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SAĞLIK HARCAMALARININ BELİRLENMESİNDE SOSYO-EKONOMİK UNSURLARIN ETKİLERİ: TÜRKİYE VE SEÇİLMİŞ AB ÜLKELERİ ÜZERİNE PANEL VERİ ANALİZİ

Yıl 2023, Cilt: 4 Sayı: 2, 47 - 73, 30.09.2023
https://doi.org/10.53280/jer.1338692

Öz

Bireyin ve toplumun sağlık ihtiyaçlarının giderilmesi, korunması, geliştirilmesi ve devamlılığının sağlanması için yapılan tüm harcamalar sağlık harcamalarını oluşturmaktadır. Sağlık harcamaları, bireyin ve toplumun sağlık düzeyini ve bilincini yükseltirken, beşeri sermayeye olumlu yönde katkı sağlayarak ekonomik gelişmeyi hızlandırmaktadır. Özellikle iktisadi kalkınmada, beşeri sermayenin öneminin anlaşılması sağlık hizmetleri ve sağlık harcamalarına olan ilginin artmasına yol açmıştır. Bu kapsamda sağlık harcamalarının sürekli artış eğiliminde olması, sağlık harcamalarını etkileyen faktörlerin belirlenmesi ve maliyet yaratan unsurların ortaya çıkarılması hem politika yapıcılar hem de araştırmacılar tarafından incelenen önemli konuların başında gelmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, 1995-2019 yılları arasında Türkiye ve veri varlığı durumuna göre seçilmiş 14 AB ülkesi için sağlık harcamalarının belirlenmesinde sosyo-ekonomik unsurların etkilerini araştırmaktır. Sosyal ve ekonomik değişkenler olarak iki farklı model kurulmuş olup ekonometrik tahminler dinamik panel veri yöntemleri ile araştırılmıştır. Analizler sonucu elde edilen bulgular, sosyal değişkenler üzerine kurulmuş modelde sağlık harcamalarının belirleyicilerini etkileyen en önemli unsurun doğuşta yaşam beklentisi olduğunu, ekonomik değişkenler üzerine kurulmuş modelde ise sağlık harcamalarının belirleyicilerini etkileyen en önemli unsurun kişi başı gelir ve enflasyon oranı olduğunu ortaya koymaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • Ağır, H. & Tıraş, H. H. (2018). Türkiye’de Sağlık Harcama Türlerinin Değerlendirilmesi. Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 15(2), 643-670.
  • Ang, J. B. (2010). The Determinants of Health Care Expenditure in Australia. Applied Economics Letters, 17(7), 639-644.
  • Arun, J. & Kumar, D. (2016). Public Health Expenditure of BRICS Countries-An Empirical Analysis. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 11, 2212-2216
  • Barros, P. P. (1998). The Black Box of Health Care Expenditure Growth Determinants. Health Economics, 7, 533-544.
  • Boachie, M. K., Mensah, I. O., Sobiesuo, P., Immurana, M., Iddrisu, A. A. & Kyei-Brobbey, I. (2014). Determinants of Public Health Expenditure in Ghana, A Cointegration Analysis. Journal of Behavioural Economics, Finance, Entrepreneurship, Accounting and Transport, 2(2), 35-40.
  • Breusch, T. S. & Pagan, A. R. (1980). The Lagrange Multiplier Test and its Applications to Model Specification in Econometrics. The Review of Economic Studies, 47(1), 239-253.
  • Budak, F. (2019). Sağlık Statüsünün Belirleyicileri. Ankara: Siyasal Kitabevi, 255s.
  • Casasnovas, L. G. & Bori, S. M. (2014). The Socioeconomic Determinants of Health, Economic Growth and Health in the OECD Countries during the Last Three Decades. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 11, 815-829.
  • Çınar, S. (2010). OECD Ülkelerinde Kişi Başına GSYİH Durağan mı? Panel Veri Analizi, Marmara Üniversitesi İ.İ.B.F Dergisi, 29(2), 591-601.
  • Dhoro, N. L., Chidoko, C., Sakuhuni, R. C. & Gwaindepi, C. (2011). Economic Determinants of Public Health Care Expenditure in Zimbabwe. International Journal of Economics and Research, 2(6), 13-25.
  • Dreger, C. & Reimers, H. E. (2005). Health Care Expenditures in OECD Countries, A Panel Unit Root and Cointegration Analysis. IZA Discussion Paper Series. No,1469.
  • Eberhardt, M. & Bond, S. (2009). Cross-Section Dependence in Nonstationary Panel Models. A Novel Estimator. MPRA Paper No. 17692, 1-26.
  • Ecevit, E., Çetin, M. & Yücel, A. G. (2018). Türki Cumhuriyetlerinde Sağlık Harcamalarının Belirleyicileri Bir Panel Veri Analizi. Akademik Araştırmalar ve Çalışmalar Dergisi, 10 (19), 318-334.
  • Furuoka, F., Yee, B. L. F., Kok, E., Hoque, M. Z. & Munir, Q. (2011). What are the Determinants of Health Care Expenditure? Empirical Results from Asian Countries. Sunway Academic Journal, 8(12), 12–25.
  • Han, K. Cho, M. & Chun, K. (2013). Determinants of Health Care Expenditures and the Contribution of Associated Factors, 16 Cities and Provinces in Korea, 2003-2010. Journal Preventive Medical Public Health, 46, 300-308.
  • Hansen, P. & King, A. (1996). The Determinants of Health Care Expenditure A Cointegration Approach. Journal of Health Economics, 15, 127-137.
  • Hitiris, T. (1997). Health Care Expenditure and Integration in the Countries of the European Union. Applied Economics, 29(1), 1-6.
  • Lucas, R. E. (1988). On the Mechanics of Economic Development. Journal of Monetary Economics, 22 (1), 3-42.
  • Magazzino, C. & Mele, M. (2012). The Determinants of Health Expenditure in Italian Regions. International Journal of Economics and Finance, 4(3), 61-72.
  • Mankiw, N. G., Romer, D. & Weil, D. N. (1992). A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth. The Guarterly Journal of Economics, 107(2), 407-437.
  • Mosca, I. (2007). Decentralization as a Determinant of Health Care Expenditure, Empirical Analysis for OECD Countries. Applied Economics Letters, 14(7), 511-515.
  • Murthy, V. N. R. & Ukpolo, V. (1995). Aggregate Health Care Expenditure in The United States, New Results. Applied Economics Letters, 2(11), 419-421.
  • Nazlıoğlu, S. & Karul, C. (2017). Panel LM Unit Root Test with Gradual Structural Shifts, 40th International Panel Data Conference, July 7-8, 2017, Thessaloniki-Greece, 1-26.
  • Örnek, İ. & Türkmen, S. (2019). Gelişmiş ve Yükselen Piyasa Ekonomilerinde Çevresel Kuznets Eğrisi Hipotezi’nin Analizi. Çukurova Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 28(3), 109-129.
  • Pesaran, M. H. & Yamagata, T. (2008). Testing Slope Homogeneity in Large Panels. Journal of Econometrics, 142(1), 50-93.
  • Pesaran, M. H. (2004). General Diagnostic Tests for Cross-Section Dependence in Panels. Cambridge Working Papers in Economics, 435.
  • Pesaran, M. H., Ullah, A. & Yamagata, T. (2008). A Bias-Adjusted LM Test of Error Cross-Section Independence. The Econometrics Journal, 11(1), 105-127.
  • Phi, G. (2017). Determinants of Health Expenditures in OECD Countries. Bryant University Honors Program, 1-37.
  • Rezai, S., Fallah, R., Karyani, K. A., Daroudi, R., Zandiyan, H. & Hajizadeh, M. (2016). Determinants of Healthcare Expenditures in Iran, Evidence from a Time Series Analysis. Med J Islam Repub Iran, 30(313), 2-9.
  • Şahin, D. & Temelli, F. (2019). OECD Ülkelerinde Sağlık Harcamalarının Belirleyicileri, Panel Veri Analizi. Avrasya Uluslararası Araştırmalar Dergisi, 7(16), 946-961.
  • Samadi, A. & Rad, E. H. (2013). Determinants of Healthcare Expenditure in Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) Countries, Evidence from Panel Cointegration Tests, International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 1(1), 63-68.
  • Takura, T. & Miura, H. (2022). Socioeconomic Determinants of Universal Health Coverage in the Asian Region. International Journal Environental Research and Public Health, 19, 2376. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042376
  • Westerlund, J. & Edgerton, D. L. (2008). A Simple Test for Cointegration in Dependent Panels with Structural Breaks. Oxford Bulletion of Economics and Statistics, 70(5), 665-704.
  • Wooi, Y. K. & Selvaratnam, D. P. (2018). Empirical Analysis of Factors Influencing the Public Health Expenditure in Malaysia. Journal of Emerging Economies & Islamic Research, 6(3), 1-14.
  • World Bank, (2020). World Development Indicators. Erişim adresi: http://databank.worldbank.org/data/reports.aspx?source=world-development-indicators (Erişim Tarihi: 10.08.2020).
  • Zhou, L., Wireko, A. S., Antwi, A. H., Xu, X., Salman, M., Antwi, O. M. & Afua, N. M. T. (2020). An Empirical Study on the Determinants of Health Care Expenses in Emerging Economies, BMC Health Services Research, 20(774), 1-16.

EFFECTS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ON THE DETERMINATION OF HEALTH EXPENDITURES: PANEL DATA ANALYSIS ON TURKEY AND SELECTED EU COUNTRIES

Yıl 2023, Cilt: 4 Sayı: 2, 47 - 73, 30.09.2023
https://doi.org/10.53280/jer.1338692

Öz

All expenditures made to meet, protect, develop and maintain the health needs of the individual and society constitute health expenditures. While health expenditures increase the health level and consciousness of the individual and society, they contribute positively to human capital and accelerate economic development. Understanding the importance of human capital, especially in economic development, has led to an increased interest in health services and health expenditures. In this context, the constantly increasing trend of health expenditures, determining the factors affecting health expenditures and revealing the cost-creating factors are among the important issues examined by both policy makers and researchers. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of socio-economic factors on the determination of health expenditures for Turkey and 14 EU countries selected according to data availability between 1995-2019. Two different models were established as social and economic variables, and econometric forecasts were investigated with dynamic panel data methods. The findings obtained as a result of the analyzes reveal that the most important factor affecting the determinants of health expenditures in the model based on social variables is life expectancy at birth, while the most important factor affecting the determinants of health expenditures in the model based on economic variables is income per capita and inflation rate.

Kaynakça

  • Ağır, H. & Tıraş, H. H. (2018). Türkiye’de Sağlık Harcama Türlerinin Değerlendirilmesi. Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 15(2), 643-670.
  • Ang, J. B. (2010). The Determinants of Health Care Expenditure in Australia. Applied Economics Letters, 17(7), 639-644.
  • Arun, J. & Kumar, D. (2016). Public Health Expenditure of BRICS Countries-An Empirical Analysis. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 11, 2212-2216
  • Barros, P. P. (1998). The Black Box of Health Care Expenditure Growth Determinants. Health Economics, 7, 533-544.
  • Boachie, M. K., Mensah, I. O., Sobiesuo, P., Immurana, M., Iddrisu, A. A. & Kyei-Brobbey, I. (2014). Determinants of Public Health Expenditure in Ghana, A Cointegration Analysis. Journal of Behavioural Economics, Finance, Entrepreneurship, Accounting and Transport, 2(2), 35-40.
  • Breusch, T. S. & Pagan, A. R. (1980). The Lagrange Multiplier Test and its Applications to Model Specification in Econometrics. The Review of Economic Studies, 47(1), 239-253.
  • Budak, F. (2019). Sağlık Statüsünün Belirleyicileri. Ankara: Siyasal Kitabevi, 255s.
  • Casasnovas, L. G. & Bori, S. M. (2014). The Socioeconomic Determinants of Health, Economic Growth and Health in the OECD Countries during the Last Three Decades. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 11, 815-829.
  • Çınar, S. (2010). OECD Ülkelerinde Kişi Başına GSYİH Durağan mı? Panel Veri Analizi, Marmara Üniversitesi İ.İ.B.F Dergisi, 29(2), 591-601.
  • Dhoro, N. L., Chidoko, C., Sakuhuni, R. C. & Gwaindepi, C. (2011). Economic Determinants of Public Health Care Expenditure in Zimbabwe. International Journal of Economics and Research, 2(6), 13-25.
  • Dreger, C. & Reimers, H. E. (2005). Health Care Expenditures in OECD Countries, A Panel Unit Root and Cointegration Analysis. IZA Discussion Paper Series. No,1469.
  • Eberhardt, M. & Bond, S. (2009). Cross-Section Dependence in Nonstationary Panel Models. A Novel Estimator. MPRA Paper No. 17692, 1-26.
  • Ecevit, E., Çetin, M. & Yücel, A. G. (2018). Türki Cumhuriyetlerinde Sağlık Harcamalarının Belirleyicileri Bir Panel Veri Analizi. Akademik Araştırmalar ve Çalışmalar Dergisi, 10 (19), 318-334.
  • Furuoka, F., Yee, B. L. F., Kok, E., Hoque, M. Z. & Munir, Q. (2011). What are the Determinants of Health Care Expenditure? Empirical Results from Asian Countries. Sunway Academic Journal, 8(12), 12–25.
  • Han, K. Cho, M. & Chun, K. (2013). Determinants of Health Care Expenditures and the Contribution of Associated Factors, 16 Cities and Provinces in Korea, 2003-2010. Journal Preventive Medical Public Health, 46, 300-308.
  • Hansen, P. & King, A. (1996). The Determinants of Health Care Expenditure A Cointegration Approach. Journal of Health Economics, 15, 127-137.
  • Hitiris, T. (1997). Health Care Expenditure and Integration in the Countries of the European Union. Applied Economics, 29(1), 1-6.
  • Lucas, R. E. (1988). On the Mechanics of Economic Development. Journal of Monetary Economics, 22 (1), 3-42.
  • Magazzino, C. & Mele, M. (2012). The Determinants of Health Expenditure in Italian Regions. International Journal of Economics and Finance, 4(3), 61-72.
  • Mankiw, N. G., Romer, D. & Weil, D. N. (1992). A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth. The Guarterly Journal of Economics, 107(2), 407-437.
  • Mosca, I. (2007). Decentralization as a Determinant of Health Care Expenditure, Empirical Analysis for OECD Countries. Applied Economics Letters, 14(7), 511-515.
  • Murthy, V. N. R. & Ukpolo, V. (1995). Aggregate Health Care Expenditure in The United States, New Results. Applied Economics Letters, 2(11), 419-421.
  • Nazlıoğlu, S. & Karul, C. (2017). Panel LM Unit Root Test with Gradual Structural Shifts, 40th International Panel Data Conference, July 7-8, 2017, Thessaloniki-Greece, 1-26.
  • Örnek, İ. & Türkmen, S. (2019). Gelişmiş ve Yükselen Piyasa Ekonomilerinde Çevresel Kuznets Eğrisi Hipotezi’nin Analizi. Çukurova Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 28(3), 109-129.
  • Pesaran, M. H. & Yamagata, T. (2008). Testing Slope Homogeneity in Large Panels. Journal of Econometrics, 142(1), 50-93.
  • Pesaran, M. H. (2004). General Diagnostic Tests for Cross-Section Dependence in Panels. Cambridge Working Papers in Economics, 435.
  • Pesaran, M. H., Ullah, A. & Yamagata, T. (2008). A Bias-Adjusted LM Test of Error Cross-Section Independence. The Econometrics Journal, 11(1), 105-127.
  • Phi, G. (2017). Determinants of Health Expenditures in OECD Countries. Bryant University Honors Program, 1-37.
  • Rezai, S., Fallah, R., Karyani, K. A., Daroudi, R., Zandiyan, H. & Hajizadeh, M. (2016). Determinants of Healthcare Expenditures in Iran, Evidence from a Time Series Analysis. Med J Islam Repub Iran, 30(313), 2-9.
  • Şahin, D. & Temelli, F. (2019). OECD Ülkelerinde Sağlık Harcamalarının Belirleyicileri, Panel Veri Analizi. Avrasya Uluslararası Araştırmalar Dergisi, 7(16), 946-961.
  • Samadi, A. & Rad, E. H. (2013). Determinants of Healthcare Expenditure in Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) Countries, Evidence from Panel Cointegration Tests, International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 1(1), 63-68.
  • Takura, T. & Miura, H. (2022). Socioeconomic Determinants of Universal Health Coverage in the Asian Region. International Journal Environental Research and Public Health, 19, 2376. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042376
  • Westerlund, J. & Edgerton, D. L. (2008). A Simple Test for Cointegration in Dependent Panels with Structural Breaks. Oxford Bulletion of Economics and Statistics, 70(5), 665-704.
  • Wooi, Y. K. & Selvaratnam, D. P. (2018). Empirical Analysis of Factors Influencing the Public Health Expenditure in Malaysia. Journal of Emerging Economies & Islamic Research, 6(3), 1-14.
  • World Bank, (2020). World Development Indicators. Erişim adresi: http://databank.worldbank.org/data/reports.aspx?source=world-development-indicators (Erişim Tarihi: 10.08.2020).
  • Zhou, L., Wireko, A. S., Antwi, A. H., Xu, X., Salman, M., Antwi, O. M. & Afua, N. M. T. (2020). An Empirical Study on the Determinants of Health Care Expenses in Emerging Economies, BMC Health Services Research, 20(774), 1-16.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Politika ve Yönetim (Diğer)
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Seyhan TAŞ 0000-0002-9671-4838

Dilek ATILGAN 0000-0002-3776-558X

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Eylül 2023
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2023 Cilt: 4 Sayı: 2

Kaynak Göster

APA TAŞ, S., & ATILGAN, D. (2023). SAĞLIK HARCAMALARININ BELİRLENMESİNDE SOSYO-EKONOMİK UNSURLARIN ETKİLERİ: TÜRKİYE VE SEÇİLMİŞ AB ÜLKELERİ ÜZERİNE PANEL VERİ ANALİZİ. Journal of Economics and Research, 4(2), 47-73. https://doi.org/10.53280/jer.1338692

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