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Sosyal Güvensizlik ve Kayıt Dışılık Bağlamında Afrika’da COVID-19

Yıl 2021, Cilt 9, Sayı Özel Sayı, 45 - 68, 17.11.2021
https://doi.org/10.14782/marmarasbd.912899

Öz

Bu çalışmada Dünya Sağlık Örgütü tarafından Mart 2020’de ilan edilen COVID-19 pandemisine karşı Afrikalı hükümetler tarafından alınan tedbirlerin kapsayıcı olamaması ve toplumsal eşitsizlikleri derinleştirmesinin nedenleri incelenmektedir. Bu doğrultuda öncelikle, söz konusu tedbirlerin hastalığın yayılımını yavaşlatmak, salgından kaynaklanan ekonomik krizin etkilerini hafifletmek ve yurttaşlara sosyal destek sağlamak konusunda yetersiz kaldığı öne sürülmektedir. Afrika’da neoliberal politikaların devletlerin sosyal güvenlik sistemlerini zayıflatması ve kayıt dışı istihdamın ekonomik büyümenin itici gücü olarak ortaya çıkmış olması ise pandemi tedbirlerinin yetersizliğinde etkili olan iki temel unsur olarak ele alınmaktadır. Bu çerçevede iki farklı zeminde neoliberalleşme örneği sergileyen sömürgecilik sonrası Nijerya ve apartheid sonrası Güney Afrika odağa alınmakta, sırasıyla tarıma dayalı ve kentsel kayıt dışı ekonomik faaliyetlerin yoğun biçimde görüldüğü bu iki ülkenin COVID-19 tedbirlerinin toplumsal ve ekonomik etkileri incelenmektedir. Çalışmada, pandeminin ilan edilmesinin hemen ardından hızla genişleyen literatürün yanı sıra uluslararası basına yansıyan haberlerden ve Dünya Sağlık Örgütü başta olmak üzere Birleşmiş Milletler uzmanlık kuruluşları ile Afrika Birliği ve bu örgütün uzmanlık kuruluşu olan Afrika Hastalık Kontrol ve Önleme Merkezi tarafından ve ayrıca Oxfam gibi hükümet dışı kuruluşlar tarafından hazırlanan raporlardan yararlanılmaktadır. Bu yolla çalışma, Afrika’da neoliberal politikaların yol açtığı sosyal güvensizlik ve kayıt dışı ekonominin ağırlıklı konumu nedeniyle çalışan nüfusun büyük bölümünün kamu hizmetlerine erişimde güçlük yaşadığı, pandemiye karşı sağlanan desteklerden faydalanamadığı ve dolayısıyla COVID-19’dan daha kötü etkilendiği sonucuna ulaşmaktadır. Yetersiz kalan hükümet desteklerinin de bağışlara ve hayırseverlik faaliyetlerine dayanması ve mevcut yolsuzluk sorununun sağlık kriziyle pekişmesi ise bu olumsuz etkiyi derinleştirmektedir. Böyle bir çerçevede belirlenen tedbirlerin niteliği ve uygulanma yöntemlerine karşı bir toplumsal muhalefetin oluşmakta olduğu ve en nihayetinde Afrikalı devletler açısından COVID-19’la ortaya çıkan sağlık krizinin toplumsal huzursuzluğa dönüşme riskinin belirginleştiği anlaşılmaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • Alavi, H. (1972, Temmuz/Ağustos). The State in Post-Colonial Societies: Pakistan and Bangladesh. New Left Review, 1(74), 59-81.
  • Amadasun, S. (2020). From coronavirus to 'hunger virus': Mapping the urgency of social work response amid COVID-19 pandemic in Africa. International Social Work, 1-5.
  • Bearak, M., & Paquette, D. (2020, Nisan 18). Africa’s most vulnerable countries have few ventilators — or none at all. Aralık 2020 tarihinde The Washington Post: https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/africa/africa-coronavirus-ventilators/2020/04/17/903163a4-7f3e-11ea-84c2-0792d8591911_story.html adresinden alındı
  • Berkhout, E., Galasso, N., Lawson, M., Andrés, P., Morales, R., Taneja, A., & Alejo Vázquez Pimentel, D. (2021). The Inequality Virus. Oxford: Oxfam International.
  • Birikorang, E. (2013, Mart). Coups d’état in Africa – A Thing of the Past? Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre: https://media.africaportal.org/documents/KAIPTC-Policy-Brief-3---Coups-detat-in-Africa.pdf adresinden alındı
  • Castel, R. (2004). Sosyal Güvensizlik. İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.
  • Cline-Cole, R. (2020). Socially Distanced Capitalism in a Time of Coronavirus. Review of African Political Economy, 47(164), 169-96.
  • Cocks, T. (2012). Special Report: In Nigeria, a concrete get-rich scheme. Reuters: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-nigeria-dangote-idUSBRE88913U20120911 adresinden alındı
  • de Waal, A. (2020, Mart 31). COVID-19 in Africa: ‘Know your Epidemic, Act on its Politics.’”, 31.03.2020,. Şubat 2021 tarihinde https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/crp/2020/03/31/covid-19-in-africa-know-your-epidemic-act-on-its-politics/ adresinden alındı
  • du Toit, A. (2020, Nisan). COVID-19 responses in Africa: Ok, one size doesn’t fit all. Now what? 2021 Şubat tarihinde African Arguments: https://africanarguments.org/2020/04/covid-19-responses-in-africa-ok-one-size-doesnt-fit-all-now-what/ adresinden alındı
  • du Toit, A., & Mitlin, D. (2020, Nisan 23). COVID-19: The state cannot save us. Şubat 2021 tarihinde African Arguments: https://africanarguments.org/2020/06/covid-19-the-state-cannot-save-us/ adresinden alındı
  • Ghosh, D., Bernstein, A. J., & Mersha, T. B. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic: The African paradox. Journal of Global Health, 10(2), 1-6.
  • Habitat for Humanity (tarih yok). The World’s Largest Slums: Dharavi, Kibera, Khayelitsha & Neza. Şubat 2021 tarihinde https://www.habitatforhumanity.org.uk/blog/2017/12/the-worlds-largest-slums-dharavi-kibera-khayelitsha-neza/ adresinden alındı
  • Harrisberg, K. (2020). South Africans protest police brutality against poor under lockdown. Reuters: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-safrica-protests-police-trfn-idUSKBN23G2QQ adresinden alındı
  • Harrisberg, K. (2020, Haziran 9). South Africans protest police brutality against poor under lockdown. Şubat 2021 tarihinde Reuters: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-safrica-protests-police-trfn-idUSKBN23G2QQ adresinden alındı
  • International Labour Organization (2020). COVID-19 and the world of work - Country policy responses. https://www.ilo.org/global/topics/coronavirus/regional-country/country-responses/lang--en/index.htm#ZA adresinden alındı
  • International Labour Organization (2020, Aralık 21). COVID-19 and the world of work - Country policy responses. Şubat 2021 tarihinde https://www.ilo.org/global/topics/coronavirus/regional-country/country-responses/lang--en/index.htm#ZA adresinden alındı
  • International Monetary Fund (2020, Ekim 28). The IMF’s Response to COVID-19. Aralık 2020 tarihinde https://www.imf.org/en/About/FAQ/imf-response-to-covid-19 adresinden alındı
  • Iwuoha, V. C., & Aniche, E. T. (2020). Covid-19 lockdown and physical distancing policies are elitist: towards an indigenous (Afro-centred) approach to containing the pandemic in sub-urban slums in Nigeria. Local Environment:The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, 1-10.
  • Jooste, Y. (2020, Mayıs 6). How to protect women from violence under lockdowns? Send cash. Şubat 2021 tarihinde African Arguments: https://africanarguments.org/2020/05/how-to-protect-women-from-violence-under-lockdowns-send-cash/ adresinden alındı
  • Kiaga, A. K. (2020, Nisan 14). The impact of the COVID-19 on the informal economy in Africa and the related policy responses. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---africa/---ro-abidjan/documents/briefingnote/wcms_741864.pdf adresinden alındı
  • Lancaster, L., & Mulaudzi, G. (2020, Ağustos 6). Rising protests are a warning sign for South Africa’s government. Şubat 2021 tarihinde Institute for Security Studies: https://issafrica.org/iss-today/rising-protests-are-a-warning-sign-for-south-africas-government adresinden alındı
  • Leng, A., & Hervé, L. (2021). Covid Performance Index. Şubat 2021 tarihinde https://interactives.lowyinstitute.org/features/covid-performance/ adresinden alındı
  • Maclean, R., & Marks, S. (2020, Nisan 18). 10 African Countries Have No Ventilators. That’s Only Part of the Problem. Aralık 2020 tarihinde The New York Times: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/18/world/africa/africa-coronavirus-ventilators.html adresinden alındı
  • Mumbere, D. (2020, Nisan 2). African govts using a similar COVID-19 containment rule book. Aralık 2020 tarihinde Africa News: https://www.africanews.com/2020/04/02/african-govts-adopt-copy-and-paste-approach-to-combat-covid-19/ adresinden alındı
  • Muronzi, C. (2020, Mart 21). Zimbabwe unfazed by South Africa plan to erect border fence. Ocak 2021 tarihinde Aljazeera: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/3/21/zimbabwe-unfazed-by-south-africa-plan-to-erect-border-fence adresinden alındı
  • Mwai, P., & Giles, C. (2020, Haziran 19). Coronavirus in Tanzania: What do we know? Kasım 2020 tarihinde BBC: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-52723594, adresinden alındı
  • New Straits Times (2020, Nisan 28). Nigerian workers riot over Covid-19 lockdown. Şubat 2021 tarihinde https://www.nst.com.my/world/world/2020/04/588042/nigerian-workers-riot-over-covid-19-lockdown adresinden alındı
  • Okwumbu, R. (2020, Nisan 5). Top Nigerian billionaires and their contributions to the fight against COVID-19. Nairametrics: https://nairametrics.com/2020/04/05/top-10-nigerian-billionaires-and-their-contributions-to-the-fight-against-covid-19 adresinden alındı
  • Oliver, G. (2020, Ağustos 27). South Africa’s COVID relief fund dogged by delays and corruption. Şubat 2021 tarihinde The New Humanitarian: https://www.thenewhumanitarian.org/news/2020/08/27/South-Africa-coronavirus-relief-fund-corruption adresinden alındı
  • Oliver, G. (2020, Nisan 23). Township lockdown: How South Africa’s poor bear the cost of coronavirus. Şubat 2020 tarihinde The New Humanitarian: https://www.thenewhumanitarian.org/feature/2020/04/23/South-Africa-coronavirus-jobs-poverty adresinden alındı
  • Orjinmo, N. (2020, Ekim 26). Why Nigerian looters are targeting Covid-19 aid. Ocak 2021 tarihinde BBC: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-54695568 adresinden alındı
  • Reuters (2020, Nisan 16). Nigerian security forces killed 18 people during lockdowns: rights panel. 2021 Şubat tarihinde https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-nigeria-security-idUSKCN21Y272 adresinden alındı
  • Smit, W. (2020). The Challenge of COVID-19 in African Cities: an Urgent Call for Informal Settlement Upgrading. Cities & Health, 1-3.
  • Soy, A. (2020, Ekim 7). Coronavirus in Africa: Five reasons why Covid-19 has been less deadly than elsewhere. Kasım 2020 tarihinde BBC: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-54418613 adresinden alındı
  • Strategic Comments (2020, Temmuz 16). COVID-19 in Nigeria and South Africa.), 26(4), s. vii-ix.
  • United Nations (2020). World Economic Situation and Prospects 2020. Şubat 2021 tarihinde https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/WESP2020_CH3_AFR.pdf adresinden alındı
  • United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2014, Ekim 23). International Decade for Action ‘Water for Life’ 2005-2015 / Access to Sanitation. Aralık 2020 tarihinde https://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/sanitation.shtml adresinden alındı
  • United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (2020). Economic Report on Africa 2020: Innovative Finance for Private Sector Development in Africa Development in Africa. Addis Ababa: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa.
  • United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (2020). Global Humanitarian Response Plan COVID-19. https://www.unocha.org/sites/unocha/files/Global-Humanitarian-Response-Plan-COVID-19.pdf adresinden alındı
  • United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (2020, Mart 28). Global Humanitarian Response Plan COVID-19. Aralık 2020 tarihinde https://www.unocha.org/sites/unocha/files/Global-Humanitarian-Response-Plan-COfVID-19.pdf, adresinden alındı
  • World Bank (2020). World Bank Confirms Economic Downturn in Sub-Saharan Africa, Outlines Key Policies Needed for Recovery. Şubat 2021 tarihinde https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2020/10/08/world-bank-confirms-economic-downturn-in-sub-saharan-africa-outlines- adresinden alındı
  • World Health Organization (2020, Aralık 8). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) advice for the public. 2020 Aralık tarihinde https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public adresinden alındı
  • World Health Organization (tarih yok). Timeline: WHO’s COVID-19 response. Aralık 2020 tarihinde https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/interactive-timeline#event-3 adresinden alındı
  • World Health Organization (2021). WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard. https://covid19.who.int/ adresinden alındı
  • World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (2020, Şubat 19). Testing for coronavirus (COVID-19) in the African Region. https://www.afro.who.int/node/12354 adresinden alındı

COVID-19 in Africa in the Context of Social Insecurity and Informality

Yıl 2021, Cilt 9, Sayı Özel Sayı, 45 - 68, 17.11.2021
https://doi.org/10.14782/marmarasbd.912899

Öz

This article addresses the reasons why African governments’ COVID-19 responses cannot be inclusive and deepen social inequalities. In this regard, it is argued that these measures are insufficient to slow the spread of the disease, alleviate the effects of the economic crisis caused by the epidemic, and provide social support to citizens. The fact that the neoliberal policies that have been implemented in Africa since the 1980s weakened the social security systems of the states and that informal employment has emerged as the driving force of economic growth in Africa are considered as the two main factors that are effective in the inadequacy of the pandemic measures. In this context, the article focuses on post-colonial Nigeria and post-apartheid South Africa, which show examples of neoliberalization on two different grounds. It also examines the social and economic effects of the COVID-19 responses of these two countries, where agricultural and urban informal economic activities are intensely observed. In this perspective, the article is based on reviewing the international news and the reports of particularly WHO and the other UN Specialized Agencies, the African Union and its specialized agency, the African Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the non-governmental organizations, in addition to overviewing the literature developing immediately after the pandemic declaration. In this way, it is understood that most of the employees have difficulty in accessing public services, cannot benefit from the support provided against the pandemic, therefore worse affected by COVID-19. Also, the governments give these inadequate supports through donations instead of public funding and the corruption problem reveals in the supporting process. For these reasons, public opposition to the responses and management strategies has emerged, and the health crisis caused by the COVID-19 outbreak, has the risk of turning into social unrest.

Kaynakça

  • Alavi, H. (1972, Temmuz/Ağustos). The State in Post-Colonial Societies: Pakistan and Bangladesh. New Left Review, 1(74), 59-81.
  • Amadasun, S. (2020). From coronavirus to 'hunger virus': Mapping the urgency of social work response amid COVID-19 pandemic in Africa. International Social Work, 1-5.
  • Bearak, M., & Paquette, D. (2020, Nisan 18). Africa’s most vulnerable countries have few ventilators — or none at all. Aralık 2020 tarihinde The Washington Post: https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/africa/africa-coronavirus-ventilators/2020/04/17/903163a4-7f3e-11ea-84c2-0792d8591911_story.html adresinden alındı
  • Berkhout, E., Galasso, N., Lawson, M., Andrés, P., Morales, R., Taneja, A., & Alejo Vázquez Pimentel, D. (2021). The Inequality Virus. Oxford: Oxfam International.
  • Birikorang, E. (2013, Mart). Coups d’état in Africa – A Thing of the Past? Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre: https://media.africaportal.org/documents/KAIPTC-Policy-Brief-3---Coups-detat-in-Africa.pdf adresinden alındı
  • Castel, R. (2004). Sosyal Güvensizlik. İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.
  • Cline-Cole, R. (2020). Socially Distanced Capitalism in a Time of Coronavirus. Review of African Political Economy, 47(164), 169-96.
  • Cocks, T. (2012). Special Report: In Nigeria, a concrete get-rich scheme. Reuters: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-nigeria-dangote-idUSBRE88913U20120911 adresinden alındı
  • de Waal, A. (2020, Mart 31). COVID-19 in Africa: ‘Know your Epidemic, Act on its Politics.’”, 31.03.2020,. Şubat 2021 tarihinde https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/crp/2020/03/31/covid-19-in-africa-know-your-epidemic-act-on-its-politics/ adresinden alındı
  • du Toit, A. (2020, Nisan). COVID-19 responses in Africa: Ok, one size doesn’t fit all. Now what? 2021 Şubat tarihinde African Arguments: https://africanarguments.org/2020/04/covid-19-responses-in-africa-ok-one-size-doesnt-fit-all-now-what/ adresinden alındı
  • du Toit, A., & Mitlin, D. (2020, Nisan 23). COVID-19: The state cannot save us. Şubat 2021 tarihinde African Arguments: https://africanarguments.org/2020/06/covid-19-the-state-cannot-save-us/ adresinden alındı
  • Ghosh, D., Bernstein, A. J., & Mersha, T. B. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic: The African paradox. Journal of Global Health, 10(2), 1-6.
  • Habitat for Humanity (tarih yok). The World’s Largest Slums: Dharavi, Kibera, Khayelitsha & Neza. Şubat 2021 tarihinde https://www.habitatforhumanity.org.uk/blog/2017/12/the-worlds-largest-slums-dharavi-kibera-khayelitsha-neza/ adresinden alındı
  • Harrisberg, K. (2020). South Africans protest police brutality against poor under lockdown. Reuters: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-safrica-protests-police-trfn-idUSKBN23G2QQ adresinden alındı
  • Harrisberg, K. (2020, Haziran 9). South Africans protest police brutality against poor under lockdown. Şubat 2021 tarihinde Reuters: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-safrica-protests-police-trfn-idUSKBN23G2QQ adresinden alındı
  • International Labour Organization (2020). COVID-19 and the world of work - Country policy responses. https://www.ilo.org/global/topics/coronavirus/regional-country/country-responses/lang--en/index.htm#ZA adresinden alındı
  • International Labour Organization (2020, Aralık 21). COVID-19 and the world of work - Country policy responses. Şubat 2021 tarihinde https://www.ilo.org/global/topics/coronavirus/regional-country/country-responses/lang--en/index.htm#ZA adresinden alındı
  • International Monetary Fund (2020, Ekim 28). The IMF’s Response to COVID-19. Aralık 2020 tarihinde https://www.imf.org/en/About/FAQ/imf-response-to-covid-19 adresinden alındı
  • Iwuoha, V. C., & Aniche, E. T. (2020). Covid-19 lockdown and physical distancing policies are elitist: towards an indigenous (Afro-centred) approach to containing the pandemic in sub-urban slums in Nigeria. Local Environment:The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, 1-10.
  • Jooste, Y. (2020, Mayıs 6). How to protect women from violence under lockdowns? Send cash. Şubat 2021 tarihinde African Arguments: https://africanarguments.org/2020/05/how-to-protect-women-from-violence-under-lockdowns-send-cash/ adresinden alındı
  • Kiaga, A. K. (2020, Nisan 14). The impact of the COVID-19 on the informal economy in Africa and the related policy responses. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---africa/---ro-abidjan/documents/briefingnote/wcms_741864.pdf adresinden alındı
  • Lancaster, L., & Mulaudzi, G. (2020, Ağustos 6). Rising protests are a warning sign for South Africa’s government. Şubat 2021 tarihinde Institute for Security Studies: https://issafrica.org/iss-today/rising-protests-are-a-warning-sign-for-south-africas-government adresinden alındı
  • Leng, A., & Hervé, L. (2021). Covid Performance Index. Şubat 2021 tarihinde https://interactives.lowyinstitute.org/features/covid-performance/ adresinden alındı
  • Maclean, R., & Marks, S. (2020, Nisan 18). 10 African Countries Have No Ventilators. That’s Only Part of the Problem. Aralık 2020 tarihinde The New York Times: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/18/world/africa/africa-coronavirus-ventilators.html adresinden alındı
  • Mumbere, D. (2020, Nisan 2). African govts using a similar COVID-19 containment rule book. Aralık 2020 tarihinde Africa News: https://www.africanews.com/2020/04/02/african-govts-adopt-copy-and-paste-approach-to-combat-covid-19/ adresinden alındı
  • Muronzi, C. (2020, Mart 21). Zimbabwe unfazed by South Africa plan to erect border fence. Ocak 2021 tarihinde Aljazeera: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/3/21/zimbabwe-unfazed-by-south-africa-plan-to-erect-border-fence adresinden alındı
  • Mwai, P., & Giles, C. (2020, Haziran 19). Coronavirus in Tanzania: What do we know? Kasım 2020 tarihinde BBC: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-52723594, adresinden alındı
  • New Straits Times (2020, Nisan 28). Nigerian workers riot over Covid-19 lockdown. Şubat 2021 tarihinde https://www.nst.com.my/world/world/2020/04/588042/nigerian-workers-riot-over-covid-19-lockdown adresinden alındı
  • Okwumbu, R. (2020, Nisan 5). Top Nigerian billionaires and their contributions to the fight against COVID-19. Nairametrics: https://nairametrics.com/2020/04/05/top-10-nigerian-billionaires-and-their-contributions-to-the-fight-against-covid-19 adresinden alındı
  • Oliver, G. (2020, Ağustos 27). South Africa’s COVID relief fund dogged by delays and corruption. Şubat 2021 tarihinde The New Humanitarian: https://www.thenewhumanitarian.org/news/2020/08/27/South-Africa-coronavirus-relief-fund-corruption adresinden alındı
  • Oliver, G. (2020, Nisan 23). Township lockdown: How South Africa’s poor bear the cost of coronavirus. Şubat 2020 tarihinde The New Humanitarian: https://www.thenewhumanitarian.org/feature/2020/04/23/South-Africa-coronavirus-jobs-poverty adresinden alındı
  • Orjinmo, N. (2020, Ekim 26). Why Nigerian looters are targeting Covid-19 aid. Ocak 2021 tarihinde BBC: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-54695568 adresinden alındı
  • Reuters (2020, Nisan 16). Nigerian security forces killed 18 people during lockdowns: rights panel. 2021 Şubat tarihinde https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-nigeria-security-idUSKCN21Y272 adresinden alındı
  • Smit, W. (2020). The Challenge of COVID-19 in African Cities: an Urgent Call for Informal Settlement Upgrading. Cities & Health, 1-3.
  • Soy, A. (2020, Ekim 7). Coronavirus in Africa: Five reasons why Covid-19 has been less deadly than elsewhere. Kasım 2020 tarihinde BBC: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-54418613 adresinden alındı
  • Strategic Comments (2020, Temmuz 16). COVID-19 in Nigeria and South Africa.), 26(4), s. vii-ix.
  • United Nations (2020). World Economic Situation and Prospects 2020. Şubat 2021 tarihinde https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/WESP2020_CH3_AFR.pdf adresinden alındı
  • United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2014, Ekim 23). International Decade for Action ‘Water for Life’ 2005-2015 / Access to Sanitation. Aralık 2020 tarihinde https://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/sanitation.shtml adresinden alındı
  • United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (2020). Economic Report on Africa 2020: Innovative Finance for Private Sector Development in Africa Development in Africa. Addis Ababa: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa.
  • United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (2020). Global Humanitarian Response Plan COVID-19. https://www.unocha.org/sites/unocha/files/Global-Humanitarian-Response-Plan-COVID-19.pdf adresinden alındı
  • United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (2020, Mart 28). Global Humanitarian Response Plan COVID-19. Aralık 2020 tarihinde https://www.unocha.org/sites/unocha/files/Global-Humanitarian-Response-Plan-COfVID-19.pdf, adresinden alındı
  • World Bank (2020). World Bank Confirms Economic Downturn in Sub-Saharan Africa, Outlines Key Policies Needed for Recovery. Şubat 2021 tarihinde https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2020/10/08/world-bank-confirms-economic-downturn-in-sub-saharan-africa-outlines- adresinden alındı
  • World Health Organization (2020, Aralık 8). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) advice for the public. 2020 Aralık tarihinde https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public adresinden alındı
  • World Health Organization (tarih yok). Timeline: WHO’s COVID-19 response. Aralık 2020 tarihinde https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/interactive-timeline#event-3 adresinden alındı
  • World Health Organization (2021). WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard. https://covid19.who.int/ adresinden alındı
  • World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (2020, Şubat 19). Testing for coronavirus (COVID-19) in the African Region. https://www.afro.who.int/node/12354 adresinden alındı

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Siyasi Bilimler
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Ela ÖZKAN (Sorumlu Yazar)
İSTANBUL GEDİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İKTİSADİ, İDARİ VE SOSYAL BİLİMLER FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0003-3205-6781
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 17 Kasım 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 9, Sayı Özel Sayı

Kaynak Göster

APA Özkan, E. (2021). Sosyal Güvensizlik ve Kayıt Dışılık Bağlamında Afrika’da COVID-19 . Marmara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilimler Dergisi , Pandemi, Devlet ve Toplum , 45-68 . DOI: 10.14782/marmarasbd.912899