshahi, M., Amini, M., Khojasteh, R., Ghayour‐Mobarhan, M., & Ferns, G. A. (2013). Effects of supplementation with curcuminoids on dyslipidemia in obese patients: a randomized crossover trial. Phytotherapy Research, 27(3): 374–379.
  • Nazare, J.-A., de la Perriere, A. B., Bonnet, F., Desage, M., Peyrat, J., Maitrepierre, C., Louche-Pelissier, C., Bruzeau, J., Goudable, J., & Lassel, T. (2007). Daily intake of conjugated linoleic acid-enriched yoghurts: effects on energy metabolism and adipose tissue gene expression in healthy subjects. British Journal of Nutrition, 97(2): 273–280.
  • Nehlig, A. (2018). Interindividual differences in caffeine metabolism and factors driving caffeine consumption. Pharmacological Reviews, 70(2): 384–411.
  • Perez-Cruz, E., Guevara-Cruz, M., Ortiz-Gutiérrez, S., & Luna-Camacho, Y. (2020). Efficacy and tolerability of phentermine in reducing hepatic fat infiltration, adipose tissue, and surgical complications in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, 40: 455.
  • Pothuraju, R., Sharma, R. K., Chagalamarri, J., Jangra, S., & Kumar Kavadi, P. (2014). A systematic review of Gymnema sylvestre in obesity and diabetes management. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 94(5): 834–840.
  • Samimi, M., Jamilian, M., Ebrahimi, F. A., Rahimi, M., Tajbakhsh, B., & Asemi, Z. (2016). Oral carnitine supplementation reduces body weight and insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled trial. Clinical Endocrinology, 84(6): 851–857.
  • Sandner, G., König, A., Wallner, M., & Weghuber, J. (2020). Functional foods-dietary or herbal products on obesity Application of selected bioactive compounds to target lipid metabolism. Current Opinion in Food Science, 34:9-20.
  • Saper, R. B., Eisenberg, D. M., & Phillips, R. S. (2004). Common dietary supplements for weight loss. American Family Physician, 70(9): 1731–1738.
  • Sarma, D. N., Barrett, M. L., Chavez, M. L., Gardiner, P., Ko, R., Mahady, G. B., Marles, R. J., Pellicore, L. S., Giancaspro, G. I., & Dog, T. L. (2008). Safety of green tea extracts. Drug Safety, 31(6): 469–484.
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The Effect Of Dietary Supplements On Weight Regulation

Yıl 2022, Cilt 4, Sayı 1, 22 - 30, 17.05.2022
https://doi.org/10.47769/izufbed.979442

Öz

Being obese and overweight has become metabolic disorders that effects approximately one third of the population in the world. The most effective solution for obesity treatment is to create a lifestyle change with a balanced diet. However, the lifestyle change, which should be sustained in the long term, fails for most obese individuals due to difficulty in adaptation. Difficulties in achieving weight loss, lead these people to nutritional supplements, which are gaining in popularity. Plant products are used by the majority of population for better health. In parallel with this, the use of nutritional supplements has increased by obese and overweight people for support weight loss. Bioactive compounds in the dietary supplements which are consumed by obese and overweight individuals for weight loss, can affect weight regulation by various metabolic means such as inhibiting enzymes in the digestive system, increasing lipid metabolism, suppressing appetite. Although it has been reported that some dietary supplements provide weight control through different metabolic pathways, it should not be considered that there may be side effects that threaten human health. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the scientific data to make recommendations for safety use. In this review, the effect mechanism of some dietary supplements and weight loss medications in preventing obesity was investigated, and it was aimed to present a new perspective on obesity prevention and treatment strategies.

Kaynakça

  • Aggarwal, B. B. (2010). Targeting inflammation-induced obesity and metabolic diseases by curcumin and other nutraceuticals. Annual Review of Nutrition, 30: 173–199. Alappat, L., & Awad, A. B. (2010). Curcumin and obesity: evidence and mechanisms. Nutrition Reviews, 68(12): 729–738.
  • Alkhatib, A. (2014). Yerba Maté (Illex Paraguariensis) ingestion augments fat oxidation and energy expenditure during exercise at various submaximal intensities. Nutrition & Metabolism, 11(1): 1–7.
  • Alraei, R. G. (2010). Herbal and dietary supplements for weight loss. Topics in Clinical Nutrition, 25(2): 136–150.
  • Askarpour, M., Hadi, A., Miraghajani, M., Symonds, M. E., Sheikhi, A., & Ghaedi, E. (2020). Beneficial effects of l-carnitine supplementation for weight management in overweight and obese adults: An updated systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Pharmacological Research, 151: 104554.
  • Atalay, D., & Erge, H. S. (2018). GIDA TAKVİYELERİ VE SAĞLIK ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ. Food and Health, 4(2): 98–111.
  • Blüher, M. (2019). Obesity: global epidemiology and pathogenesis. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 15(5): 288–298.
  • Çakır, B., Yardım, N., Kocadağ, S., Ağca, A. C., Akbulat, A., Alkan, A., Atilla, S., Baltacı, G., Başkal, N., & Güler, S. (2014). Obezite ile Mücadelede Medyada Yer Alan Zayıflama Amaçlı Yarışma Programları için Bilimsel ve Etik Değerlendirme. Beslenme ve Diyet Dergisi, 42(1): 73–79.
  • Chen, S.-C., Lin, Y.-H., Huang, H.-P., Hsu, W.-L., Houng, J.-Y., & Huang, C.-K. (2012). Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on weight loss and body fat composition in a Chinese population. Nutrition, 28(5): 559–565.
  • Coelho, C. de F., Mota, J. F., Ravagnani, F. C. de P., & Burini, R. C. (2010). The supplementation of L-carnitine does not promote alterations in the resting metabolic rate and in the use of energetic substrates in physically active individuals. Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia, 54(1): 37–44.
  • Doğan, S., Okumuş, E., Bakkalbaşı, E., & Cavidoğlu, İ. (2020). Van İli Kentsel Alanda Takviye Edici Gıdaların Kullanımı ve Tüketicilerin Bilinç Düzeyi. Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 25(2): 75–84.
  • Ejaz, A., Wu, D., Kwan, P., & Meydani, M. (2009). Curcumin inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and angiogenesis and obesity in C57/BL mice. The Journal of Nutrition, 139(5): 919–925.
  • Ercan, P., & El, S. N. (2014). Obeziteyi önleyen gıda bileşenleri. Akademik Gıda, 12(1): 69–77.
  • Gadde, K. M., & Raj, Y. P. (2017). Pharmacotherapy of obesity: clinical trials to clinical practice. Current Diabetes Reports, 17(5): 34.
  • Gaullier, J.-M., Halse, J., Høye, K., Kristiansen, K., Fagertun, H., Vik, H., & Gudmundsen, O. (2005). Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid for 24 months is well tolerated by and reduces body fat mass in healthy, overweight humans. The Journal of Nutrition, 135(4): 778–784.
  • Gurley, B. J., Steelman, S. C., & Thomas, S. L. (2015). Multi-ingredient, caffeine-containing dietary supplements: history, safety, and efficacy. Clinical Therapeutics, 37(2): 275–301.
  • Harpaz, E., Tamir, S., Weinstein, A., & Weinstein, Y. (2017). The effect of caffeine on energy balance. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, 28(1): 1–10.
  • Heck, A. M., Yanovski, J. A., & Calis, K. A. (2000). Orlistat, a new lipase inhibitor for the management of obesity. Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy, 20(3): 270–279.
  • Hsu, C.-H., Tsai, T.-H., Kao, Y.-H., Hwang, K.-C., Tseng, T.-Y., & Chou, P. (2008). Effect of green tea extract on obese women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Clinical Nutrition, 27(3): 363–370.
  • Hursel, R., Viechtbauer, W., & Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. (2009). The effects of green tea on weight loss and weight maintenance: a meta-analysis. International Journal of Obesity, 33(9): 956–961.
  • Izadi, V., Larijani, B., & Azadbakht, L. (2018). Is coffee and green tea consumption related to serum levels of adiponectin and leptin? International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 9 (1): 106.
  • Jurgens, T. M., Whelan, A. M., Killian, L., Doucette, S., Kirk, S., & Foy, E. (2012). Green tea for weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 12.
  • Kempf, K., Herder, C., Erlund, I., Kolb, H., Martin, S., Carstensen, M., Koenig, W., Sundvall, J., Bidel, S., & Kuha, S. (2010). Effects of coffee consumption on subclinical inflammation and other risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a clinical trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 91(4): 950–957.
  • Kennedy, A., Martinez, K., Schmidt, S., Mandrup, S., LaPoint, K., & McIntosh, M. (2010). Antiobesity mechanisms of action of conjugated linoleic acid. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 21(3): 171–179.
  • Kim, J. H., Kang, S. A., Han, S., & Shim, I. (2009). Comparison of the antiobesity effects of the protopanaxadiol‐and protopanaxatriol‐type saponins of red ginseng. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives, 23(1): 78–85.
  • Kim, S.-Y., Oh, M.-R., Kim, M.-G., Chae, H.-J., & Chae, S.-W. (2015). Anti-obesity effects of Yerba Mate (Ilex Paraguariensis): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 15(1): 1–8.
  • Kim, S., Kim, J.-H., Seok, S. H., & Park, E.-S. (2020). Anti-obesity effect with reduced adverse effect of the co-administration of mini-tablets containing orlistat and mini-tablets containing xanthan gum: In vitro and in vivo evaluation. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 591: 119998.
  • KİSMİROĞLU, C., Cengiz, S., & Yaman, M. (2020). AMPK’nin Biyokimyası: Etki mekanizmaları ve diyabetin tedavisindeki önemi. Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi, 18: 162–170. Kumar, V., Bhandari, U., Tripathi, C. D., & Khanna, G. (2012). Evaluation of antiobesity and cardioprotective effect of Gymnema sylvestre extract in murine model. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 44(5): 607.
  • Lee, M. R., Kim, B. C., Kim, R., Oh, H. I., Kim, H. K., Choi, K. J., & Sung, C. K. (2013). Anti-obesity effects of black ginseng extract in high fat diet-fed mice. Journal of Ginseng Research, 37(3): 308.
  • Lehnen, T. E., da Silva, M. R., Camacho, A., Marcadenti, A., & Lehnen, A. M. (2015). A review on effects of conjugated linoleic fatty acid (CLA) upon body composition and energetic metabolism. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(1): 1–11.
  • Li, Z., & Ji, G. E. (2018). Ginseng and obesity. Journal of Ginseng Research, 42(1), 1–8.
  • Lutomski, P., Goździewska, M., & Florek-Łuszczki, M. (2020). Health properties of Yerba Mate. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM, 27(2): 310–313. McNeill, S., Almallouhi, E., Lowe, F. J., & Turan, T. N. (2018). Phentermine associated recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 393: 135–137.
  • Miraghajani, M., Hadi, A., Hajishafiee, M., Arab, A., Ghaedi, E., & Moody, V. (2020). The effects of ginseng supplementation on anthropometric indices and body composition: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Herbal Medicine, 100379.
  • Mohammadi, A., Sahebkar, A., Iranshahi, M., Amini, M., Khojasteh, R., Ghayour‐Mobarhan, M., & Ferns, G. A. (2013). Effects of supplementation with curcuminoids on dyslipidemia in obese patients: a randomized crossover trial. Phytotherapy Research, 27(3): 374–379.
  • Nazare, J.-A., de la Perriere, A. B., Bonnet, F., Desage, M., Peyrat, J., Maitrepierre, C., Louche-Pelissier, C., Bruzeau, J., Goudable, J., & Lassel, T. (2007). Daily intake of conjugated linoleic acid-enriched yoghurts: effects on energy metabolism and adipose tissue gene expression in healthy subjects. British Journal of Nutrition, 97(2): 273–280.
  • Nehlig, A. (2018). Interindividual differences in caffeine metabolism and factors driving caffeine consumption. Pharmacological Reviews, 70(2): 384–411.
  • Perez-Cruz, E., Guevara-Cruz, M., Ortiz-Gutiérrez, S., & Luna-Camacho, Y. (2020). Efficacy and tolerability of phentermine in reducing hepatic fat infiltration, adipose tissue, and surgical complications in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, 40: 455.
  • Pothuraju, R., Sharma, R. K., Chagalamarri, J., Jangra, S., & Kumar Kavadi, P. (2014). A systematic review of Gymnema sylvestre in obesity and diabetes management. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 94(5): 834–840.
  • Samimi, M., Jamilian, M., Ebrahimi, F. A., Rahimi, M., Tajbakhsh, B., & Asemi, Z. (2016). Oral carnitine supplementation reduces body weight and insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled trial. Clinical Endocrinology, 84(6): 851–857.
  • Sandner, G., König, A., Wallner, M., & Weghuber, J. (2020). Functional foods-dietary or herbal products on obesity Application of selected bioactive compounds to target lipid metabolism. Current Opinion in Food Science, 34:9-20.
  • Saper, R. B., Eisenberg, D. M., & Phillips, R. S. (2004). Common dietary supplements for weight loss. American Family Physician, 70(9): 1731–1738.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sağlık Bilimleri ve Hizmetleri
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Esra YÜCEL Bu kişi benim
İSTANBUL SABAHATTİN ZAİM ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-4878-5233
Türkiye


Elif EDE ÇİNTESUN (Sorumlu Yazar)
İstanbul Sabahattin Zaim Üniversitesi
0000-0001-6103-2784
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 17 Mayıs 2022
Başvuru Tarihi 6 Ağustos 2021
Kabul Tarihi 14 Mart 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 4, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Yücel, E. & Ede Çintesun, E. (2022). Besin Destekleri ve İlaçların Ağırlık Regülasyonuna Etkisi . İstanbul Sabahattin Zaim Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi , 4 (1) , 22-30 . DOI: 10.47769/izufbed.979442

20503

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