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Kimin Güvenliği? Uluslararası Göç-Güvelik İlişkisi ve Uluslararası Örgütlerin Rolü

Yıl 2016, Cilt , Sayı 31, 65 - 82, 01.06.2016

Öz

İnsanların yer değiştirmesi olgusu insanlık tarihi kadar eskilere dayanır. Bununla birlikte, bu insan hareketliliğinin devletler tarafından bir “güvenlik” problemi olarak tanımlanması esas itibariyle Soğuk Savaş sonrası dönemde gerçekleşmiştir. Her ülkenin ‘ulusal güvenlik’ kaygısıyla farklı göç politikaları izlemeleri neticesinde, uluslararası anlamda ‘göçmenlerin durumunu’ sorgulayan ve bu yönde sürdürülebilir politikalar oluşturmaya çalışan etkin bir uluslararası mekanizmadan tam olarak bahsetmek mümkün değildir. Bugün hala, göçü ‘suç’ ve göçmenleri ‘suçlu’ olarak değerlendiren bir yaklaşım söz konusudur. Bu çalışmada, uluslararası göç olgusu ile ulus devlete dayalı ‘güvenlik’ anlayışı arasındaki ilişkinin analiz edilmesi hedeflenmektedir. Bu çerçevede, göçün bir güvenlik sorunsalı olarak nasıl ele alındığı, devlet güvenliği-insan güvenliği arasındaki ilişki gibi konular teorik boyutuyla ele alınacaktır. Daha sonra ise IOM’in (International Organization for Migration) göç politikaları ve bir uluslararası örgüt olarak yeri ve limitasyonları tartışılacaktır. Çalışma, uluslararası göçün bir ‘insan hakkı’ olduğu bilinciyle ve “insan güvenliği” perspektifiyle hareket edilmediği sürece, uluslararası örgütlerin göç yönetiminde istediği başarıyı elde etmekte zorlanacağını ileri sürmektedir

Kaynakça

  • Akçapar, Şebnem Köşer (2012). “Uluslararası Göç Alanında Güvenlik Algılamaları ve Göçün İnsani Boyutu”S. Gülfer Ihlamur-Öner ve N. Aslı Şirin Öner (der.) Küreselleşme Çağında Göç, İstanbul: İletişim. ss:539-563
  • Andreas J. and Thomas Straubhaar (1999). “A Survey of the Economics of Illegal Migration” South European Society and Politics 3 (3): 16-42.
  • Bhagwati, Jagdish N. (2003). “Borders beyond Control”. Foreign Affairs, Jan-Feb. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2003-01-01/borders-beyond-control
  • Booth, Ken, (1991). “Security and Emancipation”, Review of International Studies 17 (4): 313-326
  • Bull, Hedley. (1977). The Anarchical Society: A Study of Order in World Politics. London and Basingtone: Macmillian.
  • Buzan Barry, Ole Waever, Jaap de Wilde (1998), Security: A New Framework For Analysis. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
  • Buzan Barry and Lane Hensen (2005), The Evolution of International Security Studies, (UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Castles, Stephen and Miller Mark J. (1998). The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World. Second edition. New York: The Guilford Press.
  • Erder, Sema (2004), “Irregular Migration and Turkey” in Population Challenges, International Migration and Reproductive Health in Turkey and the European Union, International Conference Organized by the Turkish Family Health and Planning Foundation, 11-12 October.
  • Faist, Thomas (2003). Uluslararası Göç ve Ulus aşırı Toplumsal Alanlar, İstanbul: Bağlam Yayınları.
  • Hayter, Teresa (2000). Open Borders, London: Pluto Press.
  • Hollified, James F. (2000). “The Politics of International Migration: How Can We 'Bring the State Back” in Caroline B. Brettell, James, F. Hollified. Migration Theory, Talking Across Disciplines, Routledge.
  • Hollified, James F. (2002). Migration and International Relations: The Liberal Paradox, Working Paper, Migration & IR/Royal Society/draft 12/11/02.
  • Human Rights Watch Report, (2003). The International Organization for Migration (IOM) and Human Rights Protection in the Field: Current Concerns, submitted by Human Rights Watch IOM Governing Council Meeting 86th Session, November 18-21, Geneva.
  • Huntington, Samuel P. (1996). “The West: Unique, Not Universal”. Foreign Affairs, 75/6. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/1996-11-01/west-unique-not-universal
  • Ihlamur-Öner, Suna Gülfer, “Küresel bir Göç ve Mülteci Rejimine Doğru”. ss: 577-601. S. Gülfer Ihlamur-Öner ve N. Aslı Şirin Öner (der.) Küreselleşme Çağında Göç, İstanbul: İletişim.
  • IOM (International Organization for Migration) International Migration Law, Glossary on Migration.
  • İçduygu, Ahmet, Sema Erder, Ömer Faruk Gençkaya (2014). Türkiye’nin Uluslararası Göç Politikaları: 1923-2023. Koç Üniversitesi Göç Araştırmaları Merkezi.
  • Faist Thomas (2003), ‘Uluslararası Göç ve Ulus aşırı Toplumsal Alanlar’, Bağlam yay., İstanbul
  • Keohane, Robert O., and Joseph S. Nye.(1977). Power and Interdependence: World Politics in Transition. Boston:Little, Brown & Co.
  • Keyman, E. Fuat, Ahmet İçduygu (2003). “Globalization, Civil Society and Citizenship in Turkey: Actors, Boundaries and Discourses”, Citizenship Studies, 7 (2): 219-234.
  • Kirişçi, Kemal (2003). “The Question of Asylum and illegal Migration in European Union- Turkish Relations,” Turkish Studies, 4(1):79-106.
  • Kritz, Mary M. and Hania Zlotnik (1992). “Global Interactions: Migration systems, processes, and policies” in Mary M. Kritz, Lin Lean Lim and Hania Zlotnik International Migration Systems: A Global Approach. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Mandacı, Nazif ve Gökay Özerim (2013), “Uluslararası Göçlerin Bir Güvenlik Konusuna Dönüşümü: Avrupa’da Radikal Sağ Partiler ve Göçün Güvenlikleştirilmesi”, Uluslararası İlişkiler, 10(39):105-130.
  • Meyers, Eytan (2000). “Theories of International Migration Policy - A Comparative Analyses”. International Migration Review, 34 (4): 1245-1282.
  • Meyers Eytan (2002), ‘Multilateral Cooperation, Integration and Regimes: The Case of International Labor Mobility’ Working Paper 61, The Center for Comparative Immigration Studies, University of California, San Diago
  • Newland, Kathleen (2005). “The Governance of International Migration: Mechanisms, Processes and Institutions” A paper prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration, September.
  • Oğuz Gök, Gonca (2015). “Suriyeli Sığınmacılar ve İnsan Güvenliği”, Ortadoğu Analiz, 7 (71): 14-16.
  • Parker, Owen, Brassett, James (2005). “Contingent Borders, Ambiguous Ethics: Migrants in International Political Theory” International Studies Quarterly, 49 (2): 233-254.
  • Pazarcı, Hüseyin (2003). Uluslararası Hukuk, Ankara: Turhan Kitabevi.
  • Report of the Global Commision on International Migration (2005). The Challenge of Irregular Migration: State Sovereignty and Human Security, Migration in an Interconnected World: New Directions for Action.
  • Topçuoğlu, Reyhan Atasü, “Düzensiz Göç: Küreselleşmede Kısıtlanan İnsan Hareketliliği”, S. Gülfer Ihlamur-Öner ve N. Aslı Şirin Öner (der.) Küreselleşme Çağında Göç, İstanbul: İletişim.
  • Weiner, Myron (1993). "Security, Stability, and International Migration", International Security, 17 (3): 91-126.
  • www.countertrafficking.org/tr/ www.iom.int
  • Zig Layton-Henry, Danièle Joly (2010). Migration, Minorities and Citizenship, England: MacMillan.
  • KOSBED, 2016, 31: 65 - 82
  • WHOSE SECURITY? ANALYZING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
  • INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND SECURITY THROUGH THE ROLE OF
  • INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS Gonca Oğuz GÖK

Whose Security? International Migration-Security Relationship and the Role of International Organizations

Yıl 2016, Cilt , Sayı 31, 65 - 82, 01.06.2016

Öz

Migration is as old as the history of humanity. Yet, conceptualizing this movement as a “security” problem has become an issue in the post-Cold War Era. In the absence of an effective international management of migration, each state has its own migration policy predominantly shaped by selfinterest calculations. This study attepts to understand the ambigious relationship between statecentered security approach and international migration in changing world politics. How migration is conceptualized as a security issue? How can we explain the relationship between traditional security and human security approach towards migration in contemporaray world politics? In light of above questions, the paper will critically access the role of IOM (International Organization for Migration) with respect to its prospects and limiations in a more “humane” management of international migration. The paper concludes that “human security” approach provides an alternative perspective to international migration and non-state actors are the key actors to put pressure on states on human rights and human security issues.

Kaynakça

  • Akçapar, Şebnem Köşer (2012). “Uluslararası Göç Alanında Güvenlik Algılamaları ve Göçün İnsani Boyutu”S. Gülfer Ihlamur-Öner ve N. Aslı Şirin Öner (der.) Küreselleşme Çağında Göç, İstanbul: İletişim. ss:539-563
  • Andreas J. and Thomas Straubhaar (1999). “A Survey of the Economics of Illegal Migration” South European Society and Politics 3 (3): 16-42.
  • Bhagwati, Jagdish N. (2003). “Borders beyond Control”. Foreign Affairs, Jan-Feb. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2003-01-01/borders-beyond-control
  • Booth, Ken, (1991). “Security and Emancipation”, Review of International Studies 17 (4): 313-326
  • Bull, Hedley. (1977). The Anarchical Society: A Study of Order in World Politics. London and Basingtone: Macmillian.
  • Buzan Barry, Ole Waever, Jaap de Wilde (1998), Security: A New Framework For Analysis. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
  • Buzan Barry and Lane Hensen (2005), The Evolution of International Security Studies, (UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Castles, Stephen and Miller Mark J. (1998). The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World. Second edition. New York: The Guilford Press.
  • Erder, Sema (2004), “Irregular Migration and Turkey” in Population Challenges, International Migration and Reproductive Health in Turkey and the European Union, International Conference Organized by the Turkish Family Health and Planning Foundation, 11-12 October.
  • Faist, Thomas (2003). Uluslararası Göç ve Ulus aşırı Toplumsal Alanlar, İstanbul: Bağlam Yayınları.
  • Hayter, Teresa (2000). Open Borders, London: Pluto Press.
  • Hollified, James F. (2000). “The Politics of International Migration: How Can We 'Bring the State Back” in Caroline B. Brettell, James, F. Hollified. Migration Theory, Talking Across Disciplines, Routledge.
  • Hollified, James F. (2002). Migration and International Relations: The Liberal Paradox, Working Paper, Migration & IR/Royal Society/draft 12/11/02.
  • Human Rights Watch Report, (2003). The International Organization for Migration (IOM) and Human Rights Protection in the Field: Current Concerns, submitted by Human Rights Watch IOM Governing Council Meeting 86th Session, November 18-21, Geneva.
  • Huntington, Samuel P. (1996). “The West: Unique, Not Universal”. Foreign Affairs, 75/6. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/1996-11-01/west-unique-not-universal
  • Ihlamur-Öner, Suna Gülfer, “Küresel bir Göç ve Mülteci Rejimine Doğru”. ss: 577-601. S. Gülfer Ihlamur-Öner ve N. Aslı Şirin Öner (der.) Küreselleşme Çağında Göç, İstanbul: İletişim.
  • IOM (International Organization for Migration) International Migration Law, Glossary on Migration.
  • İçduygu, Ahmet, Sema Erder, Ömer Faruk Gençkaya (2014). Türkiye’nin Uluslararası Göç Politikaları: 1923-2023. Koç Üniversitesi Göç Araştırmaları Merkezi.
  • Faist Thomas (2003), ‘Uluslararası Göç ve Ulus aşırı Toplumsal Alanlar’, Bağlam yay., İstanbul
  • Keohane, Robert O., and Joseph S. Nye.(1977). Power and Interdependence: World Politics in Transition. Boston:Little, Brown & Co.
  • Keyman, E. Fuat, Ahmet İçduygu (2003). “Globalization, Civil Society and Citizenship in Turkey: Actors, Boundaries and Discourses”, Citizenship Studies, 7 (2): 219-234.
  • Kirişçi, Kemal (2003). “The Question of Asylum and illegal Migration in European Union- Turkish Relations,” Turkish Studies, 4(1):79-106.
  • Kritz, Mary M. and Hania Zlotnik (1992). “Global Interactions: Migration systems, processes, and policies” in Mary M. Kritz, Lin Lean Lim and Hania Zlotnik International Migration Systems: A Global Approach. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Mandacı, Nazif ve Gökay Özerim (2013), “Uluslararası Göçlerin Bir Güvenlik Konusuna Dönüşümü: Avrupa’da Radikal Sağ Partiler ve Göçün Güvenlikleştirilmesi”, Uluslararası İlişkiler, 10(39):105-130.
  • Meyers, Eytan (2000). “Theories of International Migration Policy - A Comparative Analyses”. International Migration Review, 34 (4): 1245-1282.
  • Meyers Eytan (2002), ‘Multilateral Cooperation, Integration and Regimes: The Case of International Labor Mobility’ Working Paper 61, The Center for Comparative Immigration Studies, University of California, San Diago
  • Newland, Kathleen (2005). “The Governance of International Migration: Mechanisms, Processes and Institutions” A paper prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration, September.
  • Oğuz Gök, Gonca (2015). “Suriyeli Sığınmacılar ve İnsan Güvenliği”, Ortadoğu Analiz, 7 (71): 14-16.
  • Parker, Owen, Brassett, James (2005). “Contingent Borders, Ambiguous Ethics: Migrants in International Political Theory” International Studies Quarterly, 49 (2): 233-254.
  • Pazarcı, Hüseyin (2003). Uluslararası Hukuk, Ankara: Turhan Kitabevi.
  • Report of the Global Commision on International Migration (2005). The Challenge of Irregular Migration: State Sovereignty and Human Security, Migration in an Interconnected World: New Directions for Action.
  • Topçuoğlu, Reyhan Atasü, “Düzensiz Göç: Küreselleşmede Kısıtlanan İnsan Hareketliliği”, S. Gülfer Ihlamur-Öner ve N. Aslı Şirin Öner (der.) Küreselleşme Çağında Göç, İstanbul: İletişim.
  • Weiner, Myron (1993). "Security, Stability, and International Migration", International Security, 17 (3): 91-126.
  • www.countertrafficking.org/tr/ www.iom.int
  • Zig Layton-Henry, Danièle Joly (2010). Migration, Minorities and Citizenship, England: MacMillan.
  • KOSBED, 2016, 31: 65 - 82
  • WHOSE SECURITY? ANALYZING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
  • INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND SECURITY THROUGH THE ROLE OF
  • INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS Gonca Oğuz GÖK

Ayrıntılar

Diğer ID JA62DF53HS
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Gonca Oğuz GÖK Bu kişi benim

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Haziran 2016
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2016, Cilt , Sayı 31

Kaynak Göster

APA Gök, G. O. (2016). Kimin Güvenliği? Uluslararası Göç-Güvelik İlişkisi ve Uluslararası Örgütlerin Rolü . Kocaeli Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi , (31) , 65-82 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/kosbed/issue/25688/271101

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