Yıl 2021, Cilt 4 , Sayı 1, Sayfalar 33 - 64 2021-06-29

Jews in the US in the Nazi Press: Review on the Fliegende Blätter Humor Magazine
Nazi Basınında ABD’deki Yahudiler: Fliegende Blätter Mizah Dergisi Üzerine İnceleme

Elif Hatun KILIÇBEYLİ [1]


‘Political communication’, caused by the composition of political history, one of the sub-fields of study that make up the discipline of international relations, with Sociology, the roof of social sciences, consists of different tools that have the characteristics of integrating or separating societies. After the National Socialist German Workers’Party (NSDAP), which came to power as a result of the general elections held in Germany on March 5, 1933, gained power, anti-semitic rhetoric began to find an intense place in the German press. Jews were harshly criticized, especially in humor magazines such as Lustige Blätter, Kladderadatsch and Fliegende Blätter. On the other hand, the Jewish diaspora in the USA was heavily criticized in Fliegende Blätter among these humor magazines. In the study, it was tried to reveal how the Jewish diaspora in the USA was presented in the German press during the NSDAP rule over the cartoons about the Jewish diaspora in Fliegende Blätter. At this stage, the magazine covers of Fliegende Blätter on Jewish diaspora were examined using the semiotics method. It was revealed that the perceptions that the Jewish diaspora influenced the US administration and public opinion and that the USA fought against Germany under the control of the Jews were tried to be made through cartoons as a result of the study.
Uluslararası İlişkiler disiplinini oluşturan alt çalışma alanlarından biri olan Siyasi Tarih’in, sosyal bilimlerin çatısı olarak da kabul edilen Sosyoloji ile bileşiminin ortaya çıkardığı ‘siyasal iletişim’, toplumları bütünleştirme veya ayrıştırma özellikleri olan farklı araçlardan oluşur. Almanya’da 5 Mart 1933 yılı yapılan Genel Seçimler sonucu iktidara gelen Nasyonal Sosyalist Alman İşçi Partisi (NSDAP)’nin iktidarı elde etmesinden sonra Alman basınında Yahudi karşıtı söylemler yoğun şekilde yer bulmaya başlamıştır Özellikle Lustige Blätter, Kladderadatsch ve Fliegende Blätter gibi mizah dergilerinde Yahudiler sert biçimde eleştirilmiştir. Diğer yandan bu mizah dergileri içerisinde Fliegende Blätter’de ABD’deki Yahudi diasporası ağır şekilde eleştiriye maruz kalmıştır. Çalışmada Fliegende Blätter’deki Yahudi diasporasını konu alan karikatürler üzerinden NSDAP iktidarı döneminde Alman basınında ABD’deki Yahudi diasporasının ne şekilde sunulduğu ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Bu aşamada çalışma kapsamında Fliegende Blätter’in Yahudi diasporasını konu alan dergi kapakları göstergebilim yöntemi kullanılarak incelenmiştir. Çalışmanın sonucu olarak Yahudi diasporasının ABD yönetimini ve kamuoyunu etkisi altına aldığına ve ABD’nin Yahudilerin kontrolü altında Almanya’ya karşı savaştığına yönelik algıların karikatürler üzerinden oluşturulmaya çalışıldığı ortaya çıkarılmıştır.
  • Alexander, M. (2006). The meaning of American Jewish history. Jewish Quarterly Review, 423-432.
  • Aviv, C. S., and Shneer, D. (2005). New Jews: The end of the Jewish diaspora. NY: New York University Press.
  • Bar-Kochva, B. (2010). Pseudo hecataeus, 'on the Jews': Legitimizing the Jewish diaspora. California: University of California Press.
  • Baron, S. (1950). American Jewish history: Problems and methods. Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society, 207-266.
  • Barthes, R. (2014). Çağdaş söylenler. İstanbul: Metis Yayınevi.
  • Barthes, R. (2015). Bir deneme bir ders: Eiffel Kulesi ve açılış dersi. İstanbul: Yapı Kredi Yayınları.
  • Bauer, Y. (2017). American Jewry and the holocaust : The American Jewish joint distribution committee, 1939-1945. Wayne State University Press.
  • Beinart, P. (2010). The failure of the American Jewish establishment. The New York Review of Books, 10-21.
  • Bessel, R. (2004). The Nazi capture of power. Journal of Contemporary History, s. 169-188.
  • Blätter, F. (1942, 6 14). Heidelberg historic literature – digitized. https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/fb196/0049/: https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/fb196/0049/image adresinden alındı
  • Blätter, F. (1942, 8 4). Heidelberg historic literature – digitized. https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de: https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/fb196/0113/text_heidicon adresinden alındı
  • Blätter, F. (1942, 5 23). Heidelberg historic literature – digitized. https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de: https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/fb196/0257/image adresinden alındı
  • Blätter, F. (1942, 4 25). Heidelberg historic literature – digitized. https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de: https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/fb196/0369/image adresinden alındı
  • Blätter, F. (1942, 4 13). Heidelberg historic literature – digitized. https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de: https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/fb197/0032/text_heidicon adresinden alındı
  • Blätter, F. (1942, 3 22). Heidelberg historic literature – digitized. https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de: https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/fb197/0304 adresinden alındı
  • Blätter, F. (1942, 5 16). Heidelberg historic literature – digitized. https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de: https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/fb197/0240/image adresinden alındı
  • Blätter, F. (1942, 6 11). Heidelberg historic literature – digitized. https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de: https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/fb197/0192/image adresinden alındı
  • Blätter, F. (1942, 09 10). Heidelberg historic literature – digitized. https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de: https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/fb197/0160/image adresinden alındı
  • Blätter, F. (1942, 08 06). Heidelberg historic literature – digitized. https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de: https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/fb197/0080 adresinden alındı
  • Blätter, F. (1942, 08 06). Heidelberg historic literature – digitized. https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de: https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/fb197/0048/image adresinden alındı
  • Blätter, F. (1942, 07 12). Heidelberg historic literature – digitized. https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de: https://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/fb197/0048/image adresinden alındı
  • Butler-Smith, A. (2009). Diaspora nationality vs diaspora nationalism: American Jewish identity and zionism after the Jewish state. Israel Affairs, 159-179.
  • Chiswick, B., and Huang, J. (2008). The earrings of American Jewish men: Human capital, denomination, and religiosity. Journal of the Scientific Study of Religion, 694-709.
  • Cohen, E. (2009). Particularistic education, endogamy, and educational tourism to homeland: An exploratory multi-dimensional analysis of Jewish diaspora social indicators. Contemporary Jewry, 169-189.
  • Cohen, N. (1999). Jacob H. Schiff: A study in American Jewish leadership. UPNE.
  • Collection, U. S. (1942, May 27). Collections. https://www.ushmm.org/: https://collections.ushmm.org/search/catalog/irn13549 adresinden alındı
  • Collins-Kreiner, N., and Olsen, D. (2004). Selling diaspora-producing and segmenting the Jewish diaspora tourism market. Tourism, Diasporas and Space, 279-290.
  • Dauber, J. (2006). Comic books, tragic stories: Will Eisner's American Jewish history. AJS Rewiev, 277-304.
  • DellaPergola, S., Rebhun, U., and Tolts, M. (2005). Contemporary Jewish diaspora in global context: Human development correlates of population trends. Israel Studies, 61-95.
  • DellaPergola, S. (1980). Patterns of American Jewish fertility. Demography, 261-273.
  • Dieckhoff, A. (2017). The Jewish diaspora and Israel: Belonging at distance? Nations and Nationalism, 271-288.
  • Dinnerstein, L. (1987). Uneasy at home: Antisemitism and the American Jewish experience. NY: Columbia University Press.
  • Duker, A. (1950). Emerging culture patterns in American Jewish life: The psycho-cultural approach to the study of Jewish Life in America. Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society, 351-388.
  • Edrei, A., and Mendels, R. (2007). A split Jewish Diaspora: Its dramatic consequences. Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha, 91-137.
  • Ehrlich, M. (2009). Encyclopedia of the Jewish diaspora: Origins, experiences, and culture. NY: ABC-CLIO.
  • Elo, M., and Vemuri, S. (2016). Organizing mobility: A case study of Bukharian Jewish Diaspora. Diaspora Studies, 179-193.
  • Elo, M., and Volovelsky, E. (2017). Jewish diaspora entrepreneurs-the impact of religin on opportunity exploration and exploitation. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 244-269.
  • Elo, M., Taube , F., and Volovelsky, E. (2019). Migration 'against the tide': Location and Jewish diaspora entrepreneurs. Regional Studies, 95-106.
  • Evans, N. (2009). A strike for radical justice? Transatlantic shipping and the Jewish diaspora. Jewish Culture and History, 21-38.
  • Feingold, H. (1982). American Jewish history and American Jewish survival. American Jewish History, 421-431.
  • Feingold, H. (1983). Midrash on American Jewish history. NY: SUNY Press.
  • Fejgin, N. (1995). Factors contibuting to the Academic excellence of American Jewish and Asian students. Sociology of Education, 18-30.
  • Finkelstein, N. H. (2010). American Jewish history: A JPS Guide. NY: Jewish Publication Society.
  • Fishman, S. B. (1995). A breath of life: Feminism in the American Jewish community. Chicago: UPNE.
  • Fishman, S. B. (1997). Success in curcuit lies: Philip Roth's recent explorations of American Jewish identity. Jewish Social Studies, 132-155.
  • Fishman, S. B. (2015). Gender in American Jewish life. A. Dashefsky, and I. Sheskin içinde, In American Jewish Year Book 2014 (s. 91-131). NY: Springer.
  • Ganin, Z. (1977). The limits of American Jewish political power: The America's retreat from partition, November 1947-March 1948. Jewish Social Studies, 1-36.
  • Goebbels, J. (2016). Gerçek yüzüyle Komunizm ve teori ve pratikte Bolşevizm. Istanbul: Bilge Karınca yayınları .
  • Goldschmidt, H. (2000). Crown heights is the center of the World's reterritorializing a Jewish diaspora. Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies, 83-106.
  • Hagel, P., and Peretz, P. (2005). States and transnational actors: Who's influencing whom? A case study in Jewish Diaspora. Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies, 83-106.
  • Hartman, H. (2016). Gender differences in American Jewish identity: Testing the power control theory explanation. Review of Religious Research, 407-431.
  • Heilman, S. C. (2006). Sliding to the right: The contest for the future of American Jewish orthodoxy. California: University of California Press.
  • Himmelfarb, H. S. (1980). The study of American Jewish identification: How it is defined, measured, obtained,sustained and lost. Journal of the Scientific Study of Religion, 48-60.
  • Horn, G.-R. (1997). International labor and working-class history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Hyman, P. E. (2003). The normalization of American Jewish history. American Jewish History, 353-359.
  • Jacobs, B. M. (2005). What's wrong with the history of the American Jewish education? Journal of Jewish Education, 33-51.
  • Jovanovich, N. (1972). Antimasonska i antikomunistichka izlojba u Belgradu 1941. godine. V. G. Jovan Maryanovich içinde, NOR i revolutsiya u Sırbiyi 1941-1945 (s. 365). Belgrad: Serbia.
  • Kahn, A. F. (2014). Transnational traditions: New perspectives on American Jewish history. NY: Wayne State University Press.
  • Katz, E. A. (2015). Bringing zion home: Israel in American Jewish culture 1948-1967. NY: SUNY Press.
  • Kaufman, D. (2015). Shul with the pool: The 'Synagogue Center' in American Jewish history. NY: SUNY Press.
  • Kauvar, E. M. (1993). Introduction: Some reflections on contemporary American Jewish culture. Contemporary Literature, 337-357.
  • Khanin, V. (2002). The new Russian Jewish diaspora and 'Russian' party politics in Israel. Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, 37-60.
  • Kosmin, B., and Keysar, A. (2013). American Jewish secularism: Jewish life beyond the synagogue. A. Dashefsky, and I. Sheskin, In American Jewish Year Book 2012 (s. 3-54). Dordrecht: Springer.
  • Krasner, J. (2012). The Benderly boys and American Jewish education. Chicago: University Press of New England (UPNE).
  • Krasner, J. (2013). The place of Tikkun Olam in American Jewish life. Jewish Political Studies Review, 59-98.
  • Lazerwitz, B., Winter, J., Dashefsky, A., and Tabory, E. (1998). Jewish choices: American Jewish denominationalism. NY: SUNY Press.
  • Lederhendler , E. (2014). The interrupted chain : Traditional receiver countries, migration regimes, and the East European Jewish diaspora, 1918-1939. East European Jewish Affairs, 171-186.
  • Levantovskaya, M. (2012). The Russian-speaking Jewish diaspora in translation; Liudmila Ulitskaia's Daniel Stein. Slavic Review, 91-107.
  • Levine, P. (1993). Ellis Island to ebbets field: Sport and the American Jewish experience. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Liebman, C. (1965). Orthodoxy in American Jewish life. American Jewish Year Book, 21-97.
  • Loeffler, J. (2015). Nationalism without a nation?: On the invisibity of American Jewish politics. Jewsih Quarterly Review, 3-99.
  • Marcus, J. (1958). The periodization of American Jewish history. Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society, 125-133.
  • Markowitz, F. (1995). Criss-crossing identities: The Russian Jewish diaspora and the Jewish diaspora in Russia. Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies, 201-210.
  • McNab, C. (2015). Hitler'in ordusu, Nazi savaş makinesinin tarihi, 1939-1945. İstanbul: Timaş Yayınları.
  • Mendelsohn, A. (2007). Tongue ties: The emergence of the Anglophone Jewish diaspora in the mid-nineteenth century. American Jewish History, 177-209.
  • Michels, T. (2000). Socialism and the writing of American Jewish dream in Miami and LA. American Jewish History, 521-546.
  • Moore, D. (2009). American Jewish identity politics. Michigan: University of Michigan Press.
  • Museum, U. H. (1993, 1 1). Special collections. http://www.ushmm.org: https://collections.ushmm.org/search/?f%5Bclassification_plus_all%5D%5B%5D=Posters adresinden alındı
  • Nenezić, Z. D. (1987). Masoni u Jugoslaviji (1764-1980). Beograd: Dopunjeno Izdanje.
  • Porat, R. (2018). The Ausraelis: Israelis in Australia as a test case of distinctiveness vis-a-vis the Jewish diaspora. Israel Affairs, 167-190.
  • Power, S. (2012). Yiddish theatre actresses and American Jewish identity. Shofar, 84-107.
  • Prell, R. (2000). Developmental Judaism: Challenging the study of American Jewish identity in the social sciences. Contemporary Jewry, 33-54.
  • Rajak, T. (2018). Jewish diaspora in Greco-Roman antiquity. Interpretation, 146-162.
  • Ray, J. (2008). New approaches to the Jewish diaspora: The Sephardim as a sub-ethnic group. Jewish Social Studies, 10-31.
  • Robinson, I. (1994). The invention of American Jewsih history. American Jewish History, 309-320.
  • Roshwald, A. (1998). Betweencatastrophe and redemption. The European Jewish diaspora and zionism in the twentieth Century. European History Quarterly., 527-537.
  • Rubin-Dorsky, J. (2001). Philip Roth and American Jewish identity: The question of authenticity. American Literary History, 79-107.
  • Safran, W. (2005). The Jewish diaspora in a comparative and theoritical perspective. Isael Studies, 36-60.
  • Sarna, J. (1998b). The cult of synthesis in American Jewish culture. Jewish Social Studies, 52-79.
  • Sarna, J. D. (1990). American Jewish history. Modern Judaism, 343-365.
  • Sarna, J. D. (1998a). American Jewish education in historical perspective. Journal of Jewish Education, 8-21.
  • Schwartz, S. (2007). The Rabbi's wife: The rebbetzin in American life,. NY: NYU Press.
  • Shanes, J. (1998). Yiddish and Jewish diaspora nationalism. Monatshefte, 178-188.
  • Shapiro, E. (2005). We are many: Reflections on Amerian Jewish history and identity. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.
  • Sheffer, G. (2002). A nation and its diaspora: A re-examination of Israeli-Jewish diaspora relations. Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies, 331-358.
  • Sheffer, G. (2005). Is the Jewish diaspora unique? Reflections on the diaspora's current situation. Israel Studies, 1-35.
  • Sheramy, R. (2003). Resistance and war: The Holocaust in American Jewish education, 1945-1960. American Jewish History, 287-313.
  • Sığırcı, İ. (2016). Göstergebilim uygulamaları, metinleri, görselleri ve olayları okuma. Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.
  • Singerman, R. (1984). The American Jewish press, 1823-1983; A bibliographic survey of research and studies. American Jewish History, 422-444.
  • Smith, R. (1998). Anti-semitism and Nazism: Reconciling Fromm and Godhagen. American Behavioral Scientist, 1324-1362.
  • Stein, S. (2011). Protected persons? The Bagdadi Jewish Diaspora the British State, and the persistence of empire. The American Historical Review, 80-108.
  • Stojanović, A. (2015). The 1941 anti-masonic exhibition in Belgrade in the context of Nazi anti-masonic activities in occupied Europe, 1939-1945 . Vojnoistorijski glasnik 1: 93, 93-122.
  • Strauss, L. (2011). Staying afloat in the melting pot: Constructing an American Jewish identity in the Menorah Journal of the 1920s. American Jewish History., 315-331.
  • Sulzberger, A. H. (1941, 10 22). Grand anti-masonic exhibition. https://collections.ushmm.org: https://collections.ushmm.org/search/catalog/irn542645 adresinden alındı
  • Tcherikover, V. (1963). The decline of the Jewish diaspora in Egypt in the Roman period. Journal of Jewsih Studies., 1-32.
  • Times, N. (t.y.). https://collections.ushmm.org/search/catalog/irn 542645 adresinden alındı
  • Toll, W. (1997). Horace M. Kallen: Pluralism and American Jewish identity. American Jewish Studies, 57-74.
  • Urofsky, M. (1981). American Jewish leadership. American Jewish History, 401-419.
  • Vieira, N. (2001). Editor's introduction: The Jewish diaspora of Latin America. Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies, 1-5.
  • Vital, D. (1994). Israel and the Jewish diaspora: Five comments on the political relationship. Israel Affairs, 171-187.
  • Voigtlander, N., and Voth, H. J. (2012). Persecution perpetuated: The medieval origins of anti-semitic violence in Nazi Germany. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1339-1392.
  • Waxman, D. (2018). Trouble in the tribe: The American Jewish conflict over Israel. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Wink, A. (1987). The Jewish diaspora in India: Eighth to thirteeth centuries. The Indian Economic & Social History Review, 349-366.
  • Zelekha, Y., Sharabi, E., and Bar-Efrat, Q. (2012). Trade, institutions and religion: The effect of the Jewish Diaspora on Israel's foreign trade. Applied Economics Quarterly, 111-137.
  • Zipperstein, S. J. (1997). Commentary and the American Jewish culture in the 1940s and 1950s. Jewish Social Studies, 18-28.
Birincil Dil tr
Konular Din Bilimi, İletişim
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Orcid: 0000-0001-8263-2009
Yazar: Elif Hatun KILIÇBEYLİ (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: ADANA BİLİM VE TEKNOLOJİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ ; ADANA BİLİM VE TEKNOLOJİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Ülke: Turkey


Tarihler

Yayımlanma Tarihi : 29 Haziran 2021

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { mediad933950, journal = {Medya ve Din Araştırmaları Dergisi}, issn = {2636-8811}, eissn = {2636-8811}, address = {mediam@erciyes.edu.tr}, publisher = {Erciyes Üniversitesi}, year = {2021}, volume = {4}, pages = {33 - 64}, doi = {10.47951/mediad.933950}, title = {Nazi Basınında ABD’deki Yahudiler: Fliegende Blätter Mizah Dergisi Üzerine İnceleme}, key = {cite}, author = {Kılıçbeyli, Elif Hatun} }
APA Kılıçbeyli, E . (2021). Nazi Basınında ABD’deki Yahudiler: Fliegende Blätter Mizah Dergisi Üzerine İnceleme . Medya ve Din Araştırmaları Dergisi , 4 (1) , 33-64 . DOI: 10.47951/mediad.933950
MLA Kılıçbeyli, E . "Nazi Basınında ABD’deki Yahudiler: Fliegende Blätter Mizah Dergisi Üzerine İnceleme" . Medya ve Din Araştırmaları Dergisi 4 (2021 ): 33-64 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/mediad/issue/63219/933950>
Chicago Kılıçbeyli, E . "Nazi Basınında ABD’deki Yahudiler: Fliegende Blätter Mizah Dergisi Üzerine İnceleme". Medya ve Din Araştırmaları Dergisi 4 (2021 ): 33-64
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Nazi Basınında ABD’deki Yahudiler: Fliegende Blätter Mizah Dergisi Üzerine İnceleme AU - Elif Hatun Kılıçbeyli Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.47951/mediad.933950 DO - 10.47951/mediad.933950 T2 - Medya ve Din Araştırmaları Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 33 EP - 64 VL - 4 IS - 1 SN - 2636-8811-2636-8811 M3 - doi: 10.47951/mediad.933950 UR - https://doi.org/10.47951/mediad.933950 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Medya ve Din Araştırmaları Dergisi Nazi Basınında ABD’deki Yahudiler: Fliegende Blätter Mizah Dergisi Üzerine İnceleme %A Elif Hatun Kılıçbeyli %T Nazi Basınında ABD’deki Yahudiler: Fliegende Blätter Mizah Dergisi Üzerine İnceleme %D 2021 %J Medya ve Din Araştırmaları Dergisi %P 2636-8811-2636-8811 %V 4 %N 1 %R doi: 10.47951/mediad.933950 %U 10.47951/mediad.933950
ISNAD Kılıçbeyli, Elif Hatun . "Nazi Basınında ABD’deki Yahudiler: Fliegende Blätter Mizah Dergisi Üzerine İnceleme". Medya ve Din Araştırmaları Dergisi 4 / 1 (Haziran 2021): 33-64 . https://doi.org/10.47951/mediad.933950
AMA Kılıçbeyli E . Nazi Basınında ABD’deki Yahudiler: Fliegende Blätter Mizah Dergisi Üzerine İnceleme. MEDİAD. 2021; 4(1): 33-64.
Vancouver Kılıçbeyli E . Nazi Basınında ABD’deki Yahudiler: Fliegende Blätter Mizah Dergisi Üzerine İnceleme. Medya ve Din Araştırmaları Dergisi. 2021; 4(1): 33-64.
IEEE E. Kılıçbeyli , "Nazi Basınında ABD’deki Yahudiler: Fliegende Blätter Mizah Dergisi Üzerine İnceleme", Medya ve Din Araştırmaları Dergisi, c. 4, sayı. 1, ss. 33-64, Haz. 2021, doi:10.47951/mediad.933950