Inclusive education defends that all educational institutions should be open to all students and all students should be given equal opportunities by this institution to take advantage fairly. In fact, equality in opportunity in education is involved among the principles of the Ministry of National Education. Yet, by using the principles of equality in opportunity, the focus is mostly on gender and socioeconomic circumstances. This situation causes the negligence of immigrants, different ethnic and religious identities and disabled individuals. This situation which is neglected is tried to be solved under the lights of inclusive education not only for disabled people and immigrants but also for all students to get equal education. In recent years, schools are reorganized in terms of these conditions. Instructional programs are important tools to provide inclusive education for all people (Sakız, 2016). In order to appeal to all students in the education program, it was prepared by considering the principles of inclusive education such as education, equality and suitability for everyone. This program is a guidance program prepared for one semester inclusive education for preschool education. In this preschool education guidance program, there are a total of 83 learning outcomes and 10 activities related to seven competence areas. Also, this program includes six selected learning outcomes and two activities as samples. Explanations are given to explain the activities and outcomes which are stated in the content of the program to student more effectively and to make the process more inclusive. By providing programmed teaching and guidance services to children, children can overcome this period without any obsession and adapt to the school and society. The counseling program in preschool education aims at adapting children to school and the environment, developing a positive attitude towards learning, self-knowledge, developing sensitivity towards family, friends and other members of the society and raising awareness of the importance of professions in human life (MEB, 2012). The counseling program which is created to bring these goals to the students should be flexible enough to meet different needs of the students and school staff, while parents should be in cooperation. There are seven competence areas in this program. These are adaptation to school and environment, educational development, self-acceptance, interpersonal relationships, family and society, safe and healthy life and professional development. Learning outcome is to express the knowledge, skills and attitudes that students are expected to learn in the process. Explanations include statements that will help teachers in application of the activities of learning outcomes. Inclusive education programs envisage designing alternative skills and acquisition areas in relation to students' preferences and needs (Booth & Ainscow, 2002). The variety of program elements has been increased and rich program content has been produced according to different student characteristics in terms of number of choices. When the preschool education counseling programs published by the Ministry of National Education are examined, it has been understood that the activities and learning outcomes do not pay attention to the students' individual differences sufficiently. Therefore, in this study, the aim is to make the preschool education guidance program published by the Ministry of National Education suitable for inclusive education. For this purpose; competence areas, learning outcomes and activities which is stated in this program are examined one by one. As an example, six outcomes and two activities are included in the study and notes are written under each of them to make them suitable for inclusive education. In this way, it is aimed that individuals who are visually, mentally disabled and hearing impaired, who are backward, whose parents are illiterate and who has different languages from official language of the country to participate in the activities and get the highest level of efficiency from these activities. Every student cannot have the cognitive, emotional and psychomotor competence level that can achieve the specified standard outcomes. For this purpose, counselors and teachers should consider the level of students' readiness before the process when applying the outcomes. After the preliminary measurement and preliminary evaluations, which are among the inclusive education principles, the necessary infrastructure should be determined appropriate outcomes should be determined for each student and these objectives should be targeted.
Kapsayıcı eğitim; hiçbir öğrencinin diline, kültürel yapısına, milletine, cinsiyetine, gelir düzeyine, sosyal sınıfına göre ayrımcılığa uğramaksızın tüm öğrencilerin eğitim olanaklarından adil ve eşit şartlarda ihtiyaçları ve ilgileri doğrultusunda faydalanmasını sağlayan bir süreci ifade etmektedir. Kapsayıcı eğitim sayesinde sınıf ortamında geç öğrenen veya herhangi bir engeli olan bireyler, göçmenler, farklı dini veya farklı etnik kimliğe sahip olan bireyler de her öğrenci gibi eğitim olanaklarından faydalanmakta ve bu bireylerin eğitim ortamından maksimum seviyede verim alması sağlanmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı okul öncesi eğitim rehberlik programının kapsayıcı eğitim ilkeleri doğrultusunda yeniden düzenlenmesi ve Milli Eğitim Bakanlığının yayınlamış olduğu okul öncesi rehberlik programının kapsayıcı bağlamda yeniden tasarlanması adına bir öneri sunmasıdır. Bu çalışmada Milli Eğitim Bakanlığının yayınlamış olduğu okul öncesi rehberlik programında geçen yeterlik alanları, kazanımlar ve etkinlikler detaylı bir şekilde incelenmiş, kapsayıcı eğitim programının ilkeleri, değerleri ve felsefesi doğrultusunda yeniden tasarlanmıştır.
|Yayımlanma Tarihi||31 Aralık 2020|
|Yayınlandığı Sayı||Yıl 2020, Cilt 2, Sayı 2|