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A Comparative Analysis of the Covid-19 Pandemic Policies in Argentina and Brazil

Yıl 2021, Cilt 9, Sayı Özel Sayı, 69 - 96, 17.11.2021
https://doi.org/10.14782/marmarasbd.941058

Öz

Covid-19 pandemic, which started in December 2019, brought about the necessity of pandemic policies that affected every sphere of human affairs that can be actualized through state capacity. Consequently, global responses to the pandemic by states, particularly those of populist regimes have been a topic of scholarly debate. In these ongoing discussions, populist regimes were depicted as identical with a perspective solely captures the situation in right-wing populist regimes. Such a perspective leads to a neglect of differences in policy making among populist regimes. Aware of this gap in the literature, this study will analyze the pandemic policies of Argentina and Brazil, which can be categorized as populist regimes. The methodology of the study relies on the policy reports that reflects the pandemic policies of these regimes in detail and academic literature that deals with the class dynamics in these countries. In Argentina and Brazil, which manifests the examples of respectively left- and right-wing populist regimes, a considerable differentiation exists in pandemic policies. The analysis of policies in these two Latin American populist regimes demonstrates that in every period populist rule relies on a particular social base. The differentiation of pandemic policies mainly stems from the fact that in Argentina, the regime’s support base is comprised of working class and domestic bourgeoisie, while it is of financial sector and upper income groups in Brazil. These two case studies reflect different versions of populism and provide the opportunity to grasp policy differences by looking through these dynamics.

Kaynakça

  • Abal Medina, J. M. (2020). Peronism Back in Power in Argentina: Economic Crisis and Political Stability. Latin American Policy, 11(1), 148–153. https://doi.org/10.1111/lamp.12184
  • Abers, R. N., Rossi, F. M., & von Bülow, M. (2021). State–society relations in uncertain times: Social movement strategies, ideational contestation and the pandemic in Brazil and Argentina. International Political Science Review. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192512121993713
  • Alon, T., Kim, M., Lagakos, D., & VanVuren, M. (2020). How Should Policy Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic Differ in the Developing World? NBER Working Paper.
  • Andreas, T. (2012). Neoliberalism in Crisis. In H. Overbeek & B. van Apeldoorn (Eds.), Neoliberalism in Crisis. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137002471
  • Balmford, B., Annan, J. D., Hargreaves, J. C., Altoè, M., & Bateman, I. J. (2020). Cross-Country Comparisons of Covid-19: Policy, Politics and the Price of Life. Environmental and Resource Economics, 76(4), 525–551. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10640-020-00466-5
  • Barros, A., & Wanderley, S. (2020). Brazilian businessmen movements: Right-wing populism and the (dis)connection between policy and politics. Organization, 27(3), 394–404. https://doi.org/10.1177/1350508419883378
  • Biglieri, P. (2020). Argentina, (No. 7; G. Katsambekis & Y. Stavrakakis, Eds.). Thessaloniki.
  • Birgün. (2020, December 9). Pandemide servet vergisi: Arjantin’de yasalaşması ardından İngiltere’de önerildi. BİRGün. Retrieved from https://www.birgun.net/haber/pandemide-servet-vergisi-arjantin-de-yasalasmasi-ardindan-ingiltere-de-onerildi-325977
  • Blofield, M., Giambruno, C., & Filgueria, F. (2020). Policy Expansion in the Compressed Time: Assesing the Speed, Breadth and Sufficiency of post- COVID-19 Social Protection Measures in 10 Latin American Countries (No. 235). Santiago. Retrieved from https://repositorio.cepal.org/bitstream/handle/11362/46016/4/S2000593_en.pdf
  • Boito, A., & Resende, R. (2007). Class relations in Brazil’s new neoliberal phase. Latin American Perspectives, 34(5), 115–131. https://doi.org/10.1177/0094582X07306304
  • Boito, A., & Saad-Filho, A. (2016). State, State Institutions, and Political Power in Brazil. Latin American Perspectives, 43(2), 190–206. https://doi.org/10.1177/0094582X15616120
  • Borges, A. (2020, April 10). A little flu’: Brazil’s Bolsonaro playing down coronavirus crisis. Euronews.
  • Bufacchi, V. (2020). Is coronavirus bad for populism? Global-E, 13(25), 1-4.
  • Cammack, P. (2000). The resurgence of populism in Latin America. Bulletin of Latin American Research, 19(2), 149–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-3050(99)00076-5
  • Cheng, C., Barceló, J., Hartnett, A. S., Kubinec, R., & Messerschmidt, L. (2020). COVID-19 Government Response Event Dataset (CoronaNet v.1.0). Nature Human Behaviour, 4(7), 756–768. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-020-0909-7
  • Conniff, M. L., & Roberts, K. (2012). Populism in Latin America. In Populism in Latin America (Vol. 9780817386). https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351186032-56
  • De Barros, T. Z. (2020). Brazil (No. 7; G. Katsambekis & Y. Stavrakakis, Eds.). Thessaloniki.
  • Durmuş, S., & Şahin, D. (2020). Covid-19 Küresel Salgında Dünyada ve Türkiye’de Uygulanan Ekonomi Politikaları Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme. Journal of Turkish Studies, Volume 15(Volume 15 Issue 4), 923–943. https://doi.org/10.7827/turkishstudies.44506
  • Erickson, K. P., & O’Donnell, G. (1975). Modernization and Bureaucratic Authoritarianism. The Hispanic American Historical Review, 55(3), 565. https://doi.org/10.2307/2512397
  • Etchemendy, S., & Collier, R. B. (2007). Down but not out: Union resurgence and segmented neocorporatism in Argentina (2003-2007). Politics and Society, 35(3), 363–401. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032329207304318
  • Feres Júnior, J., & Gagliardi, J. (2021). Populism and the Media in Brazil: The Case of Jair Bolsonaro. In The Politics of Authenticity and Populist Discourses. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-55474-3_5
  • Garcia, A. (2019). Brazil under Bolsonaro: Social base, agenda and perspectives. Journal of Global Faultlines, 6(1), 62–69. https://doi.org/10.13169/jglobfaul.6.1.0062
  • Gentilini, U., Almenfi, M., Orton, I., & Dale, P. (2020). Social Protection and Jobs Responses to COVID-19 : A Real-Time Review of Country Measures. In Social Protection and Jobs Global Practice.
  • González-Bustamante, B. (2021). Evolution and early government responses to COVID-19 in South America. World Development, 137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2020.105180
  • Greer, S. L., King, E. J., da Fonseca, E. M., & Peralta-Santos, A. (2020). The comparative politics of COVID-19: The need to understand government responses. Global Public Health, 15(9), 1413–1416. https://doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2020.1783340
  • Grigera, J. (2017). Populism in Latin America: Old and new populisms in Argentina and Brazil. International Political Science Review, 38(4), 441–455. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192512117701510
  • Grugel, J., & Riggirozzi, P. (2012). Post-neoliberalism in Latin America: Rebuilding and Reclaiming the State after Crisis. Development and Change, 43(1), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7660.2011.01746.x
  • ILOSTAT. (n.d.). Statistics on the informal economy. Retrieved May 10, 2021, from https://ilostat.ilo.org/topics/informality/
  • Katsambekis, G., & Stavrakakis, Y. (Eds.). (2020). Populism and the Pandemic: A Collaborative Report (No. 7). Thessaloniki.
  • Llaneras, K. (2018). Bolsonaro divide o Brasil: arrasa nas cidades mais brancas e mais ricas. El Pais.
  • Loureiro, P. M. (2018). Reformism, Class Conciliation and the Pink Tide: Material Gains and Their Limits. In M. Ystanes & I. Å. Strønen (Eds.), The Social Life of Economic Inequalities in Contemporary Latin America (pp. 35–55). Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-61536-3
  • Lupien, P., Rincón, A., Carrera, F., & Lagos, G. (2021). Early COVID-19 policy responses in Latin America: a comparative analysis of social protection and health policy. Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies / Revue Canadienne Des Études Latino-Américaines et Caraïbes, 46(2), 297–317. https://doi.org/10.1080/08263663.2021.1917823
  • Mandl, C., & Benassatto, L. (2020, July 19). Brazil’s Bolsonaro says coronavirus restrictions kill economy. Reutersers. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-brazil-idUSKCN24J0V8
  • March, L. (2007). From Vanguard of the Proletariat to Vox Populi. Source: The SAIS Review of International Affairs, 27(1), 63–77. https://doi.org/10.2307/26999345
  • Menezes-filho, N., Komatsu, B., & Rosa, J. P. (2021). Reducing Poverty and Inequality during the Coronavirus Outbreak : The Emergency Aid Transfers in Brazil João Pedro Rosa Reducing Poverty and Inequality during the Coronavirus Outbreak : The Emergency Aid Transfers in Brazil. In insper.edu.br (No. 54). Retrieved from https://www.insper.edu.br/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/Policy_Paper_54.pdf
  • Meyer, B. (2020). Pandemic Populism: An Analysis of Populist Leaders’ Responses to Covid-19. In Tony Blair Institute or Global Change.
  • Monedero, J. C. (2019). SNIPERS IN THE KITCHEN: State Theory and Latin America’s Left Cycle. New Left Review, (120), 5–32.
  • Mudde, C. (2004). The populist zeitgeist. Government and Opposition, Vol. 39, pp. 542–563. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-7053.2004.00135.x
  • Mudde, C. (2007). Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe. In Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511492037
  • Mudde, C. (2020, March 27). Will the coronavirus “kill populism”? Don’t count on it. The Guardian.
  • Mudde, C., & Rovira Kaltwasser, C. (2013). Exclusionary vs. Inclusionary Populism: Comparing Contemporary Europe and Latin America. Government and Opposition, 48(2), 147–174. https://doi.org/10.1017/gov.2012.11
  • Muno, W. (2018). Populism in Argentina. In Populism Around the World: A Comparative Perspective (pp. 9–26). Ottawa: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-96758-5_2
  • Murillo, M. V., & Rodrigo Zarazaga, S. J. (2020). Argentina: Peronism returns. Journal of Democracy, 31(2), 125–136. https://doi.org/10.1353/jod.2020.0026
  • Niedzwiecki, S. (2014). The Effect of Unions and Organized Civil Society on Social Policy: Pension and Health Reforms in Argentina and Brazil, 1988–2008. Latin American Politics and Society, 56(4), 22–48. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1548-2456.2014.00247.x
  • OECD. (2020). Covid-19: SME Policy Responses. In OECD. Retrieved from https://oecd.dam-broadcast.com/pm_7379_119_119680-di6h3qgi4x.pdf
  • Pulejo, M., & Querubín, P. (2021). Electoral Concerns Reduce Restrictive Measures During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Public Economics, 104387. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2021.104387
  • Renno, L. (2020). The Bolsonaro Voter: Issue Positions and Vote Choice in the 2018 Brazilian Presidential Elections. Latin American Politics and Society, 15(1), 1–16.
  • Reuters Staff. (2020a). Trump says without proof that FDA “deep state” slowing COVID trials. Reuters.
  • Reuters Staff. (2020b, July 31). Argentina extends coronavirus lockdown as cases rise. Reuters. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-argentina-idUSKCN24W2MP
  • Roberts, K. M. (2007). Latin America’s Populist Revival. SAIS Review of International Affairs, 27(1), 3–15. https://doi.org/10.1353/sais.2007.0018
  • Roser, M., Ritchie, H., Ortiz-Ospina, E., & Hasell, J. (2020). Coronavirus (COVID-19) Testing - Statistics and Research - Our World in Data. Our World in Data. Retrieved from https://ourworldindata.org/coronavirus-testing%0Ahttps://ourworldindata.org/covid-vaccinations?utm_source=meio&utm_medium=email%0Ahttps://ourworldindata.org/coronavirus-testing
  • Saad-Filho, A., & Boito, A. (2015). Brazil: The failure of the PT and the rise of the “new right.” Socialist Register, 52, 213–230.
  • Weyland, K. (1996). Neopopulism and neoliberalism in Latin America: Unexpected affinities. Studies in Comparative International Development, 31(3), 3–31. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02738987
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Arjantin ve Brezilya’da Covid-19 Pandemi Politikalarının Karşılaştırmalı Analizi

Yıl 2021, Cilt 9, Sayı Özel Sayı, 69 - 96, 17.11.2021
https://doi.org/10.14782/marmarasbd.941058

Öz

2019 yılı aralık ayında başlayan Covid-19 salgını, toplum sağlığının korunması için günlük hayatın ve toplumsal düzenin hemen hemen her alanını etkileyen ve devlet kapasitesini ön plana çıkaran salgın politikaları üretmeyi gerektirmiştir. Buna bağlı olarak küresel anlamda devletlerin pandemi süresince uyguladığı politikalar ve özellikle son dönemde yükselişte olan popülist rejimlerin pandemi politikaları önemli bir tartışma unsuru olmuştur. Söz konusu tartışmalarda popülist rejimler birbirine benzer biçimlerde tasvir edilmiş ve ağırlıklı olarak sağ popülizm örneklerine odaklanılmıştır. Bu yaklaşımlar, pandemi politikalarındaki farklılaşmaların göz ardı edilmesine neden olmuştur. Buradan hareketle çalışma, Latin Amerika’da popülist rejimlere örnek teşkil eden Arjantin ve Brezilya’nın pandemi politikalarını sınıfsal dinamikler üzerinden inceleyecektir. Çalışmanın metodu bu ülkelerdeki pandemi dönemi politikalarının içeriğinin Covid-19 salgını konusundaki raporlar üzerinden incelenmesi ve politikaları etkileyen sınıfsal dinamiklerin ikincil kaynaklar üzerinden analiz edilmesinden oluşmaktadır. Sırasıyla sol ve sağ popülizm örnekleri olarak da görülebilecek Arjantin ve Brezilya’da, pandemi politikaları açısından belirgin farklılıklar görülmektedir. Bu farklılaşmayı yanıştır biçimde, analizler Latin Amerika’da popülist rejimlerin her dönemde farklı toplumsal kesimlere dayandığını ve politikaların bu dinamikler üzerinden şekillendiğini göstermektedir. Arjantin’de rejimin Peronist dönemin özelliklerini yansıtır biçimde işçi sınıfının ve yerli burjuvazinin, Brezilya’da ise finans sektörü ve üst gelir gruplarının desteğine dayanması, bu iki popülist yönetimin doğasını ve politikalarını ayrıştıran temel bir faktör olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Çalışmadaki bu iki ülke örneği, popülizmin farklılaşan biçimlerini yansıtmakta ve pandemi politikalarını bu dinamikler üzerinden okumaya fırsat sunmaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • Abal Medina, J. M. (2020). Peronism Back in Power in Argentina: Economic Crisis and Political Stability. Latin American Policy, 11(1), 148–153. https://doi.org/10.1111/lamp.12184
  • Abers, R. N., Rossi, F. M., & von Bülow, M. (2021). State–society relations in uncertain times: Social movement strategies, ideational contestation and the pandemic in Brazil and Argentina. International Political Science Review. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192512121993713
  • Alon, T., Kim, M., Lagakos, D., & VanVuren, M. (2020). How Should Policy Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic Differ in the Developing World? NBER Working Paper.
  • Andreas, T. (2012). Neoliberalism in Crisis. In H. Overbeek & B. van Apeldoorn (Eds.), Neoliberalism in Crisis. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137002471
  • Balmford, B., Annan, J. D., Hargreaves, J. C., Altoè, M., & Bateman, I. J. (2020). Cross-Country Comparisons of Covid-19: Policy, Politics and the Price of Life. Environmental and Resource Economics, 76(4), 525–551. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10640-020-00466-5
  • Barros, A., & Wanderley, S. (2020). Brazilian businessmen movements: Right-wing populism and the (dis)connection between policy and politics. Organization, 27(3), 394–404. https://doi.org/10.1177/1350508419883378
  • Biglieri, P. (2020). Argentina, (No. 7; G. Katsambekis & Y. Stavrakakis, Eds.). Thessaloniki.
  • Birgün. (2020, December 9). Pandemide servet vergisi: Arjantin’de yasalaşması ardından İngiltere’de önerildi. BİRGün. Retrieved from https://www.birgun.net/haber/pandemide-servet-vergisi-arjantin-de-yasalasmasi-ardindan-ingiltere-de-onerildi-325977
  • Blofield, M., Giambruno, C., & Filgueria, F. (2020). Policy Expansion in the Compressed Time: Assesing the Speed, Breadth and Sufficiency of post- COVID-19 Social Protection Measures in 10 Latin American Countries (No. 235). Santiago. Retrieved from https://repositorio.cepal.org/bitstream/handle/11362/46016/4/S2000593_en.pdf
  • Boito, A., & Resende, R. (2007). Class relations in Brazil’s new neoliberal phase. Latin American Perspectives, 34(5), 115–131. https://doi.org/10.1177/0094582X07306304
  • Boito, A., & Saad-Filho, A. (2016). State, State Institutions, and Political Power in Brazil. Latin American Perspectives, 43(2), 190–206. https://doi.org/10.1177/0094582X15616120
  • Borges, A. (2020, April 10). A little flu’: Brazil’s Bolsonaro playing down coronavirus crisis. Euronews.
  • Bufacchi, V. (2020). Is coronavirus bad for populism? Global-E, 13(25), 1-4.
  • Cammack, P. (2000). The resurgence of populism in Latin America. Bulletin of Latin American Research, 19(2), 149–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-3050(99)00076-5
  • Cheng, C., Barceló, J., Hartnett, A. S., Kubinec, R., & Messerschmidt, L. (2020). COVID-19 Government Response Event Dataset (CoronaNet v.1.0). Nature Human Behaviour, 4(7), 756–768. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-020-0909-7
  • Conniff, M. L., & Roberts, K. (2012). Populism in Latin America. In Populism in Latin America (Vol. 9780817386). https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351186032-56
  • De Barros, T. Z. (2020). Brazil (No. 7; G. Katsambekis & Y. Stavrakakis, Eds.). Thessaloniki.
  • Durmuş, S., & Şahin, D. (2020). Covid-19 Küresel Salgında Dünyada ve Türkiye’de Uygulanan Ekonomi Politikaları Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme. Journal of Turkish Studies, Volume 15(Volume 15 Issue 4), 923–943. https://doi.org/10.7827/turkishstudies.44506
  • Erickson, K. P., & O’Donnell, G. (1975). Modernization and Bureaucratic Authoritarianism. The Hispanic American Historical Review, 55(3), 565. https://doi.org/10.2307/2512397
  • Etchemendy, S., & Collier, R. B. (2007). Down but not out: Union resurgence and segmented neocorporatism in Argentina (2003-2007). Politics and Society, 35(3), 363–401. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032329207304318
  • Feres Júnior, J., & Gagliardi, J. (2021). Populism and the Media in Brazil: The Case of Jair Bolsonaro. In The Politics of Authenticity and Populist Discourses. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-55474-3_5
  • Garcia, A. (2019). Brazil under Bolsonaro: Social base, agenda and perspectives. Journal of Global Faultlines, 6(1), 62–69. https://doi.org/10.13169/jglobfaul.6.1.0062
  • Gentilini, U., Almenfi, M., Orton, I., & Dale, P. (2020). Social Protection and Jobs Responses to COVID-19 : A Real-Time Review of Country Measures. In Social Protection and Jobs Global Practice.
  • González-Bustamante, B. (2021). Evolution and early government responses to COVID-19 in South America. World Development, 137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2020.105180
  • Greer, S. L., King, E. J., da Fonseca, E. M., & Peralta-Santos, A. (2020). The comparative politics of COVID-19: The need to understand government responses. Global Public Health, 15(9), 1413–1416. https://doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2020.1783340
  • Grigera, J. (2017). Populism in Latin America: Old and new populisms in Argentina and Brazil. International Political Science Review, 38(4), 441–455. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192512117701510
  • Grugel, J., & Riggirozzi, P. (2012). Post-neoliberalism in Latin America: Rebuilding and Reclaiming the State after Crisis. Development and Change, 43(1), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7660.2011.01746.x
  • ILOSTAT. (n.d.). Statistics on the informal economy. Retrieved May 10, 2021, from https://ilostat.ilo.org/topics/informality/
  • Katsambekis, G., & Stavrakakis, Y. (Eds.). (2020). Populism and the Pandemic: A Collaborative Report (No. 7). Thessaloniki.
  • Llaneras, K. (2018). Bolsonaro divide o Brasil: arrasa nas cidades mais brancas e mais ricas. El Pais.
  • Loureiro, P. M. (2018). Reformism, Class Conciliation and the Pink Tide: Material Gains and Their Limits. In M. Ystanes & I. Å. Strønen (Eds.), The Social Life of Economic Inequalities in Contemporary Latin America (pp. 35–55). Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-61536-3
  • Lupien, P., Rincón, A., Carrera, F., & Lagos, G. (2021). Early COVID-19 policy responses in Latin America: a comparative analysis of social protection and health policy. Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies / Revue Canadienne Des Études Latino-Américaines et Caraïbes, 46(2), 297–317. https://doi.org/10.1080/08263663.2021.1917823
  • Mandl, C., & Benassatto, L. (2020, July 19). Brazil’s Bolsonaro says coronavirus restrictions kill economy. Reutersers. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-brazil-idUSKCN24J0V8
  • March, L. (2007). From Vanguard of the Proletariat to Vox Populi. Source: The SAIS Review of International Affairs, 27(1), 63–77. https://doi.org/10.2307/26999345
  • Menezes-filho, N., Komatsu, B., & Rosa, J. P. (2021). Reducing Poverty and Inequality during the Coronavirus Outbreak : The Emergency Aid Transfers in Brazil João Pedro Rosa Reducing Poverty and Inequality during the Coronavirus Outbreak : The Emergency Aid Transfers in Brazil. In insper.edu.br (No. 54). Retrieved from https://www.insper.edu.br/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/Policy_Paper_54.pdf
  • Meyer, B. (2020). Pandemic Populism: An Analysis of Populist Leaders’ Responses to Covid-19. In Tony Blair Institute or Global Change.
  • Monedero, J. C. (2019). SNIPERS IN THE KITCHEN: State Theory and Latin America’s Left Cycle. New Left Review, (120), 5–32.
  • Mudde, C. (2004). The populist zeitgeist. Government and Opposition, Vol. 39, pp. 542–563. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-7053.2004.00135.x
  • Mudde, C. (2007). Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe. In Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511492037
  • Mudde, C. (2020, March 27). Will the coronavirus “kill populism”? Don’t count on it. The Guardian.
  • Mudde, C., & Rovira Kaltwasser, C. (2013). Exclusionary vs. Inclusionary Populism: Comparing Contemporary Europe and Latin America. Government and Opposition, 48(2), 147–174. https://doi.org/10.1017/gov.2012.11
  • Muno, W. (2018). Populism in Argentina. In Populism Around the World: A Comparative Perspective (pp. 9–26). Ottawa: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-96758-5_2
  • Murillo, M. V., & Rodrigo Zarazaga, S. J. (2020). Argentina: Peronism returns. Journal of Democracy, 31(2), 125–136. https://doi.org/10.1353/jod.2020.0026
  • Niedzwiecki, S. (2014). The Effect of Unions and Organized Civil Society on Social Policy: Pension and Health Reforms in Argentina and Brazil, 1988–2008. Latin American Politics and Society, 56(4), 22–48. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1548-2456.2014.00247.x
  • OECD. (2020). Covid-19: SME Policy Responses. In OECD. Retrieved from https://oecd.dam-broadcast.com/pm_7379_119_119680-di6h3qgi4x.pdf
  • Pulejo, M., & Querubín, P. (2021). Electoral Concerns Reduce Restrictive Measures During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Public Economics, 104387. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2021.104387
  • Renno, L. (2020). The Bolsonaro Voter: Issue Positions and Vote Choice in the 2018 Brazilian Presidential Elections. Latin American Politics and Society, 15(1), 1–16.
  • Reuters Staff. (2020a). Trump says without proof that FDA “deep state” slowing COVID trials. Reuters.
  • Reuters Staff. (2020b, July 31). Argentina extends coronavirus lockdown as cases rise. Reuters. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-argentina-idUSKCN24W2MP
  • Roberts, K. M. (2007). Latin America’s Populist Revival. SAIS Review of International Affairs, 27(1), 3–15. https://doi.org/10.1353/sais.2007.0018
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Siyasi Bilimler
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Burak AK (Sorumlu Yazar)
MARMARA ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SİYASAL BİLGİLER FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0001-7461-3975
Türkiye

Teşekkür Dr. Öğr. Üyesi Cemil Yıldızcan ve Cihan Özpınar'a yazım aşamasındaki katkılarından ötürü teşekkürü bir borç bilirim.
Yayımlanma Tarihi 17 Kasım 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 9, Sayı Özel Sayı

Kaynak Göster

APA Ak, B. (2021). Arjantin ve Brezilya’da Covid-19 Pandemi Politikalarının Karşılaştırmalı Analizi . Marmara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilimler Dergisi , Pandemi, Devlet ve Toplum , 69-96 . DOI: 10.14782/marmarasbd.941058