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TÜRKİYE İLE IRAK KÜRT BÖLGESEL YÖNETİMİ ARASINDA ENERJİ İLİŞKİLERİ

Yıl 2021, Cilt 2, Sayı 2, 17 - 33, 30.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.53280/jer.904537

Öz

In this study, the historical development of energy relations between Turkey- Kurdish Regional Government of Iraq (KRG) of energy from 2005 to the present day and reconstruction of energy relations at the present time, have been analyzed in the framework of interdependence and regional cooperation theories. Unlike other studies, in this study, Turkey-KRG relations were handled only in the energy context. The findings obtained as a result of the study; The KRG has gained the status of an official federated unit with constitutional rights in 2005. The rich energy resources in the Kurdish Region of Iraq (KR) have increased the interest of states in the region. With the political softening which have been experienced with KRG since 2008, the parties have focused on energy relations. Especially, the energy issues as a new parameter that engages in relations haves become a key dynamic point in the relations of Turkey, an energy importing country, with KRG. It was evaluated that the Reconstructing of energy relations on the basis of cooperation would be to the advantage of the both sides.

Kaynakça

  • Anaid, A. (2014). Turkish Economic Expansion and its Regional Implications. The Review Kurdistan Region of Iraq Kurdistan, 1(5), 41-53.
  • Arı, T. (2013). Uluslararası İlişkiler Teorileri Çatışma, Hegemonya, İş Birliği. İstanbul: MKM Yayıncılık.
  • Aydoğan, B. (2016). Türkiye-IKBY İlişkilerinde Yeni Dönem mi? Ortadoğu Analiz, 8(72), 38-41.
  • Ayhan, V. (2009). Ortadoğu ve Petrol: İmparatorluk Yolu. Bursa: Dora Yayıncılık.
  • Ayhan, V., Barzani, A. ve Demir, H. (2013). Enerji Siyaseti, Türkiye Irak Kürdistan Bölgesel Yönetimi, Boru Hatları, Petrol Satışı ve Bağdat’ın Pozisyonu. IMPR, Kasım 2013, 1-31.
  • Balcı, A. (2014). Enerji'sine Kavuşan Komşuluk Türkiye-Kürdistan Bölgesel Yönetimi İlişkileri. SETA Analiz, 97(1), 7-26.
  • Bell, J. C. & Saunders, C. (2006, July 7). Iraq Oil Policy-Constitutional Issues Regarding Federal Government and Regional Authority. http://www.iraqoilforum.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Joseph-Bell-Oil-Policy-Issues-Constitution.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 15.06.2020).
  • Chazan, G. (2012, December 10). An Ocean of Reserves Waiting to be Tapped. Financial Times. https://www.ft.com/content/d93421e8-3ef7-11e2-9214-00144feabdc0 (Erişim Tarihi: 22.08.2020).
  • Çağaptay, S. & Evans, T. (2012, January 24). Turkey’s Changing Relations with Iraq: Kurdistan Up, Baghdad Down, https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/turkeys-changing-relations-iraq-kurdistan-baghdad-down (Erişim Tarihi: 18.06.2020).
  • Çandar, C. (2012, 26 Mayıs). İşin İçine Kürdistan Petrolü Girerse. Hürriyet. https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/isin-icine-kurdistan-petrolu-girerse-20630287 (Erişim Tarihi: 17.04.2020).
  • Dalar, M. (2015). Türkiye-Irak Kürdistan Bölgesel Yönetimi İlişkileri: Karşılıklı Bağımlılık Teorisi Bağlamında Petrol İlişkisine Dayalı Bir Analiz. Uludağ Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 34(1), 47-70.
  • Dalar, M. (2016). Tarihsel, Siyasal ve Hukuksal Perspektifiyle Irak Kürdistan Bölgesel Yönetimi. Bursa: Aktüel Yayınları.
  • Danilovich, A. & Owtram, F. (2014). The Federalization of Natural Resources. In A. Danilovich (Ed.), Iraqi Federalism and the Kurds (pp. 113-141). New York, ABD: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
  • Deek, A. & Burton, M. D. (2007). Iraq’s Constitution: A Drafting History. Cornell International Law Journal, 40(1), 2-84.
  • Dış İşleri Bakanlığı (2018, 10 Aralık). Petrol Fiyatlarının Ekonomilere Etkisi. http://www.mfa.gov.tr/petrol-fiyatlarinin-ekonomilere-etkisi.tr.mfa (Erişim Tarihi: 13.08.2020).
  • Enerji Bakanlığı (2018). Türkiye'de Doğalgaz Depoları. https://www.enerji.gov.tr/tr-TR/Sayfalar/Dogal-Gaz (Erişim Tarihi: 19.04.2020).
  • Ergün, Ç. E. (2007). Avrupa Birliği Enerji Hukuku. Ankara: Çakmak Yayınevi.
  • Genel Energy (2016, September 20). Kri Oil Production. Retrieved from: http://www.genelenergy.com/operations/kri-oil-production (Erişim Tarihi: 25.08.2020).
  • Haas, Ernst B. (1964). Beyond The Nation-state: Functionalism And International Organization. 1st edition. California: Stanford Universitiy Press.
  • Hinnebusch, R. A. (2003). The International Politics of The Middle East. New York, ABD: Manchester University Press.
  • International Crisis Group (2012, April 19). Iraq and the Kurds: The High-Stakes Hydrocarbons Gambit, Crisis Group, Middle East Report No120. https://www.crisisgroup.org/middle-east-north-africa/gulf-and-arabian-peninsula/iraq/iraq-and-kurds-high-stakes-hydrocarbons-gambit (Erişim Tarihi: 23.06.2020).
  • International Energy Agency (2016, September 30). Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Turkey 2016 Review. https://www.iea.org/reports/turkey-2012 (Erişim Tarihi: 22.07.2020).
  • International Energy Agency (2012, October 20). Iraq Energy Outlook, Paris. https://www.iea.org/reports/iraq-energy-outlook-2012 (Erişim Tarihi: 18.07.2020).
  • İşeri, E. (2014). Barış Boru Hattı Vizyonu. Ortadoğu Analiz Dergisi, 6(61), 10-13.
  • İzzeti, İ. (2006). Soğuk Savaş Döneminde Irak, (Çev. H. Uygur). İstanbul: Küre Yayınları.
  • Kantörün, U. (2010). Bölgesel Enerji Politikaları ve Türkiye. Bilge Strateji, 2(3), 87-114.
  • Keohane, R. O. & Nye, J. S. (2001). Power and Interdependence. New York, ABD: Addison Wesley Longman.
  • Keohane, Robert O. (2002). Power and Governance in A Partially Globalized World. New York: Routledge.
  • Khalil, L. (2009, June 20). Stability in Iraqi Kurdistan: Reality or Mirage? https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/06_kurdistan_khalil.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 25.01.2021).
  • KRG Ministry of Natural Resources (2021, January 27). Vision, Erbil. http://mnr.krg.org/index.php/en/gas/vision-gas (Erişim Tarihi: 28.01.2021).
  • Kurdistan Regional Government (2014, June 20). KRG statement on oil exports. http://mnr.krg.org/index.php/en/index.%20Php/en/pressreleases/379-krg-statement-on-oil-exports (Erişim Tarihi: 14.09.2020).
  • Moradi, J. & Saie, A. A. (2013). Energy Strategy of A Study of Obstacles on the Way of Federalism in Iraq. Journal of American Science, 8(9), 589-597.
  • Özpek, B. B. (2013). Securing Energy or Energising Security: The Impact of Russia’s Energy Policy on Turkey’s Accession to the European Union. Journal of International Relations and Development, 16(1), 358-379.
  • Pamir, N. (2005). Avrupa Birliği’nin Enerji Sorunsalı ve Türkiye. Stratejik Analiz, 5(11), 74-81.
  • Pazarcı, H. (2007). Uluslararası Hukuk. Ankara: Turhan Kitabevi.
  • Ticaret Bakanlığı (2021). Irak Ülke Profili. https://ticaret.gov.tr/data/5efddfdd13b876a83c6f2fba/Irak%20%C3%9Clke%20Profili.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 18.01.2021).
  • Türkiye Petrolleri Anonim Ortaklığı (2019, 15 Kasım). 2019 Yılı Ham Petrol ve Doğal Gaz Sektör Raporu. http://www.tpao.gov.tr/file/2005/2019-tpao-sektor-raporu-3185ed3b4af5442c.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 23.08.2020).
  • Varol, T. S. (2013). Ankara’nın Kuzey Irak Politikasında Genel Enerji ve Siyah Kalem. 21. Yüzyıl Dergisi, 55(1), 5-13.
  • Wildenburg, W. (2012). Breaking From Baghdad: Kurdish Autonomy vs. Maliki's Manipulation. World Affairs, 175(4), 47-53.
  • Yıldız, T. (2013). Enerji ve Tabii Kaynaklar Bakanlığı TBMM Genel Kurul Konuşması. Ankara: TBMM Yayınları.
  • Zedalis, R. J. (2009). The Legal Dimensions of Oil and Gas in Iraq. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Zhdannikov, D. (2016, November 18). Exclusive: Glencore seeks $550 million to raise stakes in Kurdish oil Game. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-glencore-oil-kurdistan-exclusiveidUSKBN13D1O7 (Erişim Tarihi: 21.09.2020).

ENERGY RELATIONS BETWEEN TURKEY AND KURDISH REGIONAL GOVERNMENT OF IRAQ

Yıl 2021, Cilt 2, Sayı 2, 17 - 33, 30.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.53280/jer.904537

Öz

In this study, the historical development of energy relations between Turkey- Kurdish Regional Government of
Iraq (KRG) of energy from 2005 to the present day and reconstruction of energy relations at the present time,
have been analyzed in the framework of interdependence and regional cooperation theories. Unlike other
studies, in this study, Turkey-KRG relations were handled only in the energy context. The findings obtained as
a result of the study; The KRG has gained the status of an official federated unit with constitutional rights in
2005. The rich energy resources in the Kurdish Region of Iraq (KR) have increased the interest of states in the
region. With the political softening which have been experienced with KRG since 2008, the parties have focused
on energy relations. Especially, the energy issues as a new parameter that engages in relations haves become
a key dynamic point in the relations of Turkey, an energy importing country, with KRG. It was evaluated that
the Reconstructing of energy relations on the basis of cooperation would be to the advantage of the both sides

Kaynakça

  • Anaid, A. (2014). Turkish Economic Expansion and its Regional Implications. The Review Kurdistan Region of Iraq Kurdistan, 1(5), 41-53.
  • Arı, T. (2013). Uluslararası İlişkiler Teorileri Çatışma, Hegemonya, İş Birliği. İstanbul: MKM Yayıncılık.
  • Aydoğan, B. (2016). Türkiye-IKBY İlişkilerinde Yeni Dönem mi? Ortadoğu Analiz, 8(72), 38-41.
  • Ayhan, V. (2009). Ortadoğu ve Petrol: İmparatorluk Yolu. Bursa: Dora Yayıncılık.
  • Ayhan, V., Barzani, A. ve Demir, H. (2013). Enerji Siyaseti, Türkiye Irak Kürdistan Bölgesel Yönetimi, Boru Hatları, Petrol Satışı ve Bağdat’ın Pozisyonu. IMPR, Kasım 2013, 1-31.
  • Balcı, A. (2014). Enerji'sine Kavuşan Komşuluk Türkiye-Kürdistan Bölgesel Yönetimi İlişkileri. SETA Analiz, 97(1), 7-26.
  • Bell, J. C. & Saunders, C. (2006, July 7). Iraq Oil Policy-Constitutional Issues Regarding Federal Government and Regional Authority. http://www.iraqoilforum.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Joseph-Bell-Oil-Policy-Issues-Constitution.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 15.06.2020).
  • Chazan, G. (2012, December 10). An Ocean of Reserves Waiting to be Tapped. Financial Times. https://www.ft.com/content/d93421e8-3ef7-11e2-9214-00144feabdc0 (Erişim Tarihi: 22.08.2020).
  • Çağaptay, S. & Evans, T. (2012, January 24). Turkey’s Changing Relations with Iraq: Kurdistan Up, Baghdad Down, https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/turkeys-changing-relations-iraq-kurdistan-baghdad-down (Erişim Tarihi: 18.06.2020).
  • Çandar, C. (2012, 26 Mayıs). İşin İçine Kürdistan Petrolü Girerse. Hürriyet. https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/isin-icine-kurdistan-petrolu-girerse-20630287 (Erişim Tarihi: 17.04.2020).
  • Dalar, M. (2015). Türkiye-Irak Kürdistan Bölgesel Yönetimi İlişkileri: Karşılıklı Bağımlılık Teorisi Bağlamında Petrol İlişkisine Dayalı Bir Analiz. Uludağ Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 34(1), 47-70.
  • Dalar, M. (2016). Tarihsel, Siyasal ve Hukuksal Perspektifiyle Irak Kürdistan Bölgesel Yönetimi. Bursa: Aktüel Yayınları.
  • Danilovich, A. & Owtram, F. (2014). The Federalization of Natural Resources. In A. Danilovich (Ed.), Iraqi Federalism and the Kurds (pp. 113-141). New York, ABD: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
  • Deek, A. & Burton, M. D. (2007). Iraq’s Constitution: A Drafting History. Cornell International Law Journal, 40(1), 2-84.
  • Dış İşleri Bakanlığı (2018, 10 Aralık). Petrol Fiyatlarının Ekonomilere Etkisi. http://www.mfa.gov.tr/petrol-fiyatlarinin-ekonomilere-etkisi.tr.mfa (Erişim Tarihi: 13.08.2020).
  • Enerji Bakanlığı (2018). Türkiye'de Doğalgaz Depoları. https://www.enerji.gov.tr/tr-TR/Sayfalar/Dogal-Gaz (Erişim Tarihi: 19.04.2020).
  • Ergün, Ç. E. (2007). Avrupa Birliği Enerji Hukuku. Ankara: Çakmak Yayınevi.
  • Genel Energy (2016, September 20). Kri Oil Production. Retrieved from: http://www.genelenergy.com/operations/kri-oil-production (Erişim Tarihi: 25.08.2020).
  • Haas, Ernst B. (1964). Beyond The Nation-state: Functionalism And International Organization. 1st edition. California: Stanford Universitiy Press.
  • Hinnebusch, R. A. (2003). The International Politics of The Middle East. New York, ABD: Manchester University Press.
  • International Crisis Group (2012, April 19). Iraq and the Kurds: The High-Stakes Hydrocarbons Gambit, Crisis Group, Middle East Report No120. https://www.crisisgroup.org/middle-east-north-africa/gulf-and-arabian-peninsula/iraq/iraq-and-kurds-high-stakes-hydrocarbons-gambit (Erişim Tarihi: 23.06.2020).
  • International Energy Agency (2016, September 30). Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Turkey 2016 Review. https://www.iea.org/reports/turkey-2012 (Erişim Tarihi: 22.07.2020).
  • International Energy Agency (2012, October 20). Iraq Energy Outlook, Paris. https://www.iea.org/reports/iraq-energy-outlook-2012 (Erişim Tarihi: 18.07.2020).
  • İşeri, E. (2014). Barış Boru Hattı Vizyonu. Ortadoğu Analiz Dergisi, 6(61), 10-13.
  • İzzeti, İ. (2006). Soğuk Savaş Döneminde Irak, (Çev. H. Uygur). İstanbul: Küre Yayınları.
  • Kantörün, U. (2010). Bölgesel Enerji Politikaları ve Türkiye. Bilge Strateji, 2(3), 87-114.
  • Keohane, R. O. & Nye, J. S. (2001). Power and Interdependence. New York, ABD: Addison Wesley Longman.
  • Keohane, Robert O. (2002). Power and Governance in A Partially Globalized World. New York: Routledge.
  • Khalil, L. (2009, June 20). Stability in Iraqi Kurdistan: Reality or Mirage? https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/06_kurdistan_khalil.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 25.01.2021).
  • KRG Ministry of Natural Resources (2021, January 27). Vision, Erbil. http://mnr.krg.org/index.php/en/gas/vision-gas (Erişim Tarihi: 28.01.2021).
  • Kurdistan Regional Government (2014, June 20). KRG statement on oil exports. http://mnr.krg.org/index.php/en/index.%20Php/en/pressreleases/379-krg-statement-on-oil-exports (Erişim Tarihi: 14.09.2020).
  • Moradi, J. & Saie, A. A. (2013). Energy Strategy of A Study of Obstacles on the Way of Federalism in Iraq. Journal of American Science, 8(9), 589-597.
  • Özpek, B. B. (2013). Securing Energy or Energising Security: The Impact of Russia’s Energy Policy on Turkey’s Accession to the European Union. Journal of International Relations and Development, 16(1), 358-379.
  • Pamir, N. (2005). Avrupa Birliği’nin Enerji Sorunsalı ve Türkiye. Stratejik Analiz, 5(11), 74-81.
  • Pazarcı, H. (2007). Uluslararası Hukuk. Ankara: Turhan Kitabevi.
  • Ticaret Bakanlığı (2021). Irak Ülke Profili. https://ticaret.gov.tr/data/5efddfdd13b876a83c6f2fba/Irak%20%C3%9Clke%20Profili.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 18.01.2021).
  • Türkiye Petrolleri Anonim Ortaklığı (2019, 15 Kasım). 2019 Yılı Ham Petrol ve Doğal Gaz Sektör Raporu. http://www.tpao.gov.tr/file/2005/2019-tpao-sektor-raporu-3185ed3b4af5442c.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 23.08.2020).
  • Varol, T. S. (2013). Ankara’nın Kuzey Irak Politikasında Genel Enerji ve Siyah Kalem. 21. Yüzyıl Dergisi, 55(1), 5-13.
  • Wildenburg, W. (2012). Breaking From Baghdad: Kurdish Autonomy vs. Maliki's Manipulation. World Affairs, 175(4), 47-53.
  • Yıldız, T. (2013). Enerji ve Tabii Kaynaklar Bakanlığı TBMM Genel Kurul Konuşması. Ankara: TBMM Yayınları.
  • Zedalis, R. J. (2009). The Legal Dimensions of Oil and Gas in Iraq. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Zhdannikov, D. (2016, November 18). Exclusive: Glencore seeks $550 million to raise stakes in Kurdish oil Game. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-glencore-oil-kurdistan-exclusiveidUSKBN13D1O7 (Erişim Tarihi: 21.09.2020).

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Uluslararası İlişkiler
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Zülfü DAĞDEVİREN (Sorumlu Yazar)
ABANT İZZET BAYSAL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-5145-6097
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Eylül 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 2, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Dağdeviren, Z. (2021). TÜRKİYE İLE IRAK KÜRT BÖLGESEL YÖNETİMİ ARASINDA ENERJİ İLİŞKİLERİ . Journal of Economics and Research , 2 (2) , 17-33 . DOI: 10.53280/jer.904537

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