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Real Time RT-PCR Metodu ile Köpeklerin Oküler Swap ve Kan Örneklerinden Canine Distemper Virusunun Tespiti

Yıl 2021, Cilt 14, Sayı 4, 415 - 421, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.30607/kvj.963348

Öz

Canine distemper virus (CDV- köpek gençlik hastalığı) çok bulaşıcı, sistemik ve dünya genelinde yaygın olarak görülen viral bir enfeksiyondur. Bu çalışma ile Burdur’da köpeklerde görülen CDV’nun yaygınlığının araştırılması hedeflenmiştir. Bu amaçla Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi kliniklerine gelen hasta hayvanlardan CDV ön tanısı konulmuş 65 köpekten oküler swap ve kan örnekleri alındı. Söz konusu örneklere CDV laboratuvar tanısı koymak amacıyla real-time RT-PCR metodu uygulandı. 16 adeti kan, 26 adeti oküler swaptan olmak üzere toplamda 42 tanesi real time-RT-PCR ile pozitif olarak belirlendi. Dokuz adeti hem oküler swapta hemde kan örneklerinde pozitif olarak tespit edildi. Ayrıca real-time RT PCR ile pozitif tespit edilen 42 örneğin (33 hayvan) içerisinden 11 tanesinin daha önceden CDV’ye karşı aşılanmış köpeklerden olduğu bilinmekteydi. Araştırmada hasta köpeklerden alınan örneklerin test sonuçları ve aşı geçmişleri ile ilişkileri istatistiki olarak da değerlendirildi. Bu sonuçlar ışığında, CDV’nun teşhisinde materyal olarak oküler swap örneklerinin kullanılması ve hastalığı sınırlandırmak için klinik bulgu gösteren tüm hayvanların (aşılılar dahil) bu enfeksiyon yönünden incelenmesi tavsiye edilmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Adam JN, Asgarali Z, Singh SM, Ezeokoli CD. A Serological Study of Canine Parvovirus (CPV-2) and Distemper Virus (CDV) in Stray Dogs in North Trinidad, West Indies. West Indian Med J. 2011; 11: 1-4.
  • An D-J, Kim T-Y, Song D-S, Kang B-K, Park B-K. An immunochromatography assay for rapid antemortem diagnosis of dogs suspected to have canine distemper. J Virol Methods. 2008; 147(2): 244-9.
  • Appel MJ, Summers BA. Pathogenicity of morbilliviruses for terrestrial carnivores. Vet Microbiol 1995; 44(2-4): 187-91.
  • Avci O, Bulut O, Yapici O, Hasircioglu S, Simsek A. Canine coronavirus infection in dogs in Turkey: Virological and serological evidence. Indian J Anim. 2016; 50: 565-8.
  • Beineke A, Puff C, Seehusen F, Baumgärtner W. Pathogenesis and immunopathology of systemic and nervous canine distemper. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2009; 127(1-2): 1-18.
  • Beineke A, Puff C, Seehusen F, Baumgärtner WJVi. Pathogenesis and immunopathology of systemic and nervous canine distemper. 2009; 127(1-2): 1-18.
  • Cho H, Park N. Detection of Canine distemper virus in blood samples by reverse transcription loop‐mediated isothermal amplification. J Vet Med. 2005; 52(9): 410-3.
  • Deem SL, Spelman LH, Yates RA, Montali RJ. Canine distemper in terrestrial carnivores: a review. J. Zoo Wildl Med. 2000; 31(4): 441-51.
  • Dinçer E. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of canine parvovirus 2 in dogs, Mersin Province, Turkey. Etlik Vet Mikrobiyol Derg. 2017; 28(2): 96-100.
  • Elia G, Decaro N, Martella V, Cirone F, Lucente MS, Lorusso E, Di Trani L, Buonavoglia C. Detection of canine distemper virus in dogs by real-time RT-PCR. J Virol Methods. 2006; 136(1-2): 171-6.
  • Elia G, Decaro N, Martella V, Cirone F, Lucente MS, Lorusso E, Di Trani L, Buonavoglia C. Detection of canine distemper virus in dogs by real-time RT-PCR. J Virol Methods. 2006; 136 (1-2): 171-6. Feijóo G, Yamasaki K, Verdes JM. Lung lesions of non-vaccinated puppies affected by canine distemper virus. Braz J Vet Pathol. 2019; 12(3): 83-7.
  • Fischer CD, Gräf T, Ikuta N, Lehmann FK, Passos DT, Makiejczuk A, Silveira Jr MA, Fonseca AS, Canal CW, Lunge VR. Phylogenetic analysis of canine distemper virus in South America clade 1 reveals unique molecular signatures of the local epidemic. Infect Genet Evol. 2016; 41: 135-41.
  • Fischer CDB, Ikuta N, Canal CW, Makiejczuk A, da Costa Allgayer M, Cardoso CH, Lehmann FK, Fonseca ASK, Lunge VR. Detection and differentiation of field and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus using reverse transcription followed by nested real time PCR (RT-nqPCR) and RFLP analysis. J Virol Methods. 2013; 194(1-2): 39-45.
  • Frisk A, König M, Moritz A, Baumgärtner W. Detection of canine distemper virus nucleoprotein RNA by reverse transcription-PCR using serum, whole blood, and cerebrospinal fluid from dogs with distemper. J Clin Microbiol. 1999; 37(11): 3634-43.
  • Gencay A, Oncel T, Karaoglu T, Sancak A, Demir A, Ozkul A. Antibody prevalence to canine distemper virus (CDV) in stray dogs in Turkey. Rev Med Vet. 2004; 155(8-9): 432-4.
  • Headley SA, Graça DL, Science A. Canine distemper: epidemiological findings of 250 cases. Braz J Vet Res Anim Sci. 2000; 37(2): 00-.
  • ICTV International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, 2019. Virus Taxonomy: 2019 Release. https://talk.ictvonline.org/ictv-reports/ictv_online_report/negative-sense-rna-viruses/w/paramyxoviridae/1183/genus-morbillivirus Accessien date: 06.04.2021
  • Kapil S, Yeary TJ. Canine distemper spillover in domestic dogs from urban wildlife. Vet Clin N Am-Small. 2011; 41(6): 1069-86.
  • Kim D, Jeoung S-Y, Ahn S-J, Lee J-H, Pak S-I, Kwon H-M. Comparison of tissue and fluid samples for the early detection of canine distemper virus in experimentally infected dogs. J Vet Med Sci. 2006; 68(8): 877-9.
  • Kim YH, Cho KW, Youn HY, Yoo HS, Han HR. Detection of canine distemper virus (CDV) through one step RT-PCR combined with nested PCR. J Vet Sci. 2001; 2(1): 59-63.
  • Lan N, Yamaguchi R, Inomata A, Furuya Y, Uchida K, Sugano S, Tateyama S. Comparative analyses of canine distemper viral isolates from clinical cases of canine distemper in vaccinated dogs. Vet Microbiol. 2006; 115(1-3): 32-42.
  • Laurenson K, Sillero-Zubiri C, Thompson H, Shiferaw F, Thirgood S, Malcolm J. Disease as a threat to endangered species: Ethiopian wolves, domestic dogs and canine pathogens. Anim Conserv. 1998; 1: 273-80.
  • Lednicky JA, Dubach J, Kinsel MJ, Meehan TP, Bocchetta M, Hungerford LL, Sarich NA, Witecki KE, Braid MD, Pedrak C. Genetically distant American Canine distemper virus lineages have recently caused epizootics with somewhat different characteristics in raccoons living around a large suburban zoo in the USA. Virol J. 2004; 1(1): 1-14.
  • Martella V, Cirone F, Elia G, Lorusso E, Decaro N, Campolo M, Desario C, Lucente M, Bellacicco A, Blixenkrone-Møller M. Heterogeneity within the hemagglutinin genes of canine distemper virus (CDV) strains detected in Italy. Vet Microbiol. 2006; 116(49: 301-9. Martella V, Elia G, Buonavoglia C. Canine distemper virus. Vet Clin N Am-Small. 2008; 38(4): 787-97.
  • Namroodi S, Rostami A, Majidzadeh-Ardebili K, Ghalyanchi-Langroudi A, Morovvati A. Molecular and Serological Detection of Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) in Rural Dogs, Iran. Iran J Virol. 2013; 7(1): 37-43.
  • Nouvellet P, Donnelly CA, De Nardi M, Rhodes CJ, De Benedictis P, Citterio C, Obber F, Lorenzetto M, Pozza MD, Cauchemez S. Rabies and canine distemper virus epidemics in the red fox population of northern Italy (2006–2010). PloS one. 2013; 8(4): 1-12.
  • Oğuzoğlu TÇ, Yücel-Tenekeci G, Çalışkan M, Bozkurt MF, De Massis F. Detection and characterization of Distemper virus in a mink (Neovison vison) in Turkey. Vet Ital. 2018; 54(1): 79-85.
  • Pawar RM, Raj GD, Gopinath VP, Ashok A, Raja A. Isolation and molecular characterization of canine distemper virus from India. Trop Anim Health Pro. 2011; 43(8): 1617-22.
  • Piewbang C, Rungsipipat A, Poovorawan Y, Techangamsuwan S. Development and application of multiplex PCR assays for detection of virus-induced respiratory disease complex in dogs. J Vet Med Sci. 2016; 16: 1-25
  • Pope JP, Miller DL, Riley MC, Anis E, Wilkes RP. Characterization of a novel canine distemper virus causing disease in wildlife. J Vet Diagn. 2016; 28(5): 506-13.
  • Ricci I, Cersini A, Manna G, Marcario GA, Conti R, Brocherel G, Grifoni G, Eleni C, Scicluna MT. A Canine Distemper Virus Retrospective Study Conducted from 2011 to 2019 in Central Italy (Latium and Tuscany Regions). Viruses. 2021; 13(2): 272.
  • Richter WR, Motze SM. Ultrastructural nature of canine distemper inclusions in the urinary bladder. Pathol Vet. 1970; 7(4): 346-52.
  • Roscoe DE. 1993. Epizootiology of canine distemper in New Jersey raccoons. J Wildl Dis. 1993; 29(3): 390-5.
  • Saito T, Alfieri A, Wosiacki S, Negrao F, Morais H, Alfieri A. Detection of canine distemper virus by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in the urine of dogs with clinical signs of distemper encephalitis. Vet Sci Res. J. 2006; 80(1): 116-9.
  • Saltik HS, Kale M. Evaluation of infection with N protein-specific Immunoglobulin M and G in naturally occurring distemper in dogs. Vet Med. 2020; 65(4): 168-73.
  • Shabbir MZ, Rabbani M, Ahmad A, Ahmed A, Muhammad K, Anwar I, Sciences A. Comparative evaluation of clinical samples from naturally infected dogs for early detection of canine distemper virus. Turkish J Vet Anim Sci. 2011; 34(6): 547-52.
  • Shin Y, Cho K, Cho H, Kang S, Kim H, Kim Y, Park H, Park N. Comparison of one‐step RT‐PCR and a nested PCR for the detection of canine distemper virus in clinical samples. Aust Vet J. 2004; 82(1‐2): 83-6.
  • Simon-Martinez J, Ulloa-Arvizu R, Soriano V, Fajardo R. Identification of a genetic variant of canine distemper virus from clinical cases in two vaccinated dogs in Mexico. Vet. 2008; 175(3): 423-6.
  • Soma T, Ishii H, Hara M, Yamamoto S, Yoshida T, Kinoshita T, Nomura K. Comparison of immunoperoxidase plaque staining and neutralizing tests for canine distemper virus. Vet Res Commun. 2001; 25(4): 311-25.
  • Sun Z, Li A, Ye H, Shi Y, Hu Z, Zeng L. Natural infection with canine distemper virus in hand-feeding Rhesus monkeys in China. Vet Microbiol. 2010; 141(3-4): 374-8.
  • Suzuki J, Nishio Y, Kameo Y, Terada Y, Kuwata R, Shimoda H, Suzuki K, Maeda K. Canine distemper virus infection among wildlife before and after the epidemic. J Vet Med Sci. 2015; 1-25.
  • Timurkan MO, Polat PF, Şahan A, Dinçer E, Aksoy G. Molecular and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) in dogs in southeast Anatolia, Turkey. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2019; 86(1): 1-8.
  • Tupler T, Levy JK, Sabshin SJ, Tucker SJ, Greiner EC, Leutenegger CM. Enteropathogens identified in dogs entering a Florida animal shelter with normal feces or diarrhea. J Am Vet Med A. 2012; 241(3): 338-43.
  • van Drunen L-vdH, Snider M, Thompson P, Latimer L, Babiuk L. Strategies for induction of protective immunity to bovine herpesvirus-1 in newborn calves with maternal antibodies. Vaccine. 2008; 26(25): 31-03.
  • Weckworth JK, Davis BW, Roelke-Parker ME, Wilkes RP, Packer C, Eblate E, Schwartz MK, Mills LS. Identifying Candidate Genetic Markers of CDV Cross-Species Pathogenicity in African Lions. Pathogens. 2020; 9(11): 872.
  • Yi L, Cheng S, Xu H, Wang J, Cheng Y, Yang S, Luo B. Development of a combined canine distemper virus specific RT-PCR protocol for the differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) and genetic characterization of the hemagglutinin gene of seven Chinese strains demonstrated in dogs. J Virol Methods. 2012; 179(1): 281-7.
  • Yi L, Cheng S, Xu H, Wang J, Cheng Y, Yang S, Luo B. Development of a combined canine distemper virus specific RT-PCR protocol for the differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) and genetic characterization of the hemagglutinin gene of seven Chinese strains demonstrated in dogs. J Virol Methods. 2012; 179(1): 281-7.

Detection of Canine Distemper Virus from Ocular Swab and Blood Samples in Dog by Real-Time RT-PCR Method

Yıl 2021, Cilt 14, Sayı 4, 415 - 421, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.30607/kvj.963348

Öz

CDV is a highly contagious, systemic and viral infection encountered all around the world. This study aimed to investigation of the the prevalence of CDV seen in dogs in Burdur. For this purpose, ocular swab and blood samples were taken from 65 CDV pre-diagnosed dogs that were brought into Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Veterinary Faculty clinics. Real-time RT-PCR method was applied on the subject samples in order to get a laboratory diagnosis of CDV. In total, 42 of these, 16 from blood and 26 from ocular swab, were detected as positive by real-time RT-PCR. Nine of them were detected as positive both in ocular swab and blood samples. In addition, 11 of 42 samples (33 animals) detected as positive by real-time RT-PCR were already known to have been taken from dogs vaccinated against CDV previously. In the study, test results of the samples taken from diseased dogs and their relations with vaccine history were evaluated statistically as well. In the light of these results, it is recommended to use ocular swab samples as materials in diagnosing CDV and examining all animals (including those vaccinated) with clinical findings in terms of this infection so as to confine the disease. 

Kaynakça

  • Adam JN, Asgarali Z, Singh SM, Ezeokoli CD. A Serological Study of Canine Parvovirus (CPV-2) and Distemper Virus (CDV) in Stray Dogs in North Trinidad, West Indies. West Indian Med J. 2011; 11: 1-4.
  • An D-J, Kim T-Y, Song D-S, Kang B-K, Park B-K. An immunochromatography assay for rapid antemortem diagnosis of dogs suspected to have canine distemper. J Virol Methods. 2008; 147(2): 244-9.
  • Appel MJ, Summers BA. Pathogenicity of morbilliviruses for terrestrial carnivores. Vet Microbiol 1995; 44(2-4): 187-91.
  • Avci O, Bulut O, Yapici O, Hasircioglu S, Simsek A. Canine coronavirus infection in dogs in Turkey: Virological and serological evidence. Indian J Anim. 2016; 50: 565-8.
  • Beineke A, Puff C, Seehusen F, Baumgärtner W. Pathogenesis and immunopathology of systemic and nervous canine distemper. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2009; 127(1-2): 1-18.
  • Beineke A, Puff C, Seehusen F, Baumgärtner WJVi. Pathogenesis and immunopathology of systemic and nervous canine distemper. 2009; 127(1-2): 1-18.
  • Cho H, Park N. Detection of Canine distemper virus in blood samples by reverse transcription loop‐mediated isothermal amplification. J Vet Med. 2005; 52(9): 410-3.
  • Deem SL, Spelman LH, Yates RA, Montali RJ. Canine distemper in terrestrial carnivores: a review. J. Zoo Wildl Med. 2000; 31(4): 441-51.
  • Dinçer E. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of canine parvovirus 2 in dogs, Mersin Province, Turkey. Etlik Vet Mikrobiyol Derg. 2017; 28(2): 96-100.
  • Elia G, Decaro N, Martella V, Cirone F, Lucente MS, Lorusso E, Di Trani L, Buonavoglia C. Detection of canine distemper virus in dogs by real-time RT-PCR. J Virol Methods. 2006; 136(1-2): 171-6.
  • Elia G, Decaro N, Martella V, Cirone F, Lucente MS, Lorusso E, Di Trani L, Buonavoglia C. Detection of canine distemper virus in dogs by real-time RT-PCR. J Virol Methods. 2006; 136 (1-2): 171-6. Feijóo G, Yamasaki K, Verdes JM. Lung lesions of non-vaccinated puppies affected by canine distemper virus. Braz J Vet Pathol. 2019; 12(3): 83-7.
  • Fischer CD, Gräf T, Ikuta N, Lehmann FK, Passos DT, Makiejczuk A, Silveira Jr MA, Fonseca AS, Canal CW, Lunge VR. Phylogenetic analysis of canine distemper virus in South America clade 1 reveals unique molecular signatures of the local epidemic. Infect Genet Evol. 2016; 41: 135-41.
  • Fischer CDB, Ikuta N, Canal CW, Makiejczuk A, da Costa Allgayer M, Cardoso CH, Lehmann FK, Fonseca ASK, Lunge VR. Detection and differentiation of field and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus using reverse transcription followed by nested real time PCR (RT-nqPCR) and RFLP analysis. J Virol Methods. 2013; 194(1-2): 39-45.
  • Frisk A, König M, Moritz A, Baumgärtner W. Detection of canine distemper virus nucleoprotein RNA by reverse transcription-PCR using serum, whole blood, and cerebrospinal fluid from dogs with distemper. J Clin Microbiol. 1999; 37(11): 3634-43.
  • Gencay A, Oncel T, Karaoglu T, Sancak A, Demir A, Ozkul A. Antibody prevalence to canine distemper virus (CDV) in stray dogs in Turkey. Rev Med Vet. 2004; 155(8-9): 432-4.
  • Headley SA, Graça DL, Science A. Canine distemper: epidemiological findings of 250 cases. Braz J Vet Res Anim Sci. 2000; 37(2): 00-.
  • ICTV International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, 2019. Virus Taxonomy: 2019 Release. https://talk.ictvonline.org/ictv-reports/ictv_online_report/negative-sense-rna-viruses/w/paramyxoviridae/1183/genus-morbillivirus Accessien date: 06.04.2021
  • Kapil S, Yeary TJ. Canine distemper spillover in domestic dogs from urban wildlife. Vet Clin N Am-Small. 2011; 41(6): 1069-86.
  • Kim D, Jeoung S-Y, Ahn S-J, Lee J-H, Pak S-I, Kwon H-M. Comparison of tissue and fluid samples for the early detection of canine distemper virus in experimentally infected dogs. J Vet Med Sci. 2006; 68(8): 877-9.
  • Kim YH, Cho KW, Youn HY, Yoo HS, Han HR. Detection of canine distemper virus (CDV) through one step RT-PCR combined with nested PCR. J Vet Sci. 2001; 2(1): 59-63.
  • Lan N, Yamaguchi R, Inomata A, Furuya Y, Uchida K, Sugano S, Tateyama S. Comparative analyses of canine distemper viral isolates from clinical cases of canine distemper in vaccinated dogs. Vet Microbiol. 2006; 115(1-3): 32-42.
  • Laurenson K, Sillero-Zubiri C, Thompson H, Shiferaw F, Thirgood S, Malcolm J. Disease as a threat to endangered species: Ethiopian wolves, domestic dogs and canine pathogens. Anim Conserv. 1998; 1: 273-80.
  • Lednicky JA, Dubach J, Kinsel MJ, Meehan TP, Bocchetta M, Hungerford LL, Sarich NA, Witecki KE, Braid MD, Pedrak C. Genetically distant American Canine distemper virus lineages have recently caused epizootics with somewhat different characteristics in raccoons living around a large suburban zoo in the USA. Virol J. 2004; 1(1): 1-14.
  • Martella V, Cirone F, Elia G, Lorusso E, Decaro N, Campolo M, Desario C, Lucente M, Bellacicco A, Blixenkrone-Møller M. Heterogeneity within the hemagglutinin genes of canine distemper virus (CDV) strains detected in Italy. Vet Microbiol. 2006; 116(49: 301-9. Martella V, Elia G, Buonavoglia C. Canine distemper virus. Vet Clin N Am-Small. 2008; 38(4): 787-97.
  • Namroodi S, Rostami A, Majidzadeh-Ardebili K, Ghalyanchi-Langroudi A, Morovvati A. Molecular and Serological Detection of Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) in Rural Dogs, Iran. Iran J Virol. 2013; 7(1): 37-43.
  • Nouvellet P, Donnelly CA, De Nardi M, Rhodes CJ, De Benedictis P, Citterio C, Obber F, Lorenzetto M, Pozza MD, Cauchemez S. Rabies and canine distemper virus epidemics in the red fox population of northern Italy (2006–2010). PloS one. 2013; 8(4): 1-12.
  • Oğuzoğlu TÇ, Yücel-Tenekeci G, Çalışkan M, Bozkurt MF, De Massis F. Detection and characterization of Distemper virus in a mink (Neovison vison) in Turkey. Vet Ital. 2018; 54(1): 79-85.
  • Pawar RM, Raj GD, Gopinath VP, Ashok A, Raja A. Isolation and molecular characterization of canine distemper virus from India. Trop Anim Health Pro. 2011; 43(8): 1617-22.
  • Piewbang C, Rungsipipat A, Poovorawan Y, Techangamsuwan S. Development and application of multiplex PCR assays for detection of virus-induced respiratory disease complex in dogs. J Vet Med Sci. 2016; 16: 1-25
  • Pope JP, Miller DL, Riley MC, Anis E, Wilkes RP. Characterization of a novel canine distemper virus causing disease in wildlife. J Vet Diagn. 2016; 28(5): 506-13.
  • Ricci I, Cersini A, Manna G, Marcario GA, Conti R, Brocherel G, Grifoni G, Eleni C, Scicluna MT. A Canine Distemper Virus Retrospective Study Conducted from 2011 to 2019 in Central Italy (Latium and Tuscany Regions). Viruses. 2021; 13(2): 272.
  • Richter WR, Motze SM. Ultrastructural nature of canine distemper inclusions in the urinary bladder. Pathol Vet. 1970; 7(4): 346-52.
  • Roscoe DE. 1993. Epizootiology of canine distemper in New Jersey raccoons. J Wildl Dis. 1993; 29(3): 390-5.
  • Saito T, Alfieri A, Wosiacki S, Negrao F, Morais H, Alfieri A. Detection of canine distemper virus by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in the urine of dogs with clinical signs of distemper encephalitis. Vet Sci Res. J. 2006; 80(1): 116-9.
  • Saltik HS, Kale M. Evaluation of infection with N protein-specific Immunoglobulin M and G in naturally occurring distemper in dogs. Vet Med. 2020; 65(4): 168-73.
  • Shabbir MZ, Rabbani M, Ahmad A, Ahmed A, Muhammad K, Anwar I, Sciences A. Comparative evaluation of clinical samples from naturally infected dogs for early detection of canine distemper virus. Turkish J Vet Anim Sci. 2011; 34(6): 547-52.
  • Shin Y, Cho K, Cho H, Kang S, Kim H, Kim Y, Park H, Park N. Comparison of one‐step RT‐PCR and a nested PCR for the detection of canine distemper virus in clinical samples. Aust Vet J. 2004; 82(1‐2): 83-6.
  • Simon-Martinez J, Ulloa-Arvizu R, Soriano V, Fajardo R. Identification of a genetic variant of canine distemper virus from clinical cases in two vaccinated dogs in Mexico. Vet. 2008; 175(3): 423-6.
  • Soma T, Ishii H, Hara M, Yamamoto S, Yoshida T, Kinoshita T, Nomura K. Comparison of immunoperoxidase plaque staining and neutralizing tests for canine distemper virus. Vet Res Commun. 2001; 25(4): 311-25.
  • Sun Z, Li A, Ye H, Shi Y, Hu Z, Zeng L. Natural infection with canine distemper virus in hand-feeding Rhesus monkeys in China. Vet Microbiol. 2010; 141(3-4): 374-8.
  • Suzuki J, Nishio Y, Kameo Y, Terada Y, Kuwata R, Shimoda H, Suzuki K, Maeda K. Canine distemper virus infection among wildlife before and after the epidemic. J Vet Med Sci. 2015; 1-25.
  • Timurkan MO, Polat PF, Şahan A, Dinçer E, Aksoy G. Molecular and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) in dogs in southeast Anatolia, Turkey. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2019; 86(1): 1-8.
  • Tupler T, Levy JK, Sabshin SJ, Tucker SJ, Greiner EC, Leutenegger CM. Enteropathogens identified in dogs entering a Florida animal shelter with normal feces or diarrhea. J Am Vet Med A. 2012; 241(3): 338-43.
  • van Drunen L-vdH, Snider M, Thompson P, Latimer L, Babiuk L. Strategies for induction of protective immunity to bovine herpesvirus-1 in newborn calves with maternal antibodies. Vaccine. 2008; 26(25): 31-03.
  • Weckworth JK, Davis BW, Roelke-Parker ME, Wilkes RP, Packer C, Eblate E, Schwartz MK, Mills LS. Identifying Candidate Genetic Markers of CDV Cross-Species Pathogenicity in African Lions. Pathogens. 2020; 9(11): 872.
  • Yi L, Cheng S, Xu H, Wang J, Cheng Y, Yang S, Luo B. Development of a combined canine distemper virus specific RT-PCR protocol for the differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) and genetic characterization of the hemagglutinin gene of seven Chinese strains demonstrated in dogs. J Virol Methods. 2012; 179(1): 281-7.
  • Yi L, Cheng S, Xu H, Wang J, Cheng Y, Yang S, Luo B. Development of a combined canine distemper virus specific RT-PCR protocol for the differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) and genetic characterization of the hemagglutinin gene of seven Chinese strains demonstrated in dogs. J Virol Methods. 2012; 179(1): 281-7.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Veteriner Hekimlik
Bölüm ARAŞTIRMA MAKALESİ
Yazarlar

Sibel HASIRCIOĞLU
MEHMET AKIF ERSOY UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-5436-0795
Türkiye


Hatice Pelin ASLIM (Sorumlu Yazar)
SELÇUK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-9160-1255
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 14, Sayı 4

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { kvj963348, journal = {Kocatepe Veterinary Journal}, issn = {1308-1594}, eissn = {2147-6853}, address = {}, publisher = {Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi}, year = {2021}, volume = {14}, number = {4}, pages = {415 - 421}, doi = {10.30607/kvj.963348}, title = {Detection of Canine Distemper Virus from Ocular Swab and Blood Samples in Dog by Real-Time RT-PCR Method}, key = {cite}, author = {Hasırcıoğlu, Sibel and Aslım, Hatice Pelin} }
APA Hasırcıoğlu, S. & Aslım, H. P. (2021). Detection of Canine Distemper Virus from Ocular Swab and Blood Samples in Dog by Real-Time RT-PCR Method . Kocatepe Veterinary Journal , 14 (4) , 415-421 . DOI: 10.30607/kvj.963348
MLA Hasırcıoğlu, S. , Aslım, H. P. "Detection of Canine Distemper Virus from Ocular Swab and Blood Samples in Dog by Real-Time RT-PCR Method" . Kocatepe Veterinary Journal 14 (2021 ): 415-421 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/kvj/issue/64946/963348>
Chicago Hasırcıoğlu, S. , Aslım, H. P. "Detection of Canine Distemper Virus from Ocular Swab and Blood Samples in Dog by Real-Time RT-PCR Method". Kocatepe Veterinary Journal 14 (2021 ): 415-421
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Detection of Canine Distemper Virus from Ocular Swab and Blood Samples in Dog by Real-Time RT-PCR Method AU - Sibel Hasırcıoğlu , Hatice Pelin Aslım Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.30607/kvj.963348 DO - 10.30607/kvj.963348 T2 - Kocatepe Veterinary Journal JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 415 EP - 421 VL - 14 IS - 4 SN - 1308-1594-2147-6853 M3 - doi: 10.30607/kvj.963348 UR - https://doi.org/10.30607/kvj.963348 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Kocatepe Veteriner Dergisi Detection of Canine Distemper Virus from Ocular Swab and Blood Samples in Dog by Real-Time RT-PCR Method %A Sibel Hasırcıoğlu , Hatice Pelin Aslım %T Detection of Canine Distemper Virus from Ocular Swab and Blood Samples in Dog by Real-Time RT-PCR Method %D 2021 %J Kocatepe Veterinary Journal %P 1308-1594-2147-6853 %V 14 %N 4 %R doi: 10.30607/kvj.963348 %U 10.30607/kvj.963348
ISNAD Hasırcıoğlu, Sibel , Aslım, Hatice Pelin . "Detection of Canine Distemper Virus from Ocular Swab and Blood Samples in Dog by Real-Time RT-PCR Method". Kocatepe Veterinary Journal 14 / 4 (Aralık 2021): 415-421 . https://doi.org/10.30607/kvj.963348
AMA Hasırcıoğlu S. , Aslım H. P. Detection of Canine Distemper Virus from Ocular Swab and Blood Samples in Dog by Real-Time RT-PCR Method. Kocatepe Veterinary Journal. 2021; 14(4): 415-421.
Vancouver Hasırcıoğlu S. , Aslım H. P. Detection of Canine Distemper Virus from Ocular Swab and Blood Samples in Dog by Real-Time RT-PCR Method. Kocatepe Veterinary Journal. 2021; 14(4): 415-421.
IEEE S. Hasırcıoğlu ve H. P. Aslım , "Detection of Canine Distemper Virus from Ocular Swab and Blood Samples in Dog by Real-Time RT-PCR Method", Kocatepe Veterinary Journal, c. 14, sayı. 4, ss. 415-421, Ara. 2021, doi:10.30607/kvj.963348

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