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Çölyak ve Çölyak Hastaları İçin Üretilen Ekmeklerin Kalite Özellikleri

Yıl 2017, Cilt 7, Sayı 1, 163 - 169, 03.03.2017

Öz

Çölyak hastalığı, gluten intöleransı olan bireylerde gluten tüketimi ile oluşan kronik bağırsak hastalığıdır.
Çölyak hastalarının tek tedavi yöntemi; hasta hayatından ömür boyu gluten ve gluten içeren tüm gıdaların
çıkarılmasıdır. Dolayısıyla bu hastaların buğday ve buğday ürünlerini tüketmesi yasaktır. Ekmek toplumumuzun
vazgeçilmez bir gıdası olarak değerlendirildiğinde bu hastalara yönelik glutensiz ekmek üretimi bir zorunluluk
olmaktadır. Buğday ununda bulunan gluten hamur oluşumunda ve ekmek üretiminde yapıdan sorumlu, ekmek
kalitesini belirleyen esas bileşendir. Buğday ekmeğinin hacimli, elastik özellikte, kendine has tat ve kokuya
sahip olmasının başlıca nedeni glutendir. Glutenin yerinin doldurulamaması; glutensiz ekmek üretiminin zor
olmasına sebep olmaktadır. Glutensiz ekmek üretiminde pirinç, mısır, soya fasulyesi, yerfıstığı, nohut gibi gluten
içermeyen tahıl ve baklagil unları veya nişastaları ile karabuğday, kinoa, amarant gibi tahıl benzeri ürünlerin unları
kullanılmaktadır. Bunların yanında hamur yapısının oluşturulması, ekmek kalitesinin arttırılması için enzimler,
gamlar, protein izolatları, asitler, yapı sağlayıcılar formüle dahil edilebilmektedir. Halen çölyak hastaları için ekmek
üretiminde belirlenen sabit bir formülasyon bulunmamaktadır. Üretilen ekmeklerde gözlemlenen hacim azlığı,
tekstür sertliği, lezzet kaybı, besin içeriğindeki düşüklüğü ve hızlı bayatlama prosesi üzerinde çalışmalar devam
etmektedir. Bu çalışmada; çeşitli araştırıcılar tarafından glutensiz ekmek kalitesini arttırmaya yönelik yapılan
çalışmalar derlenmiştir. Böylece bu konuda daha ileri araştırma yapmak isteyenlere ışık tutulmaya çalışılmıştır.


Kaynakça

  • Aguilar, N, Albanell, E, Minarro, B, Marta, C, 2015. Chickpea and tiger nut flours as alternatives to emulsifier and shortening in gluten-free bread. Food Science and Technology, 62: 225-232.
  • Anonim, 2014. Gıda ve kontrol genel müdürlüğü 2014.http://mevzuat.basbakanlik.gov.tr/Metin.Aspx?MevzuatKod=9.5.15749&MevzuatIliski=0&sourceXmlSearch=gluten. Erişim Tarihi: 10.02.2015.
  • Axel, C, Röcker, B, Brosnan, B, Zannini, E, Furey, A, Coffey, A, Arendt, E, 2015. Application of Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM19280 in gluten-free sourdough bread to improve the microbial shelf life. Food Microbiology, 47: 36-44.
  • Costantini, L, Lucsic, L, Molinari, R, Kreft, I, Bonofaccia, G, Manzi, L, Merendino, N, 2014. Development of gluten-free bread using tartary buckwheat and chia flour rich in flavonoids and omega-3 fatty acids as ıngredients. Food Chemistry, 165: 232–240.
  • Demirkesen, I, Mert, B, Sumnu, G, Şahin, S, 2010. Rheological properties of gluten free bread formulation. Journal of Food Engineering, 96: 295-303.
  • Dizlek, H., 2012. Gluten proteinlerinin hamur ve ekmek nitelikleri üzerine etkileri. Dünya Gıda Dergisi, 18: 80-86.
  • Dizlek, H, 2011. Gluten oluşumu ve bunu sınırlayan engelleyen etmenler. Gıda Teknolojileri Elektronik Dergisi, 6: 14-22.
  • Dizlek, H, Gül, H, 2007. L-Askorbik asit ve ekmekçilikteki işlevleri. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 2: 26-34.
  • Dizlek, H, Özer, M.S, Altan, A, Gül, H. 2006. Buğdaydaki gluten proteinlerinin birbirleriyle etkileşimleri. Hububat Ürünleri Teknolojisi Kongre ve Fuarı, 7-9 Eylül 2006, Gaziantep.
  • Elgün, A, Ertugay, Z, 1997. Tahıl İşleme Teknolojisi, Atatürk Üniversitesi. Üçüncü baskı, Erzurum, Türkiye. 376s.
  • Elgün, A, Ertugay, Z, 2002. Tahıl İşleme Teknolojisi. Dördüncü Baskı, Erzurum, Türkiye. 411 s.
  • Fasano, A, Catassi, C, 2001. Current approaches to diagnosis and treatment of celiac disease: an evolving spectrum. Gastroenterology, 120: 36-51.
  • Furlan, R, Padilla, P, Campderros, M, 2015. Improvement of gluten-free bread properties by the incorporation of bovine plasma proteins and different saccharides into the matrix. Food Chemistry, 170: 257-260.
  • Gallagher, E, Gormley, T, Arendt, E, 2004. Recent advances in the formulation of gluten-free cereal-based products. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 15: 143-152.
  • Green, P, Cellier, C, 2007. Celiac disease. The New England Journal of Medicine, 357: 1731-1743.
  • Gren, P, Jabri, B, 2003. Coeliac disease. Lancet, 362: 383-391.
  • Gujral, N, Freeman, H, Thomson, A, 2012. Celiac disease: prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 18: 6036-6059.
  • Hatta, E, Matsumoto, K, Honda, Y, 2015. Bacillolysin, papain, and subtilisin improve the quality of gluten-free rice bread. Journal of Cereal Science, 61: 41-47.
  • Hill, I, Bhatnagar, S, Cameron, J, De Rosa, S, Maki, M, Russell , G, Troncone , R, 2002. Celiac disease: working group report of the first world congress of pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology, and nutrition. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 35: 78-88. İşleroğlu, H, Dirim, S, Ertekin, F, 2009. Gluten içermeyen, hububat esaslı alternatif ürün formülasyonları ve üretim teknolojileri. Gıda, 34: 29-36.
  • Kittisuban, P, Ritthiruangdej, P, Suphantharika, M, 2014. Optimization of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, yeast β- glucan, and whey protein levels based on physical properties of gluten- free rice bread using response surface methodology. Food Science and Technology, 57: 738-748.
  • Koehler, P, 2014. Celiac disease and gluten. Multidisciplinary Challenges and Opportunities, 1: 96.
  • Korus, J, Witczak, T, Ziobro, R, Juszczak, L, 2015. Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) mucilage as a novel structure forming agent in gluten-free bread. Food Science and Technology, 62: 257-264.
  • Mahmoud, RM, Yousif, EI, Cadallah, MG, Alawneh, AR, 2013. Formulations and quality characterization of gluten-free egyptian balady flat bread. Annals of Agricultural Sciences, 58: 19-25.
  • Marco, C, Rosell, C, 2008. Breadmaking performance of protein enriched, gluten-free breads. European Food Research and Technology, 4: 1205-1213.
  • Martinez, M, Diaz, A, Gomez, M, 2014. Effect of different microstructural features of soluble and insoluble fibres on gluten-free dough rheology and bread-making. Journal of Food Engineering, 142: 49-56.
  • Mezaize, S, Chevallier, S, Bail, A, Lamballerie, MD, 2009. Optimization of gluten-free formulations for french-style breads. Journal of Food Science, 74: 140-146.
  • Moroni, AV, Bello, FD, Arendt, EK, 2009. Sourdough in gluten-free bread-making: an ancient technology to solve a novel issue?. Food Microbiology, 26: 676-684.
  • Nehra, V, Marietta, E, Murray, J, 2013. Celiac disease. Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition, 298-306.
  • Novotni, D, Cukelj, N, Smerdel, B, Bituh, M, Dujmic, F, Curic, D, 2012. Glycemic index and firming kinetics of partially baked frozen gluten free bread with sourdough. Journal of Cereal Science, 55: 120-125.
  • Özuğur, G, Hayta, M, 2011. Tahıl esaslı glutensiz ürünlerin besinsel ve teknolojik özelliklerinin iyileştirilmesi. Gıda, 36: 287-294.
  • Renzetti, S, Bello, FD, Arendt, EK, 2008. Microstructure, fundamental rheology and baking characteristics of batters and breads from different gluten-free flours treated with a microbial transglutaminase. Journal of Cereal Science, 48: 33-45.
  • Ribotta, P, Ausar, S, Morcillo, M, Perez, G. 2004. Production of gluten-free bread using soybean flour. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 84: 1969–1974.
  • Ronda, F, Villanueva, M, Collar, C, 2014. Influence of acidification on dough viscoelasticity of gluten-free rice starch-based dough matrices enriched with exogenous protein. Food Science and Technology, 59: 12-20.
  • Schaart, M, Mearin, M, 2014. Early Nutrition: prevention of celiac disease?. Journal Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutrition, 59: 18-20.
  • Schober, T, Messerschmidt, M, Bean, S, Park, S, Arendt, E, 2005. Gluten-free bread from sorghum: quality differences among hybrids. Cereal Chemistry, 82: 394-404.
  • Shewry, P, Halford, N, Belton, P, Tatham, A, 2002. The structure and properties of gluten: an elastic protein from wheat grain. Phillosophical Transactions, 28: 133-142.
  • Torbica, A, Hadnadev, M, Dapcevic, T, 2010. Rheological, textural and sensory properties of gluten-free bread formulations based on rice and buckwheat flour. Food Hydrocolloids, 24: 626-632.
  • Villanacci, V, Ceppa, P, Tavani, E, Vindigni, C, Volta, U, 2011. Coeliac disease: the histology report Digestive and Liver Disease, 43: 385-395.
  • Wieser , H, 2007. Chemistry of gluten proteins. Food Microbiol, 24: 115- 124.
  • Yanar, Ö, Durmaz, Ö, Gökçay, G, 2013. Atipik başlangıçlı çölyak hastalığı. Çocuk Dergisi, 13: 126-130.
  • Yarpuz, D. 2011. Glutensiz ekmek üzerine araştırmalar. Selçuk Üniversitesi Gıda Mühendisliği Anabilim Dalı, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, 44s.
  • Yılmaz, Y, Doğan, I, S, 2015. Glutensiz Ekmek Karışımların Kalite ve Bileşenler Yönünden Değerlendirilmesi. Gıda,40: 335-342.

Celiac Disease and The Quality Characteristics of Produced Bread for Celiac Patients

Yıl 2017, Cilt 7, Sayı 1, 163 - 169, 03.03.2017

Öz

Celiac Disease is a chronic istestinal disease where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in people
with gluten intolerance. The only treatment for celiac disease is lifelong adherence to gluten-free diet. Thus, people
with celiac disease are strictly forbidden to consume wheat and wheat products. It is imperative to produce glutenfree bread for celiac disease patients as bread is an essential part of the diet of our community. Gluten, available in
wheat flour, is the main component that regulates the dough and bread formation and that determines the quality
of the bread. Gluten makes wheat bread sizable and stretchy as well as with a unique flavor and odor. The inability
to replace gluten in bread makes gluten-free bread production almost impossible. Gluten-free cereals and legume
flours or starches like rice, corn, soy beans, peanut and chickpea as well as cereal-like products like buckwheat,
quinoa and amaranth flours are used in gluten-free bread production. Besides these, several enzymes, gums, protein
isolats, acids and structure providers are also added into the formula. A permanent bread formula for celiac disease
still lacks. Efforts to settle challenges like lack of size and flavor, texture toughness as well as low nutritive value
and rapid staling observed in the gluten-free breads are still in progress. In this study; studies to improve the quality
of gluten-free bread is compiled by various researchers. In this study, we compliled studies to improve the quality
of gluten-free bread by various authors. So this study tried to shed light for those who want to do further research
for this topic.


Kaynakça

  • Aguilar, N, Albanell, E, Minarro, B, Marta, C, 2015. Chickpea and tiger nut flours as alternatives to emulsifier and shortening in gluten-free bread. Food Science and Technology, 62: 225-232.
  • Anonim, 2014. Gıda ve kontrol genel müdürlüğü 2014.http://mevzuat.basbakanlik.gov.tr/Metin.Aspx?MevzuatKod=9.5.15749&MevzuatIliski=0&sourceXmlSearch=gluten. Erişim Tarihi: 10.02.2015.
  • Axel, C, Röcker, B, Brosnan, B, Zannini, E, Furey, A, Coffey, A, Arendt, E, 2015. Application of Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM19280 in gluten-free sourdough bread to improve the microbial shelf life. Food Microbiology, 47: 36-44.
  • Costantini, L, Lucsic, L, Molinari, R, Kreft, I, Bonofaccia, G, Manzi, L, Merendino, N, 2014. Development of gluten-free bread using tartary buckwheat and chia flour rich in flavonoids and omega-3 fatty acids as ıngredients. Food Chemistry, 165: 232–240.
  • Demirkesen, I, Mert, B, Sumnu, G, Şahin, S, 2010. Rheological properties of gluten free bread formulation. Journal of Food Engineering, 96: 295-303.
  • Dizlek, H., 2012. Gluten proteinlerinin hamur ve ekmek nitelikleri üzerine etkileri. Dünya Gıda Dergisi, 18: 80-86.
  • Dizlek, H, 2011. Gluten oluşumu ve bunu sınırlayan engelleyen etmenler. Gıda Teknolojileri Elektronik Dergisi, 6: 14-22.
  • Dizlek, H, Gül, H, 2007. L-Askorbik asit ve ekmekçilikteki işlevleri. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 2: 26-34.
  • Dizlek, H, Özer, M.S, Altan, A, Gül, H. 2006. Buğdaydaki gluten proteinlerinin birbirleriyle etkileşimleri. Hububat Ürünleri Teknolojisi Kongre ve Fuarı, 7-9 Eylül 2006, Gaziantep.
  • Elgün, A, Ertugay, Z, 1997. Tahıl İşleme Teknolojisi, Atatürk Üniversitesi. Üçüncü baskı, Erzurum, Türkiye. 376s.
  • Elgün, A, Ertugay, Z, 2002. Tahıl İşleme Teknolojisi. Dördüncü Baskı, Erzurum, Türkiye. 411 s.
  • Fasano, A, Catassi, C, 2001. Current approaches to diagnosis and treatment of celiac disease: an evolving spectrum. Gastroenterology, 120: 36-51.
  • Furlan, R, Padilla, P, Campderros, M, 2015. Improvement of gluten-free bread properties by the incorporation of bovine plasma proteins and different saccharides into the matrix. Food Chemistry, 170: 257-260.
  • Gallagher, E, Gormley, T, Arendt, E, 2004. Recent advances in the formulation of gluten-free cereal-based products. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 15: 143-152.
  • Green, P, Cellier, C, 2007. Celiac disease. The New England Journal of Medicine, 357: 1731-1743.
  • Gren, P, Jabri, B, 2003. Coeliac disease. Lancet, 362: 383-391.
  • Gujral, N, Freeman, H, Thomson, A, 2012. Celiac disease: prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 18: 6036-6059.
  • Hatta, E, Matsumoto, K, Honda, Y, 2015. Bacillolysin, papain, and subtilisin improve the quality of gluten-free rice bread. Journal of Cereal Science, 61: 41-47.
  • Hill, I, Bhatnagar, S, Cameron, J, De Rosa, S, Maki, M, Russell , G, Troncone , R, 2002. Celiac disease: working group report of the first world congress of pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology, and nutrition. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 35: 78-88. İşleroğlu, H, Dirim, S, Ertekin, F, 2009. Gluten içermeyen, hububat esaslı alternatif ürün formülasyonları ve üretim teknolojileri. Gıda, 34: 29-36.
  • Kittisuban, P, Ritthiruangdej, P, Suphantharika, M, 2014. Optimization of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, yeast β- glucan, and whey protein levels based on physical properties of gluten- free rice bread using response surface methodology. Food Science and Technology, 57: 738-748.
  • Koehler, P, 2014. Celiac disease and gluten. Multidisciplinary Challenges and Opportunities, 1: 96.
  • Korus, J, Witczak, T, Ziobro, R, Juszczak, L, 2015. Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) mucilage as a novel structure forming agent in gluten-free bread. Food Science and Technology, 62: 257-264.
  • Mahmoud, RM, Yousif, EI, Cadallah, MG, Alawneh, AR, 2013. Formulations and quality characterization of gluten-free egyptian balady flat bread. Annals of Agricultural Sciences, 58: 19-25.
  • Marco, C, Rosell, C, 2008. Breadmaking performance of protein enriched, gluten-free breads. European Food Research and Technology, 4: 1205-1213.
  • Martinez, M, Diaz, A, Gomez, M, 2014. Effect of different microstructural features of soluble and insoluble fibres on gluten-free dough rheology and bread-making. Journal of Food Engineering, 142: 49-56.
  • Mezaize, S, Chevallier, S, Bail, A, Lamballerie, MD, 2009. Optimization of gluten-free formulations for french-style breads. Journal of Food Science, 74: 140-146.
  • Moroni, AV, Bello, FD, Arendt, EK, 2009. Sourdough in gluten-free bread-making: an ancient technology to solve a novel issue?. Food Microbiology, 26: 676-684.
  • Nehra, V, Marietta, E, Murray, J, 2013. Celiac disease. Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition, 298-306.
  • Novotni, D, Cukelj, N, Smerdel, B, Bituh, M, Dujmic, F, Curic, D, 2012. Glycemic index and firming kinetics of partially baked frozen gluten free bread with sourdough. Journal of Cereal Science, 55: 120-125.
  • Özuğur, G, Hayta, M, 2011. Tahıl esaslı glutensiz ürünlerin besinsel ve teknolojik özelliklerinin iyileştirilmesi. Gıda, 36: 287-294.
  • Renzetti, S, Bello, FD, Arendt, EK, 2008. Microstructure, fundamental rheology and baking characteristics of batters and breads from different gluten-free flours treated with a microbial transglutaminase. Journal of Cereal Science, 48: 33-45.
  • Ribotta, P, Ausar, S, Morcillo, M, Perez, G. 2004. Production of gluten-free bread using soybean flour. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 84: 1969–1974.
  • Ronda, F, Villanueva, M, Collar, C, 2014. Influence of acidification on dough viscoelasticity of gluten-free rice starch-based dough matrices enriched with exogenous protein. Food Science and Technology, 59: 12-20.
  • Schaart, M, Mearin, M, 2014. Early Nutrition: prevention of celiac disease?. Journal Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutrition, 59: 18-20.
  • Schober, T, Messerschmidt, M, Bean, S, Park, S, Arendt, E, 2005. Gluten-free bread from sorghum: quality differences among hybrids. Cereal Chemistry, 82: 394-404.
  • Shewry, P, Halford, N, Belton, P, Tatham, A, 2002. The structure and properties of gluten: an elastic protein from wheat grain. Phillosophical Transactions, 28: 133-142.
  • Torbica, A, Hadnadev, M, Dapcevic, T, 2010. Rheological, textural and sensory properties of gluten-free bread formulations based on rice and buckwheat flour. Food Hydrocolloids, 24: 626-632.
  • Villanacci, V, Ceppa, P, Tavani, E, Vindigni, C, Volta, U, 2011. Coeliac disease: the histology report Digestive and Liver Disease, 43: 385-395.
  • Wieser , H, 2007. Chemistry of gluten proteins. Food Microbiol, 24: 115- 124.
  • Yanar, Ö, Durmaz, Ö, Gökçay, G, 2013. Atipik başlangıçlı çölyak hastalığı. Çocuk Dergisi, 13: 126-130.
  • Yarpuz, D. 2011. Glutensiz ekmek üzerine araştırmalar. Selçuk Üniversitesi Gıda Mühendisliği Anabilim Dalı, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, 44s.
  • Yılmaz, Y, Doğan, I, S, 2015. Glutensiz Ekmek Karışımların Kalite ve Bileşenler Yönünden Değerlendirilmesi. Gıda,40: 335-342.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Fen
Bölüm Gıda Mühendisliği / Food Engineering
Yazarlar

Fatma HAYIT (Sorumlu Yazar)
0000-0003-0097-406X


Hülya GÜL
0000-0003-0097-406X

Yayımlanma Tarihi 3 Mart 2017
Başvuru Tarihi 27 Ocak 2016
Kabul Tarihi 26 Ağustos 2016
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2017, Cilt 7, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @derleme { jist389685, journal = {Journal of the Institute of Science and Technology}, issn = {2146-0574}, eissn = {2536-4618}, address = {}, publisher = {Iğdır Üniversitesi}, year = {2017}, volume = {7}, pages = {163 - 169}, doi = {}, title = {Çölyak ve Çölyak Hastaları İçin Üretilen Ekmeklerin Kalite Özellikleri}, key = {cite}, author = {Hayıt, Fatma and Gül, Hülya} }
APA Hayıt, F. & Gül, H. (2017). Çölyak ve Çölyak Hastaları İçin Üretilen Ekmeklerin Kalite Özellikleri . Journal of the Institute of Science and Technology , 7 (1) , 163-169 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/jist/issue/34624/389685
MLA Hayıt, F. , Gül, H. "Çölyak ve Çölyak Hastaları İçin Üretilen Ekmeklerin Kalite Özellikleri" . Journal of the Institute of Science and Technology 7 (2017 ): 163-169 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/jist/issue/34624/389685>
Chicago Hayıt, F. , Gül, H. "Çölyak ve Çölyak Hastaları İçin Üretilen Ekmeklerin Kalite Özellikleri". Journal of the Institute of Science and Technology 7 (2017 ): 163-169
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Çölyak ve Çölyak Hastaları İçin Üretilen Ekmeklerin Kalite Özellikleri AU - Fatma Hayıt , Hülya Gül Y1 - 2017 PY - 2017 N1 - DO - T2 - Journal of the Institute of Science and Technology JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 163 EP - 169 VL - 7 IS - 1 SN - 2146-0574-2536-4618 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2016 ER -
EndNote %0 Iğdır Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi Çölyak ve Çölyak Hastaları İçin Üretilen Ekmeklerin Kalite Özellikleri %A Fatma Hayıt , Hülya Gül %T Çölyak ve Çölyak Hastaları İçin Üretilen Ekmeklerin Kalite Özellikleri %D 2017 %J Journal of the Institute of Science and Technology %P 2146-0574-2536-4618 %V 7 %N 1 %R %U
ISNAD Hayıt, Fatma , Gül, Hülya . "Çölyak ve Çölyak Hastaları İçin Üretilen Ekmeklerin Kalite Özellikleri". Journal of the Institute of Science and Technology 7 / 1 (Mart 2017): 163-169 .
AMA Hayıt F. , Gül H. Çölyak ve Çölyak Hastaları İçin Üretilen Ekmeklerin Kalite Özellikleri. Iğdır Üniv. Fen Bil Enst. Der.. 2017; 7(1): 163-169.
Vancouver Hayıt F. , Gül H. Çölyak ve Çölyak Hastaları İçin Üretilen Ekmeklerin Kalite Özellikleri. Journal of the Institute of Science and Technology. 2017; 7(1): 163-169.
IEEE F. Hayıt ve H. Gül , "Çölyak ve Çölyak Hastaları İçin Üretilen Ekmeklerin Kalite Özellikleri", Journal of the Institute of Science and Technology, c. 7, sayı. 1, ss. 163-169, Mar. 2017