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THE EFFECT OF HEALTH AND EDUCATION EXPENDITURES ON THE EMPLOYMENT: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM TÜRKİYE

Yıl 2023, Cilt: 4 Sayı: 2, 21 - 34, 30.09.2023
https://doi.org/10.53280/jer.1357586

Öz

Bu çalışma, 2000-2021 yılları arasında Türkiye’deki beşeri sermaye yatırımlarının istihdama olan etkisini araştırmaktadır. İlk olarak, beşeri sermaye yatırımlarının istihdam üzerindeki kısa ve uzun vadeli etkilerini tahmin etmek için ARDL modeli kullanılmaktadır. Ardından, Pairwise Granger nedensellik testini kullanarak değişkenler arasındaki nedensellik incelenmektedir. Uzun dönem katsayılarına göre, Türkiye'de kamu eğitim ve sağlık harcamaları ve GSYİH büyüme hızındaki %1'lik artışın sırasıyla istihdamda %1.27, %1.17 ve %0.76'lık artışa yol açtığı görülmektedir. Ayrıca, Pairwise Granger nedensellik testi sonuçlarına göre çift yönlü olarak kamu eğitim harcamalarının Türkiye'deki istihdamı etkilediği ve ayrıca istihdam oranı ile enflasyon orası arasında nedensel bir ilişki olduğunu göstermektedir. Sonuç olarak, Türkiye, beşeri sermaye düzeyini ve nüfusun refahını artırmada önemli bir rol oynadığı için sağlık ve eğitim harcamalarını artırmalıdır.

Kaynakça

  • Ak, R. (2012). The Relationship between Health Expenditures and Economic Growth: Turkish Case. International Journal of Business Management and Economic Research, 3(1), 404-409.
  • Amiri, A. & Ventelou, B. (2012). Granger Causality between Total Expenditure on Health and GDP in OECD: Evidence from the Toda-Yamamoto Approach. Economics Letters. 116, 541-544.
  • Amiri, A. & Linden, M. (2016). Income and Total Expenditure on Health in OECD Countries: Evidence from Panel Data and Hsiao's Version of Granger Non-Causality Tests. Economics and Business Letters, Oviedo University Press, 5(1), 1-9.
  • Angelopoulos, K., Malley, J. & Philippopoulos, A. (2008). Macroeconomic Effects of Public Education Expenditure. CESIFO Economic Studies, 54(3), 471-498.
  • Barro, R. J. (2013). Health and Economic Growth. Annuals of Economics and Finance, 14(2), 329-366.
  • Bedir, S. (2016). Healthcare Expenditure and Economic Growth in Developing Countries. Advances in Economics and Business, 4(2), 76-86.
  • Boachie, M. & Ramu, K. (2016). Effect of Public Health Expenditure on Health Status in Ghana. International Journal of Health, 4(1): 6-11.
  • Cazes, S. & Verick, S. (2013). Perspectives on Labour Economics for Development. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Organization.
  • Erçelik, G. (2018). The Relationship between Health Expenditure and Economic Growth in Turkey from 1980 to 2015. Journal of Politics Economy and Management, 1(1), 1-8.
  • Erdoğan, S. & Erdoğan, E. S. (2023). Analyzing the Asymmetric Effect of Disaggregated Health Expenditures on Economic Growth. Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, 57(3), 2673-2686.
  • Eneji, A. (2013). Health Care Expenditure, Health Status and National Productivity in Nigeria (1999- 2012). Journal of Economics and International Finance, 5(7), 258-272.
  • Faridi, M., Malik, S. & Ahmad, I. (2010). Impact of Education and Health on Employment in Pakistan: A Case Study. European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences, 18, 58-68.
  • Grossman, M. (1999). The Human Capital Model of the Demand for Health. NBER Working Paper Series, 7078.
  • Jain, P., Sharma, A. & Kumar, M. (2022). Recapitulation of Demand-Pull Inflation & Cost Push Inflation in an Economy. Journal of Positive School Psychology, 6(4), 2980-2983.
  • Kapsos, S. (2005). The Employment Intensity of Growth: Trends and Macroeconomic Determinants. International Labour Organization (ILO) Employment Strategy Papers, 12.
  • Kenny, S. V. (2019). Effects of Human Capital Investment on Unemployment Volatility in Nigeria (1981-2015). MPRA Paper, 93295.
  • Kurt, S. (2015). Government Health Expenditures and Economic Growth: A Feder-Ram Approach for the Case of Turkey. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, 5, 441-447.
  • Mekdad, Y., Dahmani, A. & Louaj, M. (2014). Public Spending on Education and Economic Growth in Algeria: Causality Test. International Journal of Business and Management, 2(3), 55-70.
  • Romer, P. M. (1986). Increasing Returns and Long-Run Growth. Journal of Political Economy, 94(5), 1002-1037. Romer, P. M. (1990). Endogenous Technological Change. Journal of Political Economy, 98(5), 71-102.
  • Rodríguez, A. F. & Valdés, M. N. (2019). Health Care Expenditures and GDP in Latin American and OECD Countries: A Comparison Using A Panel Cointegration Approach. International Journal of Health Economics and Management, Springer, 19(2), 115-153.
  • Saygılı, S., Cihan, C. & Yavan, Z. A. (2005). Human Capital and Productivity Growth: A Comparative Analysis of Turkey. METU Studies in Development, 32, 489-516.
  • Sharma, P. & Sahni, P. (2015). Human Capital and Economic Growth in India: A Co-Integration and Causality Analysis. Ushus - Journal of Business Management, 14(2), 1-18.
  • Şenol, N. & Onaran, S. (2022). The Relationship between Economic Growth and Health, R&D Expenditures and Unemployment in Turkey. Uluslararası Ekonomi İşletme ve Politika Dergisi, 6 (1), 141-155.
  • Turgut, M., Agırbaş, İ. & Aldoğan, E. (2017). Relationship between Health Expenditure and Inflation in Turkey. The Journal of Academic Social Science, 5(50), 289-299.
  • Üzümcü, A. & Söğüt, Y. (2021). The Relationship of Health Expenditures and Economic Growth: An Analysis on Turkish Economy (1988-2019). Kafkas Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 12(23), 77-106.
  • Yang, X. (2020). Health Expenditure, Human Capital, and Economic Growth: An Empirical Study of Developing Countries. International Journal of Health Economics and Management, Springer, 20(2), 163-176.
  • Ye, L. & Zhang, X. (2018). Nonlinear Granger Causality between Health Care Expenditure and Economic Growth in the OECD and Major Developing Countries. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(9), 1-16.
  • Yasar, G. Y. (2011). Health Transformation Programme in Turkey: An assessment. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 26, 110-33.

THE EFFECT OF HEALTH AND EDUCATION EXPENDITURES ON THE EMPLOYMENT: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM TÜRKİYE

Yıl 2023, Cilt: 4 Sayı: 2, 21 - 34, 30.09.2023
https://doi.org/10.53280/jer.1357586

Öz

This research delves into the influence of human capital investments on employment in Türkiye between 2000 and 2021. We first employ the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) method to assess both the short and long-term impacts of human capital investments on employment. Then, the Pairwise Granger Causality test is applied to explore the causality among the variables. According to the long run coefficient, a 1% rise in government education and health expenditures and GDP growth rate leads to a 1.27%, 1.17% and 0.76% increase in employment in Türkiye, respectively. Additionally, The Pairwise Granger Causality test results show that government education expenditure on human capital influences employment in Türkiye and vice versa as well as a causal relation between the employment rate and inflation rate. In conclusion, Türkiye should increase its expenditure on health and education as these investments serve as a vital role in enhancing the level of human capital and welfare of the population.

Kaynakça

  • Ak, R. (2012). The Relationship between Health Expenditures and Economic Growth: Turkish Case. International Journal of Business Management and Economic Research, 3(1), 404-409.
  • Amiri, A. & Ventelou, B. (2012). Granger Causality between Total Expenditure on Health and GDP in OECD: Evidence from the Toda-Yamamoto Approach. Economics Letters. 116, 541-544.
  • Amiri, A. & Linden, M. (2016). Income and Total Expenditure on Health in OECD Countries: Evidence from Panel Data and Hsiao's Version of Granger Non-Causality Tests. Economics and Business Letters, Oviedo University Press, 5(1), 1-9.
  • Angelopoulos, K., Malley, J. & Philippopoulos, A. (2008). Macroeconomic Effects of Public Education Expenditure. CESIFO Economic Studies, 54(3), 471-498.
  • Barro, R. J. (2013). Health and Economic Growth. Annuals of Economics and Finance, 14(2), 329-366.
  • Bedir, S. (2016). Healthcare Expenditure and Economic Growth in Developing Countries. Advances in Economics and Business, 4(2), 76-86.
  • Boachie, M. & Ramu, K. (2016). Effect of Public Health Expenditure on Health Status in Ghana. International Journal of Health, 4(1): 6-11.
  • Cazes, S. & Verick, S. (2013). Perspectives on Labour Economics for Development. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Organization.
  • Erçelik, G. (2018). The Relationship between Health Expenditure and Economic Growth in Turkey from 1980 to 2015. Journal of Politics Economy and Management, 1(1), 1-8.
  • Erdoğan, S. & Erdoğan, E. S. (2023). Analyzing the Asymmetric Effect of Disaggregated Health Expenditures on Economic Growth. Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, 57(3), 2673-2686.
  • Eneji, A. (2013). Health Care Expenditure, Health Status and National Productivity in Nigeria (1999- 2012). Journal of Economics and International Finance, 5(7), 258-272.
  • Faridi, M., Malik, S. & Ahmad, I. (2010). Impact of Education and Health on Employment in Pakistan: A Case Study. European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences, 18, 58-68.
  • Grossman, M. (1999). The Human Capital Model of the Demand for Health. NBER Working Paper Series, 7078.
  • Jain, P., Sharma, A. & Kumar, M. (2022). Recapitulation of Demand-Pull Inflation & Cost Push Inflation in an Economy. Journal of Positive School Psychology, 6(4), 2980-2983.
  • Kapsos, S. (2005). The Employment Intensity of Growth: Trends and Macroeconomic Determinants. International Labour Organization (ILO) Employment Strategy Papers, 12.
  • Kenny, S. V. (2019). Effects of Human Capital Investment on Unemployment Volatility in Nigeria (1981-2015). MPRA Paper, 93295.
  • Kurt, S. (2015). Government Health Expenditures and Economic Growth: A Feder-Ram Approach for the Case of Turkey. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, 5, 441-447.
  • Mekdad, Y., Dahmani, A. & Louaj, M. (2014). Public Spending on Education and Economic Growth in Algeria: Causality Test. International Journal of Business and Management, 2(3), 55-70.
  • Romer, P. M. (1986). Increasing Returns and Long-Run Growth. Journal of Political Economy, 94(5), 1002-1037. Romer, P. M. (1990). Endogenous Technological Change. Journal of Political Economy, 98(5), 71-102.
  • Rodríguez, A. F. & Valdés, M. N. (2019). Health Care Expenditures and GDP in Latin American and OECD Countries: A Comparison Using A Panel Cointegration Approach. International Journal of Health Economics and Management, Springer, 19(2), 115-153.
  • Saygılı, S., Cihan, C. & Yavan, Z. A. (2005). Human Capital and Productivity Growth: A Comparative Analysis of Turkey. METU Studies in Development, 32, 489-516.
  • Sharma, P. & Sahni, P. (2015). Human Capital and Economic Growth in India: A Co-Integration and Causality Analysis. Ushus - Journal of Business Management, 14(2), 1-18.
  • Şenol, N. & Onaran, S. (2022). The Relationship between Economic Growth and Health, R&D Expenditures and Unemployment in Turkey. Uluslararası Ekonomi İşletme ve Politika Dergisi, 6 (1), 141-155.
  • Turgut, M., Agırbaş, İ. & Aldoğan, E. (2017). Relationship between Health Expenditure and Inflation in Turkey. The Journal of Academic Social Science, 5(50), 289-299.
  • Üzümcü, A. & Söğüt, Y. (2021). The Relationship of Health Expenditures and Economic Growth: An Analysis on Turkish Economy (1988-2019). Kafkas Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 12(23), 77-106.
  • Yang, X. (2020). Health Expenditure, Human Capital, and Economic Growth: An Empirical Study of Developing Countries. International Journal of Health Economics and Management, Springer, 20(2), 163-176.
  • Ye, L. & Zhang, X. (2018). Nonlinear Granger Causality between Health Care Expenditure and Economic Growth in the OECD and Major Developing Countries. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(9), 1-16.
  • Yasar, G. Y. (2011). Health Transformation Programme in Turkey: An assessment. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 26, 110-33.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Politika ve Yönetim (Diğer)
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Sevgi COSKUN YILMAZ 0000-0002-9561-7200

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Eylül 2023
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2023 Cilt: 4 Sayı: 2

Kaynak Göster

APA COSKUN YILMAZ, S. (2023). THE EFFECT OF HEALTH AND EDUCATION EXPENDITURES ON THE EMPLOYMENT: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM TÜRKİYE. Journal of Economics and Research, 4(2), 21-34. https://doi.org/10.53280/jer.1357586

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