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Tek ve Çift Yumurta İkizlerinde Kişilik ve Erken Dönem Uyumsuz Şemaların Farklılaşması

Yıl 2021, Cilt 22, Sayı 2, 646 - 677, 30.08.2021

Öz

İkizler özellikle genetik araştırmalarda benzerlikler ve farklılıkların incelenmesi için kullanılan gruptur. Tek yumurta ikizleri arasındaki benzerlikler genetiğe, çift yumurta ikizleri arasındaki benzerlikler ise hem genetiğe hem de çevresel etkilere vurgu yapmaktadır. Bu araştırmanın amacı da tek ve çift yumurta ikizleri arasında, kişilik ve erken dönem uyumsuz şemaların uyum ve farklılıklarının ortaya konulmasıdır. Bu araştırmada da ölçme aracı olarak Sıfat Listesi, Young Şema Ölçeği ve 10-16 Yaş Çocuk ve Ergenler için Erken Dönem Uyumsuz Şemalar Ölçekler Takımı kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada kullanılacak ölçekler ölçüt örnekleme yöntemi ile ulaşılan ikizlere uygulanmıştır. İlgili ölçeklerin uygulanması sonucu, ikiz öğrencilerin kişilik, erken dönem uyumsuz şemalar değişkenlerinin tek ya da çift yumurta ikizi olma durumunda farklılaşmasına ilişkin elde edilen veriler, ikiz araştırmalarında sıklıkla kullanılan bir yöntem olan Sınıf içi Korelâsyon Katsayısı (SKK) ile analiz edilmiştir. Kişilik puanlarında, tek yumurta ikizlerinde anlamlı sınıf içi korelasyon elde edildiği halde çift yumurta ikizlerinde anlamlı sınıf içi korelasyon katsayısı elde edilememiştir. Bu bulgu biyolojik yapının tek yumurta ikizlerindeki önemine vurgu yapmaktadır. Erken dönem uyumsuz şemalar bağlamında ise farklı şemalarda istatistiksel olarak anlamlı sınıf içi korelasyon elde edilmiştir. Bu bulgu ise hem biyolojik hem de çevresel yapının önemine vurgu yapmaktadır. Kişilik ve erken dönem uyumsuz şemalardan elde edilen puanlar ve ikizler arasındaki uyum ve farklılaşmaların nedenleri genetik ve çevresel faktörlerle tartışılmıştır. Gelecek araştırmacılar için öneriler sağlanmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Adelman, M. B. & Siemon, M. (1986). Communicating the relational shift: separation among adult twins. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 40(1), 96-109.
  • Ainslie, R. C. (1997). The psychology of twinship. New Jersey: Jason Aranson.
  • Arntz, A. & Jacob, G. (2016). Shema therapy in practice. MA: John Wiley&Sons.
  • Ateş, C., Öztuna, D. & Genç, Y. (2009). The Use of Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) in Medical Research. Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Biostatistics, 1(2), 59-64.
  • Bouchard, T. J., Lykken, D. T., McGue, M., Segal, N. L. & Tellegen, A. (1990). Sources of human psychological differences: The minnesota study of twins reared apart. Science, 250(4978). 223-228.
  • Bouchard, T. J., Jr. (1996). The genetics of personality. In K. Blum & E. P .Noble (Eds.), Handbook of Psychoneurogenetics (pp. 267–290). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
  • Bryan E. (1992). Twins, triplets and more: Their nature, development, and care. London: Penguin.
  • Carr, S. N., & Francis, A. J. (2010). Early maladaptive schemas and personality disorder symptoms: An examination in a non‐clinical sample. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 83(4), 333-349.
  • Cherro, M. (1992). Quality of bonding and behavioural differences in twins. Infant Mental Health Journal. 13(3), 206-210.
  • Cirillo, S. (1976). The process of identity in twins. Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae: Twin Research, 25(01), 353-358.
  • Damato, E. G. (2004). Predictors of prenatal attachment in mothers of twins. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 33(4), 436-445.
  • Emde, R. N., & Hewitt, J. K. (Eds.). (2001). Infancy to early childhood: Genetic and environmental influences on developmental change. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Farrell, J. M., Reiss, N. & Shaw, I. A. (2015). The schema therapy clinician's guide. MA: John Wiley&Sons.
  • Feldman, R. & Eidelman, A. I. (2004). Parent-infant synchrony and the social-emotional development of triplets. Development Psychology, 40(6), 1133 – 47.
  • Friedman, J. A. (2014). The same but different: How twins can live, love, and learn to be individual. Los Angeles: USA Rocy Pines Press
  • Gough, H.G. & Heilburn, A.B. (1965). The Adjective Check List manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
  • Goldsmith, H. H., Lemery, K. S., Buss, K. A., & Campos, J. J. (1999). Genetic analyses of focal aspects of infant temperament. Developmental psychology, 35(4), 972.
  • Güner, O. (2013). The reliability, validity and norm studies of the set of early maladaptive schema questionnaires for children and adolescents between the ages of 10-16 [10-16 yaş çocuk ve ergenler için erken dönem uyumsuz şema ölçekler takımı (ÇESÖT)’nın geçerlik, güvenirlik ve norm çalışması]. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Marmara University/Educational Science Institute, İstanbul.
  • Hay, D. A. & Preedy, P. (2006). Meeting the educational need of multiple birth children. Early Human Development, 82, 297-403.
  • Jang, K. L., McCrae, R. R., Angleitner, A., Riemann, R., & Livesley, W. J. (1998). Heritability of facet-level traits in a cross-cultural twin sample: Support for a hierarchical model of personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1556–1565.
  • Jovev, M., & Jackson, H. J. (2004). Early maladaptive schemas in personality disordered individuals. Journal of personality disorders, 18(5), 467-478.
  • Kendler, K. S., Neale, M. C., Kessler, R. C., Health, A. C. & Eaves, L. J. (1994). Parental treatment and the equal environment assumption in twin studies of psychiatric illness. Psychological Medicine. 24(3), 579-590.
  • Klein, B. (2003). Psychological profiles of twinship: Not all twins are alike. Wesport, CT: Praeger
  • Klein, B. (2012). Alone in the mirror: Twins in therapy. NewYork: Routledge Taylor &Francis
  • Lytton, H., Conway, D. & Sauve, R. (1977). The impact of twinship on parent-child interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35(2), 97.
  • Lawson, D. M. & Brossart, D. F. (2004). The association between current intergenerational family relations and sibling structure. Journal of Counselling and Development, 82, 472-482.
  • Leonard, L. G. & Denton, J. (2006). Preparation for parenting multiple birth children. Early Human Developmet, 82, 371-378
  • Loehlin, J. & Nichols, R. (2012). Heredity, environment and personality: A study of 850 sets of twins. Austin: UTP.
  • Loehlin, J. C., McCrae, R. R., Costa, P. T. Jr., & John, O. P. (1998). Heritabilities of common and measure-specific components of the Big Five personality factors. Journal of Research in Personality, 32, 431–453.
  • Ostfeld, B. M., Smith, R. H., Hiatt, M. & Hegyi, T. (2000). Maternal behavior toward premature twins: Implications for development. Twin Research, 3, 234 – 41.
  • Petrocelli, J. V., Glaser, B. A., Calhoun, G. B., & Campbell, L. F. (2001). Early maladaptive schemas of personality disorder subtypes. Journal of Personality Disorders, 15(6), 546-559.
  • Plomin, R., Asbury, K., Dip, P. G., & Dunn, J. (2001). Why are children in the same family so different? Nonshared environment a decade later. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 46, 225–233.
  • Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., McClearn, G. E., & McGuffin, P. (2001). Behavioral genetics (4th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.
  • Rafaeli, E., Bernstein, D. P. & Young, J. (2013). Schema therapy: Distinctive features. Sussex: Routledge.
  • Sandbank, A. C. (2006). Twin and triplet psychology: A professional guide to working with multiples. MA: Routledge.
  • Santrock, J. (2012). Life-span development. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
  • Saudino, K. J., & Eaton, W. O. (1991). Infant temperament and genetics: An objective twin study of motor activity level. Child Development, 62(5), 1167-1174.
  • Savran, C. (1993). Adjective Check List’s linguistic equality, validity, norm studies and an example case to Turkey [Sıfat listesinin (Adjective Check List) Türkiye koşullarına uygun dilsel eşdeğerlik, geçerlik, ve norm çalışması ve bir uygulama]. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Marmara University/Social Sciences Institute. İstanbul.
  • Schave, B. & Ciriello, J. (1983). Identity and intimacy in twins. New York: Preager.
  • Segal, N. (2000). Entwined lives: Twins and what they tell us about human behavior. New York: Penguin
  • Segal, N. L. (2012). Born together—reared apart: The landmark Minnesota twin study. Cambridge: HUP.
  • Segal, N. L., & MacDonald, K. B. (1998). Behavioral genetics and evolutionary psychology: Unified perspective on personality research. Human Biology, 70, 159–184.
  • Silberg, J. L., San Miguel, V. F., Murrelle, E. L., Prom, E., Bates, J. E., Canino, G., ... & Eaves, L. J. (2005). Genetic and environmental influences on temperament in the first year of life: The Puerto Rico Infant Twin Study (PRINTS). Twin Research and Human Genetics, 8(4), 328-336.
  • Soussignan, R., Boivin, M., Girard, A., Pérusse, D., Liu, X., & Tremblay, R. E. (2009). Genetic and environmental etiology of emotional and social behaviors in 5-month-old infant twins: Influence of the social context. Infant Behavior and Development, 32(1), 1-9.
  • Soygüt, G., Karaosmanoğlu, A. & Çakir, Z. (2009). Assessment of Early Maladaptive Schemas: A Psychometric Study of the Turkish Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form-3. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 20(1).
  • Stewart, E. (2000). Towards the social analysis of twinship. British Journal of Sociology, 51(4), 719-737.
  • Torgersen, A. M. & Janson, H. (2002). Why do identical twins differ in personality: shared environment reconsidered. Twin Research, 5(01), 44-52.
  • Torvik, F. A., Welander-Vatn, A., Ystrom, E., Knudsen, G. P., Czajkowski, N., Kendler, K. S. & Reichborn-Kjennerud, T. (2016). Longitudinal associations between social anxiety disorder and avoidant personality disorder: A twin study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 125(1), 114.
  • Yıldırım, A. Y. & Şimşek, H. (2004). Qualitative research methods in social sciences [Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri]. Ankara: Seçkin.
  • Yokoyama, Y., Shimizu, T., & Hayakawa, K. (1995). Maternal partial attachment for one of apair of twins and the influence of child caring environments. Nippon-Koshu Eisei-Zasshi, 2, 104-112.
  • Young, J. E. (1990). Cognitive therapy for personality disorders: A schema-focused approach. Sarasota, FL: PRE.
  • Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S. & Weishaar, M. E. (2013). Schema therapy: A practioner’s guide. New York: Guildford.

Differentiation of Personality and Early Maladaptive Schemas in Identical and Fraternal Twins

Yıl 2021, Cilt 22, Sayı 2, 646 - 677, 30.08.2021

Öz

Twins are the group that is used for the study of similarities and differences especially in genetic research. Similarities between identical twins emphasize genetics, and similarities between fraternal twins emphasize both genetics and environmental effects. The objective of this study was to reveal the concordance and differentiations of personality and early maladaptive schemas in identical and fraternal twins. Adjective Checklist, Young Schema Questionnaire and Early Maladaptive Schema Scales Set for Children and Adolescents Aged 10-16 were used as data collection tools. Scales were applied to twins reached by criteria sampling method. After application of the scales, data on the differentiation of the twin students' personality, early maladaptive schemes and social anxiety variables, in the case of monozygotic and dizygotic, was analyzed with Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (CCT) which is a commonly used method in twin studies. A statistically significant correlation was found for the personality scores of identical twins and no statistically significant correlation was obtained among the fraternal twins. This finding emphasizes the importance of biological structure in identical twins. A significant correlation was also found in different schemas. This finding emphasizes the importance of both biological and environmental structure. Measurement scores obtained from personality and early maladaptive schemas and reasons of both concordance and differences between monozygotic and dizygotic twins were discussed with genetic and environmental factors. Suggestions are provided for future researchers.

Kaynakça

  • Adelman, M. B. & Siemon, M. (1986). Communicating the relational shift: separation among adult twins. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 40(1), 96-109.
  • Ainslie, R. C. (1997). The psychology of twinship. New Jersey: Jason Aranson.
  • Arntz, A. & Jacob, G. (2016). Shema therapy in practice. MA: John Wiley&Sons.
  • Ateş, C., Öztuna, D. & Genç, Y. (2009). The Use of Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) in Medical Research. Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Biostatistics, 1(2), 59-64.
  • Bouchard, T. J., Lykken, D. T., McGue, M., Segal, N. L. & Tellegen, A. (1990). Sources of human psychological differences: The minnesota study of twins reared apart. Science, 250(4978). 223-228.
  • Bouchard, T. J., Jr. (1996). The genetics of personality. In K. Blum & E. P .Noble (Eds.), Handbook of Psychoneurogenetics (pp. 267–290). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
  • Bryan E. (1992). Twins, triplets and more: Their nature, development, and care. London: Penguin.
  • Carr, S. N., & Francis, A. J. (2010). Early maladaptive schemas and personality disorder symptoms: An examination in a non‐clinical sample. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 83(4), 333-349.
  • Cherro, M. (1992). Quality of bonding and behavioural differences in twins. Infant Mental Health Journal. 13(3), 206-210.
  • Cirillo, S. (1976). The process of identity in twins. Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae: Twin Research, 25(01), 353-358.
  • Damato, E. G. (2004). Predictors of prenatal attachment in mothers of twins. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 33(4), 436-445.
  • Emde, R. N., & Hewitt, J. K. (Eds.). (2001). Infancy to early childhood: Genetic and environmental influences on developmental change. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Farrell, J. M., Reiss, N. & Shaw, I. A. (2015). The schema therapy clinician's guide. MA: John Wiley&Sons.
  • Feldman, R. & Eidelman, A. I. (2004). Parent-infant synchrony and the social-emotional development of triplets. Development Psychology, 40(6), 1133 – 47.
  • Friedman, J. A. (2014). The same but different: How twins can live, love, and learn to be individual. Los Angeles: USA Rocy Pines Press
  • Gough, H.G. & Heilburn, A.B. (1965). The Adjective Check List manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
  • Goldsmith, H. H., Lemery, K. S., Buss, K. A., & Campos, J. J. (1999). Genetic analyses of focal aspects of infant temperament. Developmental psychology, 35(4), 972.
  • Güner, O. (2013). The reliability, validity and norm studies of the set of early maladaptive schema questionnaires for children and adolescents between the ages of 10-16 [10-16 yaş çocuk ve ergenler için erken dönem uyumsuz şema ölçekler takımı (ÇESÖT)’nın geçerlik, güvenirlik ve norm çalışması]. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Marmara University/Educational Science Institute, İstanbul.
  • Hay, D. A. & Preedy, P. (2006). Meeting the educational need of multiple birth children. Early Human Development, 82, 297-403.
  • Jang, K. L., McCrae, R. R., Angleitner, A., Riemann, R., & Livesley, W. J. (1998). Heritability of facet-level traits in a cross-cultural twin sample: Support for a hierarchical model of personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1556–1565.
  • Jovev, M., & Jackson, H. J. (2004). Early maladaptive schemas in personality disordered individuals. Journal of personality disorders, 18(5), 467-478.
  • Kendler, K. S., Neale, M. C., Kessler, R. C., Health, A. C. & Eaves, L. J. (1994). Parental treatment and the equal environment assumption in twin studies of psychiatric illness. Psychological Medicine. 24(3), 579-590.
  • Klein, B. (2003). Psychological profiles of twinship: Not all twins are alike. Wesport, CT: Praeger
  • Klein, B. (2012). Alone in the mirror: Twins in therapy. NewYork: Routledge Taylor &Francis
  • Lytton, H., Conway, D. & Sauve, R. (1977). The impact of twinship on parent-child interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35(2), 97.
  • Lawson, D. M. & Brossart, D. F. (2004). The association between current intergenerational family relations and sibling structure. Journal of Counselling and Development, 82, 472-482.
  • Leonard, L. G. & Denton, J. (2006). Preparation for parenting multiple birth children. Early Human Developmet, 82, 371-378
  • Loehlin, J. & Nichols, R. (2012). Heredity, environment and personality: A study of 850 sets of twins. Austin: UTP.
  • Loehlin, J. C., McCrae, R. R., Costa, P. T. Jr., & John, O. P. (1998). Heritabilities of common and measure-specific components of the Big Five personality factors. Journal of Research in Personality, 32, 431–453.
  • Ostfeld, B. M., Smith, R. H., Hiatt, M. & Hegyi, T. (2000). Maternal behavior toward premature twins: Implications for development. Twin Research, 3, 234 – 41.
  • Petrocelli, J. V., Glaser, B. A., Calhoun, G. B., & Campbell, L. F. (2001). Early maladaptive schemas of personality disorder subtypes. Journal of Personality Disorders, 15(6), 546-559.
  • Plomin, R., Asbury, K., Dip, P. G., & Dunn, J. (2001). Why are children in the same family so different? Nonshared environment a decade later. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 46, 225–233.
  • Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., McClearn, G. E., & McGuffin, P. (2001). Behavioral genetics (4th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.
  • Rafaeli, E., Bernstein, D. P. & Young, J. (2013). Schema therapy: Distinctive features. Sussex: Routledge.
  • Sandbank, A. C. (2006). Twin and triplet psychology: A professional guide to working with multiples. MA: Routledge.
  • Santrock, J. (2012). Life-span development. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
  • Saudino, K. J., & Eaton, W. O. (1991). Infant temperament and genetics: An objective twin study of motor activity level. Child Development, 62(5), 1167-1174.
  • Savran, C. (1993). Adjective Check List’s linguistic equality, validity, norm studies and an example case to Turkey [Sıfat listesinin (Adjective Check List) Türkiye koşullarına uygun dilsel eşdeğerlik, geçerlik, ve norm çalışması ve bir uygulama]. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Marmara University/Social Sciences Institute. İstanbul.
  • Schave, B. & Ciriello, J. (1983). Identity and intimacy in twins. New York: Preager.
  • Segal, N. (2000). Entwined lives: Twins and what they tell us about human behavior. New York: Penguin
  • Segal, N. L. (2012). Born together—reared apart: The landmark Minnesota twin study. Cambridge: HUP.
  • Segal, N. L., & MacDonald, K. B. (1998). Behavioral genetics and evolutionary psychology: Unified perspective on personality research. Human Biology, 70, 159–184.
  • Silberg, J. L., San Miguel, V. F., Murrelle, E. L., Prom, E., Bates, J. E., Canino, G., ... & Eaves, L. J. (2005). Genetic and environmental influences on temperament in the first year of life: The Puerto Rico Infant Twin Study (PRINTS). Twin Research and Human Genetics, 8(4), 328-336.
  • Soussignan, R., Boivin, M., Girard, A., Pérusse, D., Liu, X., & Tremblay, R. E. (2009). Genetic and environmental etiology of emotional and social behaviors in 5-month-old infant twins: Influence of the social context. Infant Behavior and Development, 32(1), 1-9.
  • Soygüt, G., Karaosmanoğlu, A. & Çakir, Z. (2009). Assessment of Early Maladaptive Schemas: A Psychometric Study of the Turkish Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form-3. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 20(1).
  • Stewart, E. (2000). Towards the social analysis of twinship. British Journal of Sociology, 51(4), 719-737.
  • Torgersen, A. M. & Janson, H. (2002). Why do identical twins differ in personality: shared environment reconsidered. Twin Research, 5(01), 44-52.
  • Torvik, F. A., Welander-Vatn, A., Ystrom, E., Knudsen, G. P., Czajkowski, N., Kendler, K. S. & Reichborn-Kjennerud, T. (2016). Longitudinal associations between social anxiety disorder and avoidant personality disorder: A twin study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 125(1), 114.
  • Yıldırım, A. Y. & Şimşek, H. (2004). Qualitative research methods in social sciences [Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri]. Ankara: Seçkin.
  • Yokoyama, Y., Shimizu, T., & Hayakawa, K. (1995). Maternal partial attachment for one of apair of twins and the influence of child caring environments. Nippon-Koshu Eisei-Zasshi, 2, 104-112.
  • Young, J. E. (1990). Cognitive therapy for personality disorders: A schema-focused approach. Sarasota, FL: PRE.
  • Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S. & Weishaar, M. E. (2013). Schema therapy: A practioner’s guide. New York: Guildford.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Eğitim, Eğitim Araştırmaları
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Şule BAŞTEMUR (Sorumlu Yazar)
ORDU ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-3940-0565
Türkiye


Ayşe Esra ASLAN
İSTANBUL ÜNİVERSİTESİ - CERRAHPAŞA
0000-0002-0113-1745
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Ağustos 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 10 Ağustos 2020
Kabul Tarihi 31 Mayıs 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 22, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Baştemur, Ş. & Aslan, A. E. (2021). Differentiation of Personality and Early Maladaptive Schemas in Identical and Fraternal Twins . Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Kırşehir Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi , 22 (2) , 646-677 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/kefad/issue/62829/778717

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