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A Test Development Study for “the Determination of Phonological Awareness Levels” of Preschool Teachers

Yıl 2021, Cilt 22, Sayı 2, 704 - 749, 30.08.2021

Öz

This study includes the test development study for determining the phonological awareness, knowledge, and skill levels of preschool teachers. The determination of the knowledge levels of preschool teachers, who play a role in the acquisition of phonological awareness skills, which affect the reading success of children at later stages, by children, on this matter increases the efficiency of the phonological awareness education that will be provided to children. Within this purpose, 31 items that had been prepared for the testing tool after a literature review were applied to 185 preschool teachers. Questions were prepared regarding the definition and importance of phonological awareness, the overall and development of phonological awareness skills, supporting phonological awareness and its implementation, evaluation of phonological awareness skills, syllable awareness skill, word awareness skill, and phonemic awareness skill. As a result of the application, the scale items were reduced to 20 items and finalized according to the item difficulty index, item discrimination index, item standard deviations, item-total correlations, and alpha reliability coefficients.

Kaynakça

  • Adams, J. E. (2017). The Effectiveness of the HearBuilder Software Program on the Acquisition of Phonological Awareness Skills for African-American Children in Prekindergarten: Implications for Educational Leaders. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, University of Clark Atlanta. USA.
  • Adams, A. M., & Gathercole, S. E. (1995). Phonological working memory and speech production in preschool children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 38(2), 403-414. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/ 713755610
  • Armbruster, B. B., Lehr, F., & Osborn, J. (2003). Put reading first: The research building blocks for teaching children to read: Kindergarten through grade 3 (2nd ed.). Jessup: ED Pubs.
  • Akdal, D., & Kargın, T (2019). Sesbilgisel Farkındalık Becerilerini Desteklemeye Yönelik SESFAR Müdahale Programının Etkililiğinin İncelenmesi. Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi, 27(6), 2609-2620. doi: 10.24106/kefdergi.3459
  • Al Otaiba, S., & Fuchs, D. (2002). Characteristics of children who are unresponsive to early literacy intervention: A review of the literature. Remedial and Special education, 23(5), 300-316. Doi: 10.1177/07419325020230050501.
  • Apel, K., & Lawrence, J. (2011). Contributions of morphological awareness skills to word-level reading and spelling in first-grade children with and without speech sound disorder. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 54(5), 1312-1327. doi: https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2011/10-0115)
  • Baker, E., & McLeod, S. (2011). Evidence-based practice for children with speech sound disorders: Part 1 narrative review. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. 42(2), 102-139. doi: https://doi.org/10.1044/0161-1461(2010/09-0075)
  • Barrnett, S. M. (2015). Early Reading Instruction: Teachers' Phonological Awareness Practice, Knowledge, and Ability. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation. Rivier University. USA.
  • Boopathiraj, C., & Chellamani, K. (2013). Analysis of test items on difficulty level and discrimination index in the test for research in education. International journal of social science & interdisciplinary research, 2(2), 189-193.
  • Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. E. (1983). Categorizing sounds and learning to read—a causal connection. Nature, 301(5899), 419-421.
  • Brady, S., & Moats, L. (1997). Informed Instruction for Reading Success: Foundations for Teacher Preparation. A Position Paper of the International Dyslexia Association. English Teachers’ Journal, 52, 48-52.
  • Bransford, D. H., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2005). “LePage (2005). Introduction. Preparing Teachers for a Changing World: What Teachers Should Learn and Be Able To Do. Jossey-Bass”. (5nd Ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
  • Bryant, P. (1998). Sensitivity to onset and rhyme does predict young children's reading. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 71(1), 29-37.
  • Bryant, P. E., MacLean, M., Bradley, L. L., & Crossland, J. (1990). Rhyme and alliteration, phoneme detection, and learning to read. Developmental psychology, 26(3), 429.
  • Castles, A., & Coltheart, M. (2004). Is there a causal link from phonological awareness to success in learning to read?. Cognition, 91(1), 77-111.
  • Coşkun, R., R. Altunışık ve E. Yıldırım. (2017). Sosyal Bilimlerde Araştırma Yöntemleri SPSS Uygulamalı. Sakarya: Sakarya Kitabevi.
  • Crim, C., Hawkins, J., Thornton, J., Rosof, H. B., Copley, J., & Thomas, E. (2008). Early Childhood Educators' Knowledge of Early Literacy Development. Issues in Teacher Education, 17(1), 17-30.
  • Çalışkan, İ. Ö., & Kaptan, F. (2009). Constructing science process skills test. Çağdaş Eğitim Dergisi, 34(369), 27-34.
  • Dahmer, M. C. (2010). Phonological awareness in the kindergarten classroom: How do teachers perceive this essential link from oral communication to reading skill development.
  • Daisey, P. (2012). The promise of secondary content area literacy field experiences. Literacy Research and Instruction, 51(3), 214-232.
  • Daniels, D. (2015). A reconstruction of Proto-Sogeram: Phonology, lexicon, and morphosyntax (Doctoral dissertation, UC Santa Barbara).
  • De Groot, B. J., Van den Bos, K. P., Van der Meulen, B. F., & Minnaert, A. E. (2015). Rapid naming and phonemic awareness in children with reading disabilities and/or specific language impairment: Differentiating processes?. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 58(5), 1538-1548.
  • Demirdağ, B., Altun, E., Feyzioğlu, B., & Akyıldız, M. (2012). Ortaöğretim Öğrencilerine Yönelik Bilimsel Süreç Becerileri Testi Geliştirilmesi: Geçerlik ve Güvenirlik Çalışması. Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Bilimleri. 12 (3). 1887-1906.
  • Ehri, L. C., Nunes, S. R., Stahl, S. A., & Willows, D. M. (2001). Systematic phonics instruction helps students learn to read: Evidence from the National Reading Panel’s meta-analysis. Review of educational research, 71(3), 393-447.
  • Emad, A. M., & Yasser, A. A. (2010). Knowledge, skills, and practices, concerning phonological awareness among early childhood education teachers. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 24(2), 172-185.
  • Ferraz, I., Pocinho, M., Pereira, A., & Pimenta, A. (2015). Phonological Awareness Program: A longitudinal study from Preschool to 4th Grade. In SHS Web of Conferences (Vol. 16, p. 01002). EDP Sciences.
  • Fielding‐Barnsley, R., & Purdie, N. (2005). Teachers' attitude to and knowledge of metalinguistics in the process of learning to read. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 33(1), 65-76.
  • Foorman, B. R., & Moats, L. C. (2004). Conditions for sustaining research-based practices in early reading instruction. Remedial and Special Education, 25 (1), 51 - 60.
  • Fox, A. M. (2015). Phonological Awareness and Executive Function in Children with Speech Sound Impairment. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Arizona State University. USA.
  • Guimãraes, A. S., & Youngman, M. (1995). Portuguese preschool teachers' beliefs about early literacy development. Journal of Research in Reading, 18(1), 39-52.
  • Güldenoğlu, B., Kargın, T., & Ergül, C. (2016). Sesbilgisel farkındalık becerilerinin okuma ve okuduğunu anlama üzerindeki etkisi: Boylamsal bir çalışma. Elementary Education Online, 15(1). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.17051/io.2016.25973
  • Hilbert, D. D., & Eis, S. D. (2014). Early intervention for emergent literacy development in a collaborative community pre-kindergarten. Early Childhood Education Journal, 42(2), 105-113.
  • Hogan, T. P., Catts, H. W., & Little, T. D. (2005). The relationship between phonological awareness and reading. Language, speech, and hearing services in schools. 36(4). 285-293. doi: https://doi.org/10.1044/0161-1461(2005/029).
  • Kargın, T., Ergül, C., Büyüköztürk, Ş., & Güldenoğlu, B. (2015). Anasınıfı Çocuklarına Yönelik Erken Okuryazarlık Testi (EROT) Geliştirme Çalışması. Ozel Egitim Dergisi, 16(3).
  • Karslı, F., & Alipapa, A. Y. A. S. (2013). A Study on the Development of a Test about Measurement of Science and Technology Teachers' Science Process Skills. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 10(2).
  • Kjeldsen, A. C., Kärnä, A., Niemi, P., Olofsson, Å., & Witting, K. (2014). Gains from training in phonological awareness in kindergarten predict reading comprehension in grade 9. Scientific Studies of Reading, 18(6), 452-467.
  • Liu-Shea, M. (2011). Phonological acquisition in simultaneous bilingual Mandarin-English preschoolers. New York University. Lomax, R., & McGee, L. (1987). Young children's concepts about print and reading: Toward a model of word reading acquisition. Reading Research Quarterly, 22, 237-256.
  • Lonigan, C. J., Purpura, D. J., Wilson, S. B., Walker, P. M., & Clancy-Menchetti, J. (2013). Evaluating the components of an emergent literacy intervention for preschool children at risk for reading difficulties. Journal of experimental child psychology, 114(1), 111-130.
  • Lonigan, C. J., Burgess, S. R., & Anthony, J. L. (2000). Development of emergent literacy and early reading skills in preschool children: evidence from a latent-variable longitudinal study. Developmental psychology, 36(5), 596.
  • Lundberg, I., Olofsson, Å., & Wall, S. (1980). Reading and spelling skills in the first school years predicted from phonemic awareness skills in kindergarten. Scandinavian Journal of psychology, 21(1), 159-173.
  • Majsterek, D. J., Shorr, D. N., & Erion, V. L. (2000). Promoting early literacy through rhyme detection activities during Head Start circle-time. Child Study Journal, 30(3), 143-143. Marvelli, A. L. (2010). Highlights in the History of Oral Teacher Preparation in America. Volta Review, 110(2).
  • Mather, N., Bos, C., & Babur, N. (2001). Perceptions and knowledge of preservice and inservice teachers about early literacy instruction. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34 (5), 472 - 482.
  • Moats, L. C. (1994). The missing foundation in teacher education: Knowledge of the structure of spoken and written language. Annals of dyslexia, 44(1), 81-102.
  • Murnane, R., Sawhill, I., & Snow, C. (2012). Literacy challenges for the twenty-first century: Introducing the issue. The Future of Children, 3-15.
  • Nielsen, D. C., & Luetke-Stahlman, B. (2002). Phonological awareness: One key to the reading proficiency of deaf children. American annals of the deaf, 147(3), 11-19.
  • O’Leary, P. M., Cockburn, M. K., Powell, D. R., & Diamond, K. E. (2010). Head Start teachers’ views of phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge instruction. Early Childhood Education Journal, 38(3), 187-195.
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Okul Öncesi Öğretmenlerinin “Sesbilgisel Farkındalık Düzeylerini Belirleme Testi” Geliştirme Çalışması

Yıl 2021, Cilt 22, Sayı 2, 704 - 749, 30.08.2021

Öz

Bu çalışma okul öncesi öğretmenlerin sesbilgisel farkındalık bilgi ve becerileri düzeylerini belirlemeye yönelik test geliştirme çalışmasını içermektedir. Akademik yaşamları boyunca çocukların okuma başarılarını etkileyen sesbilgisel farkındalık becerilerinin çocuklara kazandırılmasında görev yapan okul öncesi öğretmenlerin bu konuda hakkındaki düzeylerinin belirlenmesi çocuklara verilecek olan sesbilgisel farkındalık eğitiminin verimliliğini arttırmaktadır. Bu amaç kapsamında alan yazın taraması yapıldıktan sonra test aracı için hazırlanan 31 madde 185 okul öncesi öğretmene uygulanmıştır. Sesbilgisel farkındalığın tanımına ve önemine, sesbilgisel farkındalık becerilerinin gelişimlerine, sesbilgisel farkındalık becerilerinin desteklenmesine ve uygulama sürecine, sesbilgisel farkındalık becerilerinin değerlendirilmesine, uyak farkındalığı becerisine, hece farkındalığı becerisine, kelime farkındalığı becerisine ve sesbirimsel farkındalık becerisine yönelik soru maddeleri hazırlanmıştır. Uygulama sonucunda madde güçlük indisi, madde ayırt edicilik indisi, madde standart sapmaları, madde toplam korelasyonları ve alfa güvenlik katsayılarına göre ölçek maddesi 20 maddeye düşmüş ve son halini almıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Adams, J. E. (2017). The Effectiveness of the HearBuilder Software Program on the Acquisition of Phonological Awareness Skills for African-American Children in Prekindergarten: Implications for Educational Leaders. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, University of Clark Atlanta. USA.
  • Adams, A. M., & Gathercole, S. E. (1995). Phonological working memory and speech production in preschool children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 38(2), 403-414. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/ 713755610
  • Armbruster, B. B., Lehr, F., & Osborn, J. (2003). Put reading first: The research building blocks for teaching children to read: Kindergarten through grade 3 (2nd ed.). Jessup: ED Pubs.
  • Akdal, D., & Kargın, T (2019). Sesbilgisel Farkındalık Becerilerini Desteklemeye Yönelik SESFAR Müdahale Programının Etkililiğinin İncelenmesi. Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi, 27(6), 2609-2620. doi: 10.24106/kefdergi.3459
  • Al Otaiba, S., & Fuchs, D. (2002). Characteristics of children who are unresponsive to early literacy intervention: A review of the literature. Remedial and Special education, 23(5), 300-316. Doi: 10.1177/07419325020230050501.
  • Apel, K., & Lawrence, J. (2011). Contributions of morphological awareness skills to word-level reading and spelling in first-grade children with and without speech sound disorder. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 54(5), 1312-1327. doi: https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2011/10-0115)
  • Baker, E., & McLeod, S. (2011). Evidence-based practice for children with speech sound disorders: Part 1 narrative review. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. 42(2), 102-139. doi: https://doi.org/10.1044/0161-1461(2010/09-0075)
  • Barrnett, S. M. (2015). Early Reading Instruction: Teachers' Phonological Awareness Practice, Knowledge, and Ability. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation. Rivier University. USA.
  • Boopathiraj, C., & Chellamani, K. (2013). Analysis of test items on difficulty level and discrimination index in the test for research in education. International journal of social science & interdisciplinary research, 2(2), 189-193.
  • Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. E. (1983). Categorizing sounds and learning to read—a causal connection. Nature, 301(5899), 419-421.
  • Brady, S., & Moats, L. (1997). Informed Instruction for Reading Success: Foundations for Teacher Preparation. A Position Paper of the International Dyslexia Association. English Teachers’ Journal, 52, 48-52.
  • Bransford, D. H., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2005). “LePage (2005). Introduction. Preparing Teachers for a Changing World: What Teachers Should Learn and Be Able To Do. Jossey-Bass”. (5nd Ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
  • Bryant, P. (1998). Sensitivity to onset and rhyme does predict young children's reading. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 71(1), 29-37.
  • Bryant, P. E., MacLean, M., Bradley, L. L., & Crossland, J. (1990). Rhyme and alliteration, phoneme detection, and learning to read. Developmental psychology, 26(3), 429.
  • Castles, A., & Coltheart, M. (2004). Is there a causal link from phonological awareness to success in learning to read?. Cognition, 91(1), 77-111.
  • Coşkun, R., R. Altunışık ve E. Yıldırım. (2017). Sosyal Bilimlerde Araştırma Yöntemleri SPSS Uygulamalı. Sakarya: Sakarya Kitabevi.
  • Crim, C., Hawkins, J., Thornton, J., Rosof, H. B., Copley, J., & Thomas, E. (2008). Early Childhood Educators' Knowledge of Early Literacy Development. Issues in Teacher Education, 17(1), 17-30.
  • Çalışkan, İ. Ö., & Kaptan, F. (2009). Constructing science process skills test. Çağdaş Eğitim Dergisi, 34(369), 27-34.
  • Dahmer, M. C. (2010). Phonological awareness in the kindergarten classroom: How do teachers perceive this essential link from oral communication to reading skill development.
  • Daisey, P. (2012). The promise of secondary content area literacy field experiences. Literacy Research and Instruction, 51(3), 214-232.
  • Daniels, D. (2015). A reconstruction of Proto-Sogeram: Phonology, lexicon, and morphosyntax (Doctoral dissertation, UC Santa Barbara).
  • De Groot, B. J., Van den Bos, K. P., Van der Meulen, B. F., & Minnaert, A. E. (2015). Rapid naming and phonemic awareness in children with reading disabilities and/or specific language impairment: Differentiating processes?. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 58(5), 1538-1548.
  • Demirdağ, B., Altun, E., Feyzioğlu, B., & Akyıldız, M. (2012). Ortaöğretim Öğrencilerine Yönelik Bilimsel Süreç Becerileri Testi Geliştirilmesi: Geçerlik ve Güvenirlik Çalışması. Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Bilimleri. 12 (3). 1887-1906.
  • Ehri, L. C., Nunes, S. R., Stahl, S. A., & Willows, D. M. (2001). Systematic phonics instruction helps students learn to read: Evidence from the National Reading Panel’s meta-analysis. Review of educational research, 71(3), 393-447.
  • Emad, A. M., & Yasser, A. A. (2010). Knowledge, skills, and practices, concerning phonological awareness among early childhood education teachers. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 24(2), 172-185.
  • Ferraz, I., Pocinho, M., Pereira, A., & Pimenta, A. (2015). Phonological Awareness Program: A longitudinal study from Preschool to 4th Grade. In SHS Web of Conferences (Vol. 16, p. 01002). EDP Sciences.
  • Fielding‐Barnsley, R., & Purdie, N. (2005). Teachers' attitude to and knowledge of metalinguistics in the process of learning to read. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 33(1), 65-76.
  • Foorman, B. R., & Moats, L. C. (2004). Conditions for sustaining research-based practices in early reading instruction. Remedial and Special Education, 25 (1), 51 - 60.
  • Fox, A. M. (2015). Phonological Awareness and Executive Function in Children with Speech Sound Impairment. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Arizona State University. USA.
  • Guimãraes, A. S., & Youngman, M. (1995). Portuguese preschool teachers' beliefs about early literacy development. Journal of Research in Reading, 18(1), 39-52.
  • Güldenoğlu, B., Kargın, T., & Ergül, C. (2016). Sesbilgisel farkındalık becerilerinin okuma ve okuduğunu anlama üzerindeki etkisi: Boylamsal bir çalışma. Elementary Education Online, 15(1). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.17051/io.2016.25973
  • Hilbert, D. D., & Eis, S. D. (2014). Early intervention for emergent literacy development in a collaborative community pre-kindergarten. Early Childhood Education Journal, 42(2), 105-113.
  • Hogan, T. P., Catts, H. W., & Little, T. D. (2005). The relationship between phonological awareness and reading. Language, speech, and hearing services in schools. 36(4). 285-293. doi: https://doi.org/10.1044/0161-1461(2005/029).
  • Kargın, T., Ergül, C., Büyüköztürk, Ş., & Güldenoğlu, B. (2015). Anasınıfı Çocuklarına Yönelik Erken Okuryazarlık Testi (EROT) Geliştirme Çalışması. Ozel Egitim Dergisi, 16(3).
  • Karslı, F., & Alipapa, A. Y. A. S. (2013). A Study on the Development of a Test about Measurement of Science and Technology Teachers' Science Process Skills. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 10(2).
  • Kjeldsen, A. C., Kärnä, A., Niemi, P., Olofsson, Å., & Witting, K. (2014). Gains from training in phonological awareness in kindergarten predict reading comprehension in grade 9. Scientific Studies of Reading, 18(6), 452-467.
  • Liu-Shea, M. (2011). Phonological acquisition in simultaneous bilingual Mandarin-English preschoolers. New York University. Lomax, R., & McGee, L. (1987). Young children's concepts about print and reading: Toward a model of word reading acquisition. Reading Research Quarterly, 22, 237-256.
  • Lonigan, C. J., Purpura, D. J., Wilson, S. B., Walker, P. M., & Clancy-Menchetti, J. (2013). Evaluating the components of an emergent literacy intervention for preschool children at risk for reading difficulties. Journal of experimental child psychology, 114(1), 111-130.
  • Lonigan, C. J., Burgess, S. R., & Anthony, J. L. (2000). Development of emergent literacy and early reading skills in preschool children: evidence from a latent-variable longitudinal study. Developmental psychology, 36(5), 596.
  • Lundberg, I., Olofsson, Å., & Wall, S. (1980). Reading and spelling skills in the first school years predicted from phonemic awareness skills in kindergarten. Scandinavian Journal of psychology, 21(1), 159-173.
  • Majsterek, D. J., Shorr, D. N., & Erion, V. L. (2000). Promoting early literacy through rhyme detection activities during Head Start circle-time. Child Study Journal, 30(3), 143-143. Marvelli, A. L. (2010). Highlights in the History of Oral Teacher Preparation in America. Volta Review, 110(2).
  • Mather, N., Bos, C., & Babur, N. (2001). Perceptions and knowledge of preservice and inservice teachers about early literacy instruction. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34 (5), 472 - 482.
  • Moats, L. C. (1994). The missing foundation in teacher education: Knowledge of the structure of spoken and written language. Annals of dyslexia, 44(1), 81-102.
  • Murnane, R., Sawhill, I., & Snow, C. (2012). Literacy challenges for the twenty-first century: Introducing the issue. The Future of Children, 3-15.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Eğitim, Eğitim Araştırmaları
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Deniz AKDAL (Sorumlu Yazar)
AHİ EVRAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-9272-3422
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Ağustos 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 14 Temmuz 2020
Kabul Tarihi 6 Eylül 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 22, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Akdal, D. (2021). Okul Öncesi Öğretmenlerinin “Sesbilgisel Farkındalık Düzeylerini Belirleme Testi” Geliştirme Çalışması . Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Kırşehir Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi , 22 (2) , 704-749 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/kefad/issue/62829/769359

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