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Metaphoric Perceptions of Primary School 4th Grade Students on the Concept of Friendship

Yıl 2022, Cilt 5, Sayı 1, 14 - 26, 30.05.2022
https://doi.org/10.53047/josse.1034763

Öz

This research aims to determine the metaphorical perceptions of primary school 4th-grade students about friendship. The study group of the study, which was carried out within the scope of the phenomenology design, one of the qualitative research designs, consisted of 144 4th grade primary school students studying in a public primary school in Istanbul Esenler in the 2021-2022 academic year. The data of the research were obtained through the semi-structured interview form (Friendship is like ……… Because ………..), which was prepared by the researchers and was finalized in line with the necessary expert opinions. The data obtained within the scope of the research were analyzed by content analysis. According to the findings obtained in the study, it was determined that primary school students perceived friendship in terms of values, skills, and emotional states. In addition, while defining friendship, the students mostly used values such as honesty and sincerity.

Kaynakça

  • Akın, A., & Akın, Ü. (2015). Friendship quality and subjective happiness: the mediator role of subjective vitality. Education and Science, 40(177). http://dx.doi.org/10.15390/EB.2015.3786
  • Annells, M. (2006). Triangulation of qualitative approaches: Hermeneutical phenomenology and grounded theory. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 56(1), 55–61. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.03979.x
  • Asher, S. R., & Coie, J. D. (Eds.). (1990). Peer rejection in childhood. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Aytaç, Ö. & Tan, M. (2020). Arkadaşlık ilişkilerinde yaşanan değişim: Mardin örneği. Uluslararası Toplum Araştırmaları Dergisi-OPUS, 15(25), http://dx.doi.org/10.26466/opus.642395
  • Balkar, B. (2008). Öğrenciler arasındaki sosyal ve ekonomik farklılıkların öğrenci ilişkileri ve öğretim süreci üzerindeki etkisine ilişkin öğretmen görüşleri. Çukurova Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 17(3). 29-46. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/cusosbil/issue/4380/60066
  • Başaran, M., Erol, M. & Yılmaz, D. (2020). Öğrencilerinin psikolojik sağlamlıkları ile duygusal ve psikolojik iyi oluşlukları arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi. IBAD Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, Milli Mücadele'nin 100. Yılı Özel Sayısı, 290-303. https://doi.org/10.21733/ibad.798643
  • Bierman, K. L. (2004). Peer rejection: Developmental processes and intervention strategies. Guilford Press.
  • Bukowski, W. M., & Hoza, B. (1989). Popularity and friendship: Issues in theory, measurement, and outcome. In T. J. Berndt & G. W. Ladd (Eds.), Peer relationships in child development (pp. 15–45). John Wiley & Sons.
  • Bukowski, W. M., Newcomb, A. F., & Hartup, W. W. (1996). Friendship and its significance in childhood and adolescence: Introduction and comment. In The Company they Keep, edited by William. M. Bukowski, Andrew. F. Newcomb, and Willard. W. Hartup (p.1–15). Cambridge University Press.
  • Carter, C., & Nutbrown, C. (2016). A pedagogy of friendship: young children’s friendships and how schools can support them. International Journal of Early Years Education, 24(4), 1-19. http://dx.doi.org /10.1080/09669760.2016.1189813.
  • Clark, M. L., & Ayers, M. (1988). The role of reciprocity and proximity in junior high school friendships. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 17(5), 403-411. http://dx.doi.org /10.1007/BF01537882.
  • Coşkun, Y., & Kurnaz, A. (2009). İlköğretim öğrencilerinin benlik saygısı ve akran baskısı düzeyi ilişkisi üzerine bir inceleme. Sakarya Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 17, 112-129. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/sakaefd/issue/11213/133915
  • Creswell, J. W., Plano Clark, V. L., Gutmann, M. L., & Hanson, W. E. (2003). Advanced mixed methods research designs. In A. Tashakkori and C. Teddlie (Eds), Handbook on mixed methods in the behavioral and social sciences (209-240). Sage Publications.
  • Criss, M. M., Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E., Dodge, K. A., & Lapp, A. L. (2002). Family adversity, positive peer relationships, and children’s externalizing behavior: A longitudinal perspective on risk and resilience. Child Development, 73(4), 1220-1237. http://dx.doi.org /10.1111/1467-8624.00468.
  • Demir, M., Orthel-Clark, H., Özdemir, M., Bayram Özdemir, S. (2015). Friendship and Happiness Among Young Adults. In: Demir, M. (eds) Friendship and Happiness. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9603-3_7
  • Ferrer-Chancy, M., & Fugate, A. (2007). The ımportance of friendship for school-age children, university of florida, IFAS extension. Retired form http://www.centrocies.com.mx/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/friendshipchildren.pdf
  • Flashman, J. (2012). Academic achievement and its impact on friend dynamics. Sociology of Education, 85(1), 61-80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038040711417014
  • Geisthardt, C. L., Brotherson, M. J., & Cook, C. C. (2002). Friendships of children with disabilities in the home environment. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 37(3), 235-252. Retired form https://core.ac.uk/reader/38935620
  • Gleason, T. R. (2004). Imaginary companions and peer acceptance. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28(3), 204-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01650250344000415.
  • Hall, L. J. (1994). A descriptive assessment of social relationships in integrated classrooms. Journal for the Association of Persons with Severe Handicaps, 19(2), 302-313. http://dx.doi.org /10.1177/154079699401900406.
  • Hartup, W. W. (1996). The company they keep: Friendship and their developmental significance. Child Development, 67(1), 1-13. http://dx.doi.org /10.2307/1131681.
  • Heiman, T. (2000). Friendship quality among children in three educational settings. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 25(1), 1–12. http://dx.doi.org /10.1080/132697800112749.
  • Hendrickson, B., Rosen, D., & Aune, R. K. (2011). An analysis of friendship networks, social connectedness, homesickness, and satisfaction levels of ınternational students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(3), 281-295, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2010.08.001.
  • Hodges, E. V. E., Malone, M. J., & Perry, D. G. (1997). Individual risk and social risk as interacting determinants of victimization in the peer group. Developmental Psychology, 33(6), 1032-1039. http://dx.doi.org /10.1037/0012-1649.33.6.1032.
  • Hojjat, M., & Moyer, A. (2017). The psychology of friendship. Oxford University Press.
  • Hundley, R. J., & Cohen, R. (1999). Chıldren’s relatıonshıps wıth classmates: A 164 comprehensıve analysıs of frıendshıp nomınatıons and lıkıng. Child Study Journal, 29(4), 233–233.
  • İnanç, B. Y., Bilgin, M., & Atıcı, K. M. (2007). Gelişim psikolojisi. Pegem.
  • Kapıkıran, N., İvrendi, A. & Adak, A. (2006). Okul öncesi çocuklarında sosyal beceri: Durum saptaması. Pamukkale Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 19(1), 20-28. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/pauefd/issue/11124/133034
  • Kupersmidt, J. B., Coie, J. D., & Dodge, K. A. (1990). The role of poor peer relationships in the development of disorder. In S. R. Asher & J. D. Coie (Eds.), Peer rejection in childhood (pp.274–305). Cambridge University Press.
  • Kurtoğlu, F. S. (2019). A study of student perceptions related to friendship value in turkish language and literature course program with metaphors. Universal Journal of Educational Research 7(2), 463-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2019.070219
  • Ladd, G. W. (1981). Effectiveness of a social learning method for enhancing children's social interaction and peer acceptance. Child Development, 52(1), 171–178. https://doi.org/10.2307/1129227
  • Ladd, G. W. (1990). Having friends, keeping friends, making friends, and being liked by peers in the classroom: predictors of children's early school adjustment? Child Development, 61(4), 1081-1100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1990.tb02843.x.
  • Mehaffey, J. I., & Sandberg, S. K. (1992). Conducting Social Skills Training Groups With Elementary School Children. The School Counselor, 40(1), 61–67. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/23900832
  • Merriam, S. B. (2015). Nitel araştırma desen ve uygulama için bir rehber. (Çev. Ed. Turan, S.). Nobel Akademi.
  • Newcomb, A. F., & Bagwell, C. L. (1995). Children’s friendship relations: A meta- analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 117(2), 306-347. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0033-2909.117.2.306
  • Overton, S., & Rausch, J. L. (2002). Peer relationships as support for children with disabilities: An analysis of mothers’ goals and indicators for friendship. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 17(1), 11-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/108835760201700102.
  • Özyürek, A. (2017). Okul öncesi çocukların duyguları tanıma ile duyguları yönetme ve arkadaşlık becerileri arasındaki ilişki. Türk Dünyası Araştırmaları Vakfı, 59,128-140.
  • Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. (1993). Friendship and friendship quality in middle childhood: Links with peer group acceptance and feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction. Developmental Psychology, 29(4), 611–621. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.29.4.611
  • Patton, M. Q. (2015). Qualitative research and evaluation methods. Sage Publishing.
  • Pratt, S., & George, R. (2005). Transferring friendship: girls' and boys' friendships in the transition from primary to secondary school. Children & Society, 19(1), 16- 26. http://dx.doi.org /10.1002/chi.830
  • Rose, A., & Asher, S. R. (2004). Children’s strategies and goals in response to helpgiving and help-seeking tasks within a friendship. Child Development, 75(3), 749-763. http://dx.doi.org /10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00704.x.
  • Saban, A. (2009). Öğretmen adaylarının öğrenci kavramına ilişkin sahip oldukları zihinsel imgeler. Türk Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 7(2), 281-326. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tebd/issue/26107/275061
  • Salı, G. (2010). Çalışan ve çalışmayan çocukların arkadaşlık ilişkileri, sosyal destek algıları ve mükemmeliyetçiliklerinin incelenmesi (Doktora Tezi). Ev Ekonomisi Çocuk Gelişimi ve Eğitimi Ana Bilim Dalı.
  • Sørlie, M. A., Hagen, K. A., & Ogden, T. (2008). Social competence and antisocial behavior: Continuity and distinctiveness across early adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 18(1), 121–144. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2008.00553.x
  • Stake, R. E. (2010). Qualitative research: Studying how things work. A Division of Guilford Publications, Inc.
  • Trawick-Smith, J. (2013). Erken çocukluk döneminde gelişim (Çok kültürlü bir bakış açısı) (B. Akman, Ed. Çev.). Nobel.
  • Türk Dil Kurumu (2021). https://sozluk.gov.tr/. 7 Şubat 2021 tarihinde erişildi.
  • Unlendorff, H. (2000). Parents’ and childrens friendships networks. Journal of Family Issues, 3,48-79. https://doi.org/10.1177/019251300021002003
  • Westwood, P. (1993). Commonsense methods for children with special needs strategies for the regular classrom. London.
  • Woods, P. (1990). The happiest days? how pupils cope with school. Falmer Press.
  • Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2016). Nitel araştırma yöntemleri (10. Baskı). Seçkin Yayıncılık.
  • Yörükoğlu, A. (2018). Çocuk ruh sağlığı. Özgür Yayınları.
  • Yun-Lee, L. S. (2008). Peer reciprocity, acceptence and friendship quality in chidren with autism in general educational settings (Doctoral dissertation). Proquest Dissertations and Theses veri tabanından erişildi (No. 3335941).
  • Zajac, R. J., & Hartup, W. W. (1997). Friends as coworkers: Research review and classroom implications. The Elementary School Journal, 98(1), 3-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/461881

İlkokul 4. Sınıf Öğrencilerinin Arkadaşlık Kavramına İlişkin Metaforik Algıları

Yıl 2022, Cilt 5, Sayı 1, 14 - 26, 30.05.2022
https://doi.org/10.53047/josse.1034763

Öz

Bu araştırmanın amacı ilkokul 4. sınıf öğrencilerinin arkadaşlığa ilişkin metaforik algılarının belirlenmesidir. Nitel araştırma desenlerinden fenomenoloji deseni kapsamında yürütülen çalışmanın çalışma grubunu 2021-2022 eğitim öğretim yılında İstanbul Esenlerde bir devlet ilkokulunda öğrenim gören 144 ilkokul 4. Sınıf öğrencisi oluşturmuştur. Araştırmanın verileri araştırmacılar tarafından hazırlanan ve gerekli uzman görüşleri doğrultusunda son şekli verilen yarı-yapılandırılmış görüşme formu (Arkadaşlık ……… gibidir. Çünkü ………..) aracılığıyla elde edilmiştir. Araştırma kapsamında elde edilen veriler içerik analizi ile analiz edilmiş ve ilkokul öğrencilerinin arkadaşlığa ilişkin metaforik algıları belirlenmiştir. Araştırmanda elde edilen bulgulara göre, ilkokul öğrencilerinin arkadaşlığı değer, beceri ve duygu durumları açısından algıladıkları belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca öğrenciler arkadaşlığı tanımlarken en çok dürüstlük ve samimiyet gibi değer içeren kavramları kullanmışlardır.

Kaynakça

  • Akın, A., & Akın, Ü. (2015). Friendship quality and subjective happiness: the mediator role of subjective vitality. Education and Science, 40(177). http://dx.doi.org/10.15390/EB.2015.3786
  • Annells, M. (2006). Triangulation of qualitative approaches: Hermeneutical phenomenology and grounded theory. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 56(1), 55–61. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.03979.x
  • Asher, S. R., & Coie, J. D. (Eds.). (1990). Peer rejection in childhood. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Aytaç, Ö. & Tan, M. (2020). Arkadaşlık ilişkilerinde yaşanan değişim: Mardin örneği. Uluslararası Toplum Araştırmaları Dergisi-OPUS, 15(25), http://dx.doi.org/10.26466/opus.642395
  • Balkar, B. (2008). Öğrenciler arasındaki sosyal ve ekonomik farklılıkların öğrenci ilişkileri ve öğretim süreci üzerindeki etkisine ilişkin öğretmen görüşleri. Çukurova Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 17(3). 29-46. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/cusosbil/issue/4380/60066
  • Başaran, M., Erol, M. & Yılmaz, D. (2020). Öğrencilerinin psikolojik sağlamlıkları ile duygusal ve psikolojik iyi oluşlukları arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi. IBAD Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, Milli Mücadele'nin 100. Yılı Özel Sayısı, 290-303. https://doi.org/10.21733/ibad.798643
  • Bierman, K. L. (2004). Peer rejection: Developmental processes and intervention strategies. Guilford Press.
  • Bukowski, W. M., & Hoza, B. (1989). Popularity and friendship: Issues in theory, measurement, and outcome. In T. J. Berndt & G. W. Ladd (Eds.), Peer relationships in child development (pp. 15–45). John Wiley & Sons.
  • Bukowski, W. M., Newcomb, A. F., & Hartup, W. W. (1996). Friendship and its significance in childhood and adolescence: Introduction and comment. In The Company they Keep, edited by William. M. Bukowski, Andrew. F. Newcomb, and Willard. W. Hartup (p.1–15). Cambridge University Press.
  • Carter, C., & Nutbrown, C. (2016). A pedagogy of friendship: young children’s friendships and how schools can support them. International Journal of Early Years Education, 24(4), 1-19. http://dx.doi.org /10.1080/09669760.2016.1189813.
  • Clark, M. L., & Ayers, M. (1988). The role of reciprocity and proximity in junior high school friendships. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 17(5), 403-411. http://dx.doi.org /10.1007/BF01537882.
  • Coşkun, Y., & Kurnaz, A. (2009). İlköğretim öğrencilerinin benlik saygısı ve akran baskısı düzeyi ilişkisi üzerine bir inceleme. Sakarya Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 17, 112-129. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/sakaefd/issue/11213/133915
  • Creswell, J. W., Plano Clark, V. L., Gutmann, M. L., & Hanson, W. E. (2003). Advanced mixed methods research designs. In A. Tashakkori and C. Teddlie (Eds), Handbook on mixed methods in the behavioral and social sciences (209-240). Sage Publications.
  • Criss, M. M., Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E., Dodge, K. A., & Lapp, A. L. (2002). Family adversity, positive peer relationships, and children’s externalizing behavior: A longitudinal perspective on risk and resilience. Child Development, 73(4), 1220-1237. http://dx.doi.org /10.1111/1467-8624.00468.
  • Demir, M., Orthel-Clark, H., Özdemir, M., Bayram Özdemir, S. (2015). Friendship and Happiness Among Young Adults. In: Demir, M. (eds) Friendship and Happiness. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9603-3_7
  • Ferrer-Chancy, M., & Fugate, A. (2007). The ımportance of friendship for school-age children, university of florida, IFAS extension. Retired form http://www.centrocies.com.mx/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/friendshipchildren.pdf
  • Flashman, J. (2012). Academic achievement and its impact on friend dynamics. Sociology of Education, 85(1), 61-80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038040711417014
  • Geisthardt, C. L., Brotherson, M. J., & Cook, C. C. (2002). Friendships of children with disabilities in the home environment. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 37(3), 235-252. Retired form https://core.ac.uk/reader/38935620
  • Gleason, T. R. (2004). Imaginary companions and peer acceptance. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28(3), 204-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01650250344000415.
  • Hall, L. J. (1994). A descriptive assessment of social relationships in integrated classrooms. Journal for the Association of Persons with Severe Handicaps, 19(2), 302-313. http://dx.doi.org /10.1177/154079699401900406.
  • Hartup, W. W. (1996). The company they keep: Friendship and their developmental significance. Child Development, 67(1), 1-13. http://dx.doi.org /10.2307/1131681.
  • Heiman, T. (2000). Friendship quality among children in three educational settings. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 25(1), 1–12. http://dx.doi.org /10.1080/132697800112749.
  • Hendrickson, B., Rosen, D., & Aune, R. K. (2011). An analysis of friendship networks, social connectedness, homesickness, and satisfaction levels of ınternational students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(3), 281-295, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2010.08.001.
  • Hodges, E. V. E., Malone, M. J., & Perry, D. G. (1997). Individual risk and social risk as interacting determinants of victimization in the peer group. Developmental Psychology, 33(6), 1032-1039. http://dx.doi.org /10.1037/0012-1649.33.6.1032.
  • Hojjat, M., & Moyer, A. (2017). The psychology of friendship. Oxford University Press.
  • Hundley, R. J., & Cohen, R. (1999). Chıldren’s relatıonshıps wıth classmates: A 164 comprehensıve analysıs of frıendshıp nomınatıons and lıkıng. Child Study Journal, 29(4), 233–233.
  • İnanç, B. Y., Bilgin, M., & Atıcı, K. M. (2007). Gelişim psikolojisi. Pegem.
  • Kapıkıran, N., İvrendi, A. & Adak, A. (2006). Okul öncesi çocuklarında sosyal beceri: Durum saptaması. Pamukkale Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 19(1), 20-28. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/pauefd/issue/11124/133034
  • Kupersmidt, J. B., Coie, J. D., & Dodge, K. A. (1990). The role of poor peer relationships in the development of disorder. In S. R. Asher & J. D. Coie (Eds.), Peer rejection in childhood (pp.274–305). Cambridge University Press.
  • Kurtoğlu, F. S. (2019). A study of student perceptions related to friendship value in turkish language and literature course program with metaphors. Universal Journal of Educational Research 7(2), 463-471. http://dx.doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2019.070219
  • Ladd, G. W. (1981). Effectiveness of a social learning method for enhancing children's social interaction and peer acceptance. Child Development, 52(1), 171–178. https://doi.org/10.2307/1129227
  • Ladd, G. W. (1990). Having friends, keeping friends, making friends, and being liked by peers in the classroom: predictors of children's early school adjustment? Child Development, 61(4), 1081-1100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1990.tb02843.x.
  • Mehaffey, J. I., & Sandberg, S. K. (1992). Conducting Social Skills Training Groups With Elementary School Children. The School Counselor, 40(1), 61–67. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/23900832
  • Merriam, S. B. (2015). Nitel araştırma desen ve uygulama için bir rehber. (Çev. Ed. Turan, S.). Nobel Akademi.
  • Newcomb, A. F., & Bagwell, C. L. (1995). Children’s friendship relations: A meta- analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 117(2), 306-347. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0033-2909.117.2.306
  • Overton, S., & Rausch, J. L. (2002). Peer relationships as support for children with disabilities: An analysis of mothers’ goals and indicators for friendship. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 17(1), 11-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/108835760201700102.
  • Özyürek, A. (2017). Okul öncesi çocukların duyguları tanıma ile duyguları yönetme ve arkadaşlık becerileri arasındaki ilişki. Türk Dünyası Araştırmaları Vakfı, 59,128-140.
  • Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. (1993). Friendship and friendship quality in middle childhood: Links with peer group acceptance and feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction. Developmental Psychology, 29(4), 611–621. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.29.4.611
  • Patton, M. Q. (2015). Qualitative research and evaluation methods. Sage Publishing.
  • Pratt, S., & George, R. (2005). Transferring friendship: girls' and boys' friendships in the transition from primary to secondary school. Children & Society, 19(1), 16- 26. http://dx.doi.org /10.1002/chi.830
  • Rose, A., & Asher, S. R. (2004). Children’s strategies and goals in response to helpgiving and help-seeking tasks within a friendship. Child Development, 75(3), 749-763. http://dx.doi.org /10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00704.x.
  • Saban, A. (2009). Öğretmen adaylarının öğrenci kavramına ilişkin sahip oldukları zihinsel imgeler. Türk Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 7(2), 281-326. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tebd/issue/26107/275061
  • Salı, G. (2010). Çalışan ve çalışmayan çocukların arkadaşlık ilişkileri, sosyal destek algıları ve mükemmeliyetçiliklerinin incelenmesi (Doktora Tezi). Ev Ekonomisi Çocuk Gelişimi ve Eğitimi Ana Bilim Dalı.
  • Sørlie, M. A., Hagen, K. A., & Ogden, T. (2008). Social competence and antisocial behavior: Continuity and distinctiveness across early adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 18(1), 121–144. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2008.00553.x
  • Stake, R. E. (2010). Qualitative research: Studying how things work. A Division of Guilford Publications, Inc.
  • Trawick-Smith, J. (2013). Erken çocukluk döneminde gelişim (Çok kültürlü bir bakış açısı) (B. Akman, Ed. Çev.). Nobel.
  • Türk Dil Kurumu (2021). https://sozluk.gov.tr/. 7 Şubat 2021 tarihinde erişildi.
  • Unlendorff, H. (2000). Parents’ and childrens friendships networks. Journal of Family Issues, 3,48-79. https://doi.org/10.1177/019251300021002003
  • Westwood, P. (1993). Commonsense methods for children with special needs strategies for the regular classrom. London.
  • Woods, P. (1990). The happiest days? how pupils cope with school. Falmer Press.
  • Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2016). Nitel araştırma yöntemleri (10. Baskı). Seçkin Yayıncılık.
  • Yörükoğlu, A. (2018). Çocuk ruh sağlığı. Özgür Yayınları.
  • Yun-Lee, L. S. (2008). Peer reciprocity, acceptence and friendship quality in chidren with autism in general educational settings (Doctoral dissertation). Proquest Dissertations and Theses veri tabanından erişildi (No. 3335941).
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Research Article
Yazarlar

Mustafa EROL> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi
0000-0002-1675-7070
Türkiye


Hüseyin KÖKSAL>
GAZİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, GAZİ EĞİTİM FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0003-3805-2810
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Mayıs 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 5, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Erol, M. & Köksal, H. (2022). Metaphoric Perceptions of Primary School 4th Grade Students on the Concept of Friendship . Journal of Social Sciences And Education , 5 (1) , 14-26 . DOI: 10.53047/josse.1034763

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