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Açık Kaynaklı Mimarlık ve Çevresel İyileştirme Potansiyelleri

Yıl 2022, Cilt 15, Sayı D.Ü. 2. Uluslararası Mimarlık Sempozyumu Özel Sayısı, 130 - 140, 05.08.2022
https://doi.org/10.35674/kent.1012720

Öz

İnsanların ihtiyaçlarını karşılamak üzere gerçekleştirdiği eylemler sırasında çevreye zarar verildiği bilinen bir gerçektir. Söz konusu olumsuz sonuçların oluşmasında insanın diğer eylemlerinin yanı sıra yapma çevreyle ilişkili olanların önemli bir yer tuttuğu, yapım endüstrisindeki mevcut işleyişin ise bunda büyük bir paya sahip olduğu söylenebilir. Güncel mimarlık pratiğinde yapımla başlayan, yararlı kullanım ömrünün sona ermesiyle yapının yıkımı ve yıkımı izleyen diğer aşamalar boyunca devam eden bu doğrusal süreç, sürekli birbirini tekrarlayan bir yapım ve yıkım döngüsü içinde doğal çevreyi her geçen gün daha da fazla tahrip etmektedir. Bu sorunun çözülebilmesi için mevcut işleyişteki belirli noktalara odaklanan cılız gayretler yerine düşünme sistemini değiştirecek yeni bir yaklaşım gerektiği ortadadır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda bilgisayar teknolojilerinde doğduğu hâlde farklı disiplinlere ve özellikle mimarlık alanına sıçrayarak bir demokratikleşme hareketine dönüşmüş olan açık kaynak düşüncesi ve son 30 yılda yapma çevreye ilişkin ortaya çıkardığı yenilikler ele alınmıştır. Çalışma kapsamında açık kaynak kavramının mimarlık disiplini üzerindeki yansımaları örnekler üzerinden incelenmiş ve açık kaynaklı mimarlık anlayışının yapma çevrenin çevresel etkileri konusunda ne gibi faydalar sağlayabileceği irdelenmiştir. Çoğunlukla fikirlerin ücretsiz ya da uygun bedellerle paylaşıldığı platformlar ve dijitalleşmiş yapım yöntemleri üzerine ilerlemiş gibi görünse de açık kaynaklı mimarlık örneklerinin daha derin ve önemli bir değişim potansiyeli barındırdığı görülmüştür. Mevcut çevresel sorunların yapma çevrenin yaşamında birbirinden keskin sınırlarla ayrılmış süreçler ve aktörler olduğu düşünülürse, bu çalışmada incelenen açık kaynaklı mimarlık uygulamalarının mevcut işleyişteki doğrusallık yerine; her sürecin aktörünün bir diğeriyle çok daha etkili bir iletişim sağlayabildiği, kullanıcı katılımına, esnekliğe, yerel ürün tercihine ve ileri dönüşüme olanak veren döngüler yaratma potansiyeline sâhip olduğu belirlenmiştir. Böylece hem doğa hem insan açısından çok daha iyi sonuçlar verebilen bir yapma çevrenin oluşturulması ve bu fikrin yaygınlaştırılması için uygun bir ortam yaratılabileceğine inanılmaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • Anderies, J. M., Walker, B. H. & Kinzig, A. P. (2006). Fifteen weddings and a funeral: case studies and resilience based management. Ecology and Society, 11(1), art 21.
  • Balanlı, A. & Öztürk, A. (2006). Yapı biyolojisi yaklaşımlar. YTÜ.MF.YK-06.0759, YTÜ Basım Yayın Merkezi.
  • Bilow, M., Entrop, B., Lichtenberg, J., & Stoutjesdijk, P. (2015). PD Lab. SPOOL, 2(2), 5-8. https://doi.org/10.7480/spool.2015.2.962
  • CAST Formwork System. (n.d.). What is it?. Retrieved September 25, 2021, from http://www.castformworksystem.com/#post-180
  • CAST Formwork System. (2017, January 27). Photo’s Pooring & End Result Prototyping Delft. Retrieved September 25, 2021, from http://www.castformworksystem.com/#post-180
  • Cole, R. J. (2010). Emerging issues in building design. Sustainable Built Environment – Vol. I, Encyclopedia of Technology, Information and Systems Management Resources, Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS – An Integrated Compendium of Twenty Encyclopedias). https://www.eolss.net/Sample-Chapters/C15/E1-32-03.pdf
  • Cole, R. J. (2012a). Regenerative design and development: current theory and practice. Building Research & Information, 40(1), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1080/09613218.2012.617516
  • Cole, R. J. (2012b). Transitioning from green to regenerative design. Building Research & Information, 40(1), 39-53. https://doi.org/10.1080/09613218.2011.610608
  • Cole, R. J., Busby, P., Guenther, R., Briney, L., Blaviesciunaite, A., & Alencar, T. (2012). A regenerative design framework: setting new aspirations and initiating new discussions. Building Research & Information, 40(1), 95-111. https://doi.org/10.1080/09613218.2011.616098
  • du Plessis, C. (2012). Towards a regenerative paradigm for the built environment. Building Research & Information, 40(1), 7-22. https://doi.org/10.1080/09613218.2012.628548
  • GitHub. (n.d.). Wikihouseproject / microhouse. Retrieved September 25, 2021, from https://github.com/wikihouseproject/Microhouse
  • Haggard, B., Reed, B., & Mang, P. (2008). Regenerative development. Revitalization, March/April, 24-26.
  • Hofstra, N., & Huisingh, D. (2013). Eco-innovations characterized: a taxonomic classification of relationships between humans and nature. Journal of Cleaner Production, 66, 459-468. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.11.036
  • Howard, D. (2016). Architecture for humanity founders and board members sued for $3 million, dezeen. Retrieved October 25, 2021, from https://www.dezeen.com/2016/07/13/architecture-for-humanity-founders-board-members-sued-3-million-dollars/
  • IEA (International Energy Agency). (2013). Transition to sustainable buildings: strategies and opportunities to 2050. OECD / IEA.
  • MEA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment). (2005). Ecosystems and human wellbeing: synthesis. Island Press.
  • Mang, P., & Reed, B. (2015). The nature of positive. Building Research & Information, 43(1), 7-10. https://doi.org/10.1080/09613218.2014.911565
  • Open Architecture Collaborative. (2016, March 10). What We Believe - Open Architecture Collaborative [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=13KtKUfYGGI&t=40s&ab_channel=OpenArchitectureCollaborative
  • Open Building Institute. (n.d.). Retrieved September 25, 2021, from https://www.openbuildinginstitute.org/about-what-we-do/
  • OSI (Open Source Initiative). (n.d.). Basics of open source. Retrieved September 25, 2021, from https://opensource.org/faq#osd
  • Pacheco, J. (2016, April 29). Why Aravena's Open Source Project is a Huge Step Toward Better, Cheaper Housing for Everyone. ArchDaily. Retrieved September 25, 2021, from https://www.archdaily.com/786528/why-aravenas-open-source-project-is-a-huge-step-toward-better-cheaper-housing-for-everyone?ad_medium=widget&ad_name=recommendation
  • Ratti, C., Antonelli, P., Bly, A. et al., (2011). Open source architecture (OSArc), Domus, 948. https://www.domusweb.it/en/opinion/2011/06/15/open-source-architecture-osarc-.html
  • Rees, W. E. (1999). The built environment and the ecosphere: a global perspective. Building Research & Information, 27(4-5), 206-220. https://doi.org/10.1080/096132199369336
  • Sinclair, C. (2006, February), My wish: A call for open-source architecture [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/cameron_sinclair_my_wish_a_call_for_open_source_architecture?language=en
  • Wikihouse. (n.d.). About, Retrieved September 25, 2021, from https://www.wikihouse.cc/About Veeger, M. (2020, January 25). PD Lab Moves to Green Village. AE+T Blog. Retrieved September 25, 2021, from https://tudelftaet.wordpress.com/2020/01/25/pd-lab-moves-to-green-village/
  • Venturi, T., Turrin, M., Setaki, F., Veer, F., Pronk, A., Teuffel, P., Moonen, Y., Slangen, S. & Vorstenmans. R. (2018). TERRA – INK. Bakker, S. (Ed.). Research to reality (pp. 224 – 227). TU Delft Open. https://bureaubakker.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Research-to-Reality-4TU.Bouw-2014-2017.pdf
  • Zhang, X. (2014). Toward a regenerative sustainability paradigm for the built environment: from vision to reality. Journal of Cleaner Production, 65, 3-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.08.025

Open Source Architecture and Environmental Improvement Potentials

Yıl 2022, Cilt 15, Sayı D.Ü. 2. Uluslararası Mimarlık Sempozyumu Özel Sayısı, 130 - 140, 05.08.2022
https://doi.org/10.35674/kent.1012720

Öz

It is a well-known fact that humans harm the environment during the endeavors they do to fulfill their needs. It can be stated that adverse results are mainly related to creating built environments and the mechanism of current construction industry has a major role. This linear process, which starts at the end of design and continues through the aftermath of demolish of the building at the end of its useful life, has been gradually destroying the natural environment in a repetitive cycle of construction and demolition. It is obvious that a new approach is needed for a shift of paradigm instead of weak attempts that focus on specific subjects of current situation. For this aim, the notion of open source, which emerged in computer technologies, adopted by different disciplines and started a democratization movement, is discussed in this research. The projection of this concept over the field of architecture in the last 30 years has been examined through different examples and the potential benefits of this advancements are reviewed in the context of creating positive outcomes for environmental interaction. Even though the open source architecture seems to advance through sharing platforms and digitalized production methods, we notice that examined references hold a deeper and more effective transition potential. It is logical to regard the hierarchical stages that are embraced for the life of built environments as the main reason for environmental problems and accordingly the examination results of this study reveal that open source architecture can create productive and integrative cycles to allow a better engagement, flexibility with local preferences and upcycle opportunities. Therefore, we believe that a more tangible idea for a built environment which can produce net positive results for humans and nature can be created.

Kaynakça

  • Anderies, J. M., Walker, B. H. & Kinzig, A. P. (2006). Fifteen weddings and a funeral: case studies and resilience based management. Ecology and Society, 11(1), art 21.
  • Balanlı, A. & Öztürk, A. (2006). Yapı biyolojisi yaklaşımlar. YTÜ.MF.YK-06.0759, YTÜ Basım Yayın Merkezi.
  • Bilow, M., Entrop, B., Lichtenberg, J., & Stoutjesdijk, P. (2015). PD Lab. SPOOL, 2(2), 5-8. https://doi.org/10.7480/spool.2015.2.962
  • CAST Formwork System. (n.d.). What is it?. Retrieved September 25, 2021, from http://www.castformworksystem.com/#post-180
  • CAST Formwork System. (2017, January 27). Photo’s Pooring & End Result Prototyping Delft. Retrieved September 25, 2021, from http://www.castformworksystem.com/#post-180
  • Cole, R. J. (2010). Emerging issues in building design. Sustainable Built Environment – Vol. I, Encyclopedia of Technology, Information and Systems Management Resources, Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS – An Integrated Compendium of Twenty Encyclopedias). https://www.eolss.net/Sample-Chapters/C15/E1-32-03.pdf
  • Cole, R. J. (2012a). Regenerative design and development: current theory and practice. Building Research & Information, 40(1), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1080/09613218.2012.617516
  • Cole, R. J. (2012b). Transitioning from green to regenerative design. Building Research & Information, 40(1), 39-53. https://doi.org/10.1080/09613218.2011.610608
  • Cole, R. J., Busby, P., Guenther, R., Briney, L., Blaviesciunaite, A., & Alencar, T. (2012). A regenerative design framework: setting new aspirations and initiating new discussions. Building Research & Information, 40(1), 95-111. https://doi.org/10.1080/09613218.2011.616098
  • du Plessis, C. (2012). Towards a regenerative paradigm for the built environment. Building Research & Information, 40(1), 7-22. https://doi.org/10.1080/09613218.2012.628548
  • GitHub. (n.d.). Wikihouseproject / microhouse. Retrieved September 25, 2021, from https://github.com/wikihouseproject/Microhouse
  • Haggard, B., Reed, B., & Mang, P. (2008). Regenerative development. Revitalization, March/April, 24-26.
  • Hofstra, N., & Huisingh, D. (2013). Eco-innovations characterized: a taxonomic classification of relationships between humans and nature. Journal of Cleaner Production, 66, 459-468. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.11.036
  • Howard, D. (2016). Architecture for humanity founders and board members sued for $3 million, dezeen. Retrieved October 25, 2021, from https://www.dezeen.com/2016/07/13/architecture-for-humanity-founders-board-members-sued-3-million-dollars/
  • IEA (International Energy Agency). (2013). Transition to sustainable buildings: strategies and opportunities to 2050. OECD / IEA.
  • MEA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment). (2005). Ecosystems and human wellbeing: synthesis. Island Press.
  • Mang, P., & Reed, B. (2015). The nature of positive. Building Research & Information, 43(1), 7-10. https://doi.org/10.1080/09613218.2014.911565
  • Open Architecture Collaborative. (2016, March 10). What We Believe - Open Architecture Collaborative [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=13KtKUfYGGI&t=40s&ab_channel=OpenArchitectureCollaborative
  • Open Building Institute. (n.d.). Retrieved September 25, 2021, from https://www.openbuildinginstitute.org/about-what-we-do/
  • OSI (Open Source Initiative). (n.d.). Basics of open source. Retrieved September 25, 2021, from https://opensource.org/faq#osd
  • Pacheco, J. (2016, April 29). Why Aravena's Open Source Project is a Huge Step Toward Better, Cheaper Housing for Everyone. ArchDaily. Retrieved September 25, 2021, from https://www.archdaily.com/786528/why-aravenas-open-source-project-is-a-huge-step-toward-better-cheaper-housing-for-everyone?ad_medium=widget&ad_name=recommendation
  • Ratti, C., Antonelli, P., Bly, A. et al., (2011). Open source architecture (OSArc), Domus, 948. https://www.domusweb.it/en/opinion/2011/06/15/open-source-architecture-osarc-.html
  • Rees, W. E. (1999). The built environment and the ecosphere: a global perspective. Building Research & Information, 27(4-5), 206-220. https://doi.org/10.1080/096132199369336
  • Sinclair, C. (2006, February), My wish: A call for open-source architecture [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/cameron_sinclair_my_wish_a_call_for_open_source_architecture?language=en
  • Wikihouse. (n.d.). About, Retrieved September 25, 2021, from https://www.wikihouse.cc/About Veeger, M. (2020, January 25). PD Lab Moves to Green Village. AE+T Blog. Retrieved September 25, 2021, from https://tudelftaet.wordpress.com/2020/01/25/pd-lab-moves-to-green-village/
  • Venturi, T., Turrin, M., Setaki, F., Veer, F., Pronk, A., Teuffel, P., Moonen, Y., Slangen, S. & Vorstenmans. R. (2018). TERRA – INK. Bakker, S. (Ed.). Research to reality (pp. 224 – 227). TU Delft Open. https://bureaubakker.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Research-to-Reality-4TU.Bouw-2014-2017.pdf
  • Zhang, X. (2014). Toward a regenerative sustainability paradigm for the built environment: from vision to reality. Journal of Cleaner Production, 65, 3-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.08.025

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Mimarlık
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Berna EREN Bu kişi benim
YILDIZ TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-7199-4055
Türkiye


Polat DARÇIN> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Yildiz Technical University
0000-0001-9508-0290
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 5 Ağustos 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 15, Sayı D.Ü. 2. Uluslararası Mimarlık Sempozyumu Özel Sayısı

Kaynak Göster

APA Eren, B. & Darçın, P. (2022). Open Source Architecture and Environmental Improvement Potentials . Kent Akademisi , 2. Dicle Üniversitesi Uluslararası Mimarlık Sempozyumu Özel Sayısı , 130-140 . DOI: 10.35674/kent.1012720

International Refereed and Indexed Journal of Urban Culture and Management

Kent Kültürü ve Yönetimi Uluslararası Hakemli İndeksli Dergi