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Dijital Çağa Demokrasiyi Çağırmak: Cambridge Analytica Skandalı

Yıl 2020, Cilt: 3 Sayı: 1, 41 - 59, 09.05.2020

Öz

Tarım toplumundan ağ/bilgi toplumuna geçişe kadar her dönüşüm aşamasında
teknolojik ilerleme ile yönetimde şeffaflık arasında doğrudan bir
ilişki kurulmuştur. Ancak son yıllarda gelişen Arap baharı, Şili
protestoları gibi toplumsal eylemlerin de ışığı altında açık toplum ve
şeffaflık söylemlerinin kimi zaman toplumsal ve siyasal gelişmelerle bir
araya geldiğinde demokratik yönetimler açısından riskler yarattığı da
söylenebilir. Sosyal medyanın siyasi amaçlarla manipüle edilmesi
ihtimali bu teknolojik ilerlemenin temelinde yer alan şeffaflık söylemi
ile açık bir çelişkiyi de içinde barındırmaktadır. Makalenin konusu; söz
konusu şeffaflık söyleminin yarattığı toplumsal ve siyasal risklerin
Facebook'un 2018 yılında ortaya çıkan Cambridge Analytica skandalı
örneğinde ele alınmasıdır. Çalışmanın teorik kısmında sosyal medyanın
toplumsal ilişkilerde pozitif bir vaat olarak ortaya koyduğu şeffaflığın
yarattığı güçsüz bireylerin politik alandaki konumu irdelenmiştir. Bu
kapsamda Byung Chul Han’ın şeffaflık toplumu eleştirisinden geliştirdiği
teorik yaklaşım benimsenerek, Cambridge Analytica skandalı çerçevesinde
dijitalleşme ve demokrasi ilişkisi eleştirel incelemeye tabi
tutulmuştur.

Kaynakça

  • Babacan, Mehmet, Haşlak, İrfan, Hira İsmail, (2011), “Sosyal Medya ve Arap Baharı”, Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi (AID), Cilt: 6, Sayı: 2, ss. 63-92.
  • Barney, Darin. (2004), The Network Society, Polity Press, Cambridge.
  • Castells, Manuel. (2013), Enformasyon Çağı: Ekonomi, Toplum ve Kültür, Cilt: 1 Ağ Toplumunun Yükselişi, Çeviren: Ebru Kılıç, İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayınları, İstanbul.
  • Gainous, Jason, Wagner, Kevin M., (2014), Tweeting to Power The Social Media Revolution in American Poltics, Oxford University Press.
  • Galloway, Scott, (2017), The Four: The Hidden DNA of Amazon, Apple, Facebook and Google, Penguin, New York. Han, Byung Chuli (2017), Şeffaflık Toplumu, Çeviren: Haluk Barışcan, Metis Yayınları, İstanbul.
  • Loader, Brian D., Mercea, Dan, (2011), “Networking Democracy? Social Media Innovations and Participatory Politics”, İnformation, Comminication & Society, Vol. 14, No: 6, pp. 757-769.
  • Lutz, Barend, Toit, Pierre du, (2014), Defining Democracy in a Digital Age: Political Support on Social Media, Palgrave Macmilllan.
  • Persiliy, Nathaniel, (2017), “Can Democracy Survive The Internet?”, Journal of Democracy, Vol: 28, No: 2.
  • Sobacı, Mehmet Zahid, Hatipoğlu, İbrahim (Ed.), (2018), Sub-National Democracy and Politics Through Social Media, Springer Publishing.
  • Sobacı, Mehmet Zahit (Ed.), (2016), Social Media and Local Governments Theory and Practice, Springer Publishing.
  • Sunstein, Cass R., (2017), #republic: Divided Democracy in the Age of Social Media, Princeten University Press.
  • Trottier, Daniel, Fuchs, Christian, (2015), “Theorising Social Media, Politics and the State: An Introduction”, Social Media, Politics and the State: Protests, Revolutions, Riots, Crime and Policing in the Age of Facebook, Twitter and YouTube, Edit: Daniel Trottier, Christian Fuchs, Routledge, pp. 3-38.
  • Van Dijk, Jan. (2006), The Network Society, Second Edition, SAGE Publications.
  • Vural, Z. Beril, Bat, Mikail, (2010), “Yeni Bir İletişim Ortamı Olarak Sosyal Medya: Ege Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesine Yönelik Bir Araştırma”, Journal of Yaşar University, Sayı: 5, ss. 3348-3382.
  • “‘Authoritarian’ Zuckerberg intends to use Facebook to re-elect Trump, says Hillary Clinton” https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/us-politics/hillary-clinton-zuckerberg-trump-facebook-elect-2020-election-a9303741.html Erişim Tarihi: 02.03.2020.
  • “A test ofcharacter” https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2009/mar/07/personality-test Erişim Tarihi: 01.06.2018 “Cambridge Analytica'nın Türkiye boyutu: Uygulamayı 223 kişi indirdi; 234 bin kişi etkilendi” https://www.birgun.net/haber/cambridge-analytica-nin-turkiye-boyutu-uygulamayi-223-kisi-indirdi-234-bin-kisi-etkilendi-210879 Erişim Tarihi: 05.06.2018
  • “Cambridge Analytica” https://cambridgeanalytica.org/ Erişim Tarihi: 31 Mayıs 2018.
  • “Despite #deletefacebook, Facebook’s user count (and revenue) keeps growing” https://www.digitaltrends.com/social-media/facebook-monthly-active-users-grows-despite-cambridge-analytica/ Erişim Tarihi: 3 Haziran 2018
  • “Digital in 2018: World’s internet users pass the 4 billion mark” https://wearesocial.com/blog/2018/01/global-digital-report-2018 Erişim Tarihi:29.05.2018
  • “Facebook data: How it was used by Cambridge Analytica” https://www.bbc.com/news/av/technology-43674480/facebook-data-how-it-was-used-by-cambridge-analytica Erişim Tarihi: 01.06.2018
  • “Facebook has lost $80 billion in market value since its data scandal” http://money.cnn.com/2018/03/27/news/companies/facebook-stock-zuckerberg/index.html Erişim 01.06.2018
  • “Facebook Market Cap” https://ycharts.com/companies/FB/market_cap Erişim Tarihi: 01.06.2018
  • “Facebook Platform” https://www.techopedia.com/definition/27916/facebook-platform Erişim Tarihi: 30 Mayıs 2018.
  • “Google Trends: how to delete my facebook account” https://trends.google.com/trends/explore?q=how%20to%20delete%20my%20facebook%20account Erişim 01.06.2018
  • “Here’s the personality test Cambridge Analytica had Facebook users take” http://www.businessinsider.com/facebook-personality-test-cambridge-analytica-data-trump-election-2018-3 Erişim Tarihi: 31.05.2018
  • “Mueller Sought Emails of Trump Campaign Data Firm” https://www.wsj.com/articles/mueller-sought-emails-of-trump-campaign-data-firm-1513296899?mod=e2tw Erişim 31.05.2018
  • “Revealed: 50 million Facebook profiles harvested for Cambridge Analytica in major data breach” https://www.theguardian.com/news/2018/mar/17/cambridge-analytica-facebook-influence-us-election Erişim Tarihi: 31.05.2018
  • “Revealed: the ties that bound Vote Leave's data firm to controversial Cambridge Analytica” https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/mar/24/aggregateiq-data-firm-link-raises-leave-group-questions Erişim Tarihi: 31.05.2018
  • “Statement: Board Directors” https://ca-commercial.com/news/statement-board-directors-0 Erişim Tarihi:01.06.2018 “Ted Cruz using firm that harvested data on millions of unwitting Facebook users” https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/dec/11/senator-ted-cruz-president-campaign-facebook-user-data Erişim 29.05.2018.
  • “The Cambridge Analytica scandal is wildly confusing. This timeline will help” https://qz.com/1240039/the-cambridge-analytica-scandal-is-confusing-this-timeline-will-help/ Erişim Tarihi: 29.05.2018
  • “’We’d stage the whole thing’: Cambridge Analytica was filmed boasting of its role in Kenya’s polls” https://qz.com/1233084/channel-4-news-films-cambridge-analytica-execs-saying-they-staged-kenya-uhuru-kenyatta-elections/ Erişim 01.06.2018

Calling Democracy to the Digital Age: Case of Cambridge Analytica Scandal

Yıl 2020, Cilt: 3 Sayı: 1, 41 - 59, 09.05.2020

Öz

A direct relationship has been established between technological progress and transparency in management at every transformation stage from the agricultural society to the transition to the network / information society. However, it can be said that the discourses of open society and transparency, create risks for societies when they combined with social actions such as the Arab spring, Chilean protests etc. The possibility of manipulating social media for political purposes also includes a clear contradiction with the discourse of transparency, which is the social basis of this technological progress. The subject of the article; an analysis of social and political risks caused by the said transparency discourse which are addressed in Facebook's Cambridge Analytica scandal that emerged in 2018.  In the theoretical part of the study, the position of the individuals created by the transparency discourse and social media as a positive promise in social relations is examined. In this context, the relationship between digitalization and democracy within the framework of Cambridge Analytica scandal has been critically examined by adopting the theoretical approach developed by Byung Chul Han from the criticism of transparency society.

Kaynakça

  • Babacan, Mehmet, Haşlak, İrfan, Hira İsmail, (2011), “Sosyal Medya ve Arap Baharı”, Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi (AID), Cilt: 6, Sayı: 2, ss. 63-92.
  • Barney, Darin. (2004), The Network Society, Polity Press, Cambridge.
  • Castells, Manuel. (2013), Enformasyon Çağı: Ekonomi, Toplum ve Kültür, Cilt: 1 Ağ Toplumunun Yükselişi, Çeviren: Ebru Kılıç, İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayınları, İstanbul.
  • Gainous, Jason, Wagner, Kevin M., (2014), Tweeting to Power The Social Media Revolution in American Poltics, Oxford University Press.
  • Galloway, Scott, (2017), The Four: The Hidden DNA of Amazon, Apple, Facebook and Google, Penguin, New York. Han, Byung Chuli (2017), Şeffaflık Toplumu, Çeviren: Haluk Barışcan, Metis Yayınları, İstanbul.
  • Loader, Brian D., Mercea, Dan, (2011), “Networking Democracy? Social Media Innovations and Participatory Politics”, İnformation, Comminication & Society, Vol. 14, No: 6, pp. 757-769.
  • Lutz, Barend, Toit, Pierre du, (2014), Defining Democracy in a Digital Age: Political Support on Social Media, Palgrave Macmilllan.
  • Persiliy, Nathaniel, (2017), “Can Democracy Survive The Internet?”, Journal of Democracy, Vol: 28, No: 2.
  • Sobacı, Mehmet Zahid, Hatipoğlu, İbrahim (Ed.), (2018), Sub-National Democracy and Politics Through Social Media, Springer Publishing.
  • Sobacı, Mehmet Zahit (Ed.), (2016), Social Media and Local Governments Theory and Practice, Springer Publishing.
  • Sunstein, Cass R., (2017), #republic: Divided Democracy in the Age of Social Media, Princeten University Press.
  • Trottier, Daniel, Fuchs, Christian, (2015), “Theorising Social Media, Politics and the State: An Introduction”, Social Media, Politics and the State: Protests, Revolutions, Riots, Crime and Policing in the Age of Facebook, Twitter and YouTube, Edit: Daniel Trottier, Christian Fuchs, Routledge, pp. 3-38.
  • Van Dijk, Jan. (2006), The Network Society, Second Edition, SAGE Publications.
  • Vural, Z. Beril, Bat, Mikail, (2010), “Yeni Bir İletişim Ortamı Olarak Sosyal Medya: Ege Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesine Yönelik Bir Araştırma”, Journal of Yaşar University, Sayı: 5, ss. 3348-3382.
  • “‘Authoritarian’ Zuckerberg intends to use Facebook to re-elect Trump, says Hillary Clinton” https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/us-politics/hillary-clinton-zuckerberg-trump-facebook-elect-2020-election-a9303741.html Erişim Tarihi: 02.03.2020.
  • “A test ofcharacter” https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2009/mar/07/personality-test Erişim Tarihi: 01.06.2018 “Cambridge Analytica'nın Türkiye boyutu: Uygulamayı 223 kişi indirdi; 234 bin kişi etkilendi” https://www.birgun.net/haber/cambridge-analytica-nin-turkiye-boyutu-uygulamayi-223-kisi-indirdi-234-bin-kisi-etkilendi-210879 Erişim Tarihi: 05.06.2018
  • “Cambridge Analytica” https://cambridgeanalytica.org/ Erişim Tarihi: 31 Mayıs 2018.
  • “Despite #deletefacebook, Facebook’s user count (and revenue) keeps growing” https://www.digitaltrends.com/social-media/facebook-monthly-active-users-grows-despite-cambridge-analytica/ Erişim Tarihi: 3 Haziran 2018
  • “Digital in 2018: World’s internet users pass the 4 billion mark” https://wearesocial.com/blog/2018/01/global-digital-report-2018 Erişim Tarihi:29.05.2018
  • “Facebook data: How it was used by Cambridge Analytica” https://www.bbc.com/news/av/technology-43674480/facebook-data-how-it-was-used-by-cambridge-analytica Erişim Tarihi: 01.06.2018
  • “Facebook has lost $80 billion in market value since its data scandal” http://money.cnn.com/2018/03/27/news/companies/facebook-stock-zuckerberg/index.html Erişim 01.06.2018
  • “Facebook Market Cap” https://ycharts.com/companies/FB/market_cap Erişim Tarihi: 01.06.2018
  • “Facebook Platform” https://www.techopedia.com/definition/27916/facebook-platform Erişim Tarihi: 30 Mayıs 2018.
  • “Google Trends: how to delete my facebook account” https://trends.google.com/trends/explore?q=how%20to%20delete%20my%20facebook%20account Erişim 01.06.2018
  • “Here’s the personality test Cambridge Analytica had Facebook users take” http://www.businessinsider.com/facebook-personality-test-cambridge-analytica-data-trump-election-2018-3 Erişim Tarihi: 31.05.2018
  • “Mueller Sought Emails of Trump Campaign Data Firm” https://www.wsj.com/articles/mueller-sought-emails-of-trump-campaign-data-firm-1513296899?mod=e2tw Erişim 31.05.2018
  • “Revealed: 50 million Facebook profiles harvested for Cambridge Analytica in major data breach” https://www.theguardian.com/news/2018/mar/17/cambridge-analytica-facebook-influence-us-election Erişim Tarihi: 31.05.2018
  • “Revealed: the ties that bound Vote Leave's data firm to controversial Cambridge Analytica” https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/mar/24/aggregateiq-data-firm-link-raises-leave-group-questions Erişim Tarihi: 31.05.2018
  • “Statement: Board Directors” https://ca-commercial.com/news/statement-board-directors-0 Erişim Tarihi:01.06.2018 “Ted Cruz using firm that harvested data on millions of unwitting Facebook users” https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/dec/11/senator-ted-cruz-president-campaign-facebook-user-data Erişim 29.05.2018.
  • “The Cambridge Analytica scandal is wildly confusing. This timeline will help” https://qz.com/1240039/the-cambridge-analytica-scandal-is-confusing-this-timeline-will-help/ Erişim Tarihi: 29.05.2018
  • “’We’d stage the whole thing’: Cambridge Analytica was filmed boasting of its role in Kenya’s polls” https://qz.com/1233084/channel-4-news-films-cambridge-analytica-execs-saying-they-staged-kenya-uhuru-kenyatta-elections/ Erişim 01.06.2018

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Siyaset Bilimi
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Abdulkadir AKSOY 0000-0001-9573-5269

Onur TÜRKÖLMEZ 0000-0003-3841-6880

Yayımlanma Tarihi 9 Mayıs 2020
Gönderilme Tarihi 2 Mart 2020
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020 Cilt: 3 Sayı: 1

Kaynak Göster

APA AKSOY, A., & TÜRKÖLMEZ, O. (2020). Dijital Çağa Demokrasiyi Çağırmak: Cambridge Analytica Skandalı. Journal of Political Administrative and Local Studies, 3(1), 41-59.

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