Araştırma Makalesi
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Adjustment Challenges and Help Seeking Among Turkish International Students in the United States/ Amerika Birleşik Devletleri'ndeki Türk Uluslararası Öğrencilerin Uyum Zorlukları ve Yardım Arama Davranışları

Yıl 2021, Cilt 3, Sayı 2, 213 - 230, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.47105/nsb.951339

Öz

The present qualitative inquiry examined adjustment challenges and help seeking among 15 Turkish international students (TIS) studying at various universities in the United States during their cross-cultural adjustment process. Data were gathered by means of semi-structured in-depth interviews and analyzed using thematic analysis. The results suggested that TIS experienced several adjustment challenges that affected their general well-being and satisfaction and made their adjustment process harder. According to the results, TIS initially sought help to overcome their adjustment challenges from family members, advisors, or friends. Dissatisfaction among TIS due to a lack of cultural sensitivity on the part of mental health providers negatively affected the students’ help seeking from professional services. The findings of the present study may help mental health providers to address the needs of TIS effectively as a specific cultural group in multicultural settings in the United States.

Kaynakça

  • American Counseling Association. (2014). 2014 ACA code of ethics. Retrieved from https://www.counseling.org/docs/default-source/ethics/2014-aca-code-of-ethics.pdf?sfvrsn=fde89426_5
  • Adams, G., & Plaut, V. C. (2003). The cultural grounding of personal relationship: Friendship in North American and West African worlds. Personal Relationships, 10(3), 333–347. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6811.00053
  • Arends-Toth, J. V., & van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2006). Issues in conceptualization and assessment of acculturation. In M. H. Bornstein & L. R. Cote (Eds.), Acculturation and parent-child relationships: Measurement and development (pp. 33–62). Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Bektas, Y., Demir, A., & Bowden, R. (2009). Psychological adaptation of Turkish students at U.S. campuses. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 31(2), 130–143. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-009-9073-5
  • Berry, J. W. (1988). Understanding the process of acculturation for primary prevention. Refugee Assistance Program–Mental Health Technical Assistance Center. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED308441.pdf
  • Berry, J. W. (2006). Stress perspectives on acculturation. In D. L. Sam & J. W. Berry (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology (pp. 43–57). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511489891.007
  • Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77–101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa
  • Burkholder, J. R. (2014). Reflections of Turkish international graduate students: Studies on life at a U.S. Midwestern university. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 36(1), 43–57. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-013-9189-5
  • Cetin, Y., Bahar, M., & Griffiths, C. (2017). International students’ views on local culture: Turkish experience. Journal of International Students, 7(3), 467–485. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.569940
  • Cheng, D., Leong, F. T. L., & Geist, R. (1993). Cultural differences in psychological distress between Asian and Caucasian American college students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 21(3), 182–189.
  • Chiu, M. L. (1995). The influence of anticipatory fear on foreign student adjustment: An exploratory study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 19(1), 1–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(94)00022-P
  • Doucerain, M. M. (2019). Moving forward in acculturation research by integrating insights from cultural psychology. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 73, 11–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2019.07.010
  • Duru, E., & Poyrazli, S. (2007). Personality dimensions, psychosocial-demographic variables, and English language competency in predicting level of acculturative stress among Turkish international students. International Journal of Stress Management, 14(1), 99–110. https://doi.org/10.1037/1072-5245.14.1.99
  • Duru, E., & Poyrazli, S. (2011). Perceived discrimination, social connectedness, and other predictors of adjustment difficulties among Turkish international students. International Journal of Psychology, 46(6), 446–454. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207594.2011.585158
  • Etikan, I., Musa, S. A., & Alkassim, R. S. (2016). Comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics, 5(1), 1–4.
  • Farrugia, C. A., & Bhandari, R. (2014). Open doors 2014 report on international education exchange. Institute of International Education. Retrieved from https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/bitstream/handle/10919/83145/InternationalStudentsUnitedStates.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  • Imamoglu, E. O. (2003). Individuation and relatedness: Not opposing but distinct and complementary. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 129(4), 367–402.
  • Ishii, K., Mojaverian, T., Masuno, K., & Kim, H. S. (2017). Cultural differences in motivation for seeking social support and the emotional consequences of receiving support: The role of influence and adjustment goals. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 48(9), 1442–1456. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022117731091
  • Jacob, E. J., & Greggo, J. W. (2011). Using counselor training and collaborative programming strategies in working with international students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 29(1), 73–88. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1912.2001.tb00504.x
  • Kilinc, A., & Granello, P. F. (2003). Overall life satisfaction and help-seeking attitudes of Turkish college students in the United States: Implications for college counselors. Journal of College Counseling, 6(1), 56–68. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1882.2003.tb00227.x
  • Kress, V. E., Dixon, A. L., & Shannonhouse, L. R. (2010). Multicultural diagnosis and conceptualization. In D. G. Hayes & B. T. Erford (Eds.), Developing multicultural counseling competence: A systems approach (pp. 558–590). Pearson.
  • Lee, J. S., Koeske, G. F., & Sales, E. (2004). Social support buffering of acculturative stress: A study of mental health symptoms among Korean international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 28(5), 399–414. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2004.08.005
  • Mesidor, J. K., & Sly, K. F. (2016). Factors that contribute to the adjustment of international students. Journal of International Students, 6(1), 262–282. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1083269.pdf
  • Misra, R., Crist, M., & Burant, C. J. (2003). Relationships among life stress, social support, academic stressors, and reactions to stressors of international students in the United States. International Journal of Stress Management, 10(2), 137–157.
  • Mocan-Aydin, G. (2000). Western models of counseling and psychotherapy within Turkey: Crossing cultural boundaries. The Counseling Psychologist, 28(2), 281–298. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000000282007
  • Mojaverian, T., Hashimoto, T., & Kim, H. S. (2013). Cultural differences in professional help seeking: A comparison of Japan and the U.S. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 615. Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00615/full
  • Mori, S. C. (2000). Addressing the mental health concerns of international students. Journal of Counseling & Development, 78(2), 137–144. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.2000.tb02571.x
  • Nilsson, J. E., Berkel, L. A., Flores, L. Y., & Lucas, M. S. (2004). Utilization rate and presenting concerns of international students at a university counseling center: Implications for outreach programming. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 19(2), 49–59. https://doi.org/10.1300/J035v19n02_05
  • Pedersen. P. (1991). Counseling international students. The Counseling Psychologist, 19, 10–58. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000091191002
  • Poyrazli, S., & Mitchell, M. A. (2020). Mental health problems of U.S. students studying abroad. Journal of International Students, 10(1), 17–27. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v10i1.1014
  • Safdar, S., Lay, C., & Struthers, W. (2003). The process of acculturation and basic goals: Testing a multidimensional individual difference acculturation model with Iranian immigrants in Canada. Applied Psychology, 52, 555–579. https://doi.org/10.1111/1464-0597.00151
  • Shavitt, S., Cho, Y. I., Johnson, T. P., Jiang, D., Holbrook, A., & Stavrakantonaki, M. (2016). Culture moderates the relation between perceived stress, social support, and mental and physical health. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47(7), 956–980.
  • Statista. (2020). Number of international students in the U.S., by country of origin, 2019/20. Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/statistics/233880/international-students-in-the-us-by-country-of-origin/
  • Sumer, Z. H., & Rasmussen, P. R. (2012). Individual psychology in Turkey. Journal of Individual Psychology, 68(4), 411–421.
  • Tatar, M., & Horenczyk, G. (2000). Counseling students on the move: The effects of culture of origin and permanence of relocation among international college students. Journal of College Counseling, 3(1), 49–62. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1882.2000.tb00163.x
  • Ting, J. Y., & Hwang, W. C. (2009). Cultural influences on help‐seeking attitudes in Asian American students. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 79(1), 125–132. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015394
  • Topkaya, N., Vogel, D. L., & Brenner, R. E. (2017). Examination of the stigmas toward help seeking among Turkish college students. Journal of Counseling & Development, 95(2), 213–225. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcad.12133
  • Tung, W. C. (2011). Acculturative stress and help-seeking behaviors among international students. Home Health Care Management & Practice, 23(5), 383–385. https://doi.org/10.1177/1084822311405454
  • UNESCO Institute for Statistics (n.d.). Global flow of tertiary-level students. Retrieved from http://uis.unesco.org/en/uis-student- flow?fbclid=IwAR2w8lNt5AQ0VCaGRD2D3Ndl7phhgIHrG79IhubDVn6aWne4fm5 oII3CpVs
  • Ward, C., Bochner, S., & Furnham, A. (2001). The psychology of culture shock (2nd ed.). Routledge.
  • Yoon, E., & Portman, T. A. A. (2004). Critical issues of literature on counseling international students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 32(1), 33–44. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1912.2004.tb00359.x
  • Zhou, Y., Jindal-Snape, D., Topping, K., & Todman, J. (2008). Theoretical models of culture shock and adaptation in international students in higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 33(1), 63–75. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075070701794833

Adjustment Challenges and Help Seeking Among Turkish International Students in the United States/ Amerika Birleşik Devletleri'ndeki Türk Uluslararası Öğrencilerin Uyum Zorlukları ve Yardım Arama Davranışları

Yıl 2021, Cilt 3, Sayı 2, 213 - 230, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.47105/nsb.951339

Öz

Bu nitel araştırma, Amerika Birleşik Devletleri'ndeki farklı üniversitelerden 15 Türk uluslararası öğrencinin uyum sürecinde yaşadıkları zorlukları ve yardım arayışını incelemiştir. Veriler yarı yapılandırılmış derinlemesine görüşmeler yoluyla toplanmış ve tematik analiz kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Sonuçlar, Türk uluslararası öğrencilerin genel iyi oluşlarını ve memnuniyetlerini etkileyen ve uyum sürecini zorlaştıran çeşitli uyum zorlukları yaşadıklarını gösterdi. Sonuçlara göre, Türk uluslararası öğrenciler uyum zorluklarının üstesinden gelmek için önce aile üyelerinden, danışmanlardan veya arkadaşlardan yardım istedi. Ruh sağlığı sağlayıcılarının kültürel duyarlılık eksikliğinden kaynaklanan Türk uluslararası öğrencilerin memnuniyetsizliği, onların profesyonel yardım aramalarını olumsuz etkilemiştir. Bu çalışmanın bulguları, ruh sağlığı sağlayıcılarının, Amerika Birleşik Devletleri'nin çok kültürlü ortamlarında belirli bir kültürel grup olarak Türk uluslararası öğrencilerin ihtiyaçlarını etkili bir şekilde ele almasına yardımcı olabilir.

Kaynakça

  • American Counseling Association. (2014). 2014 ACA code of ethics. Retrieved from https://www.counseling.org/docs/default-source/ethics/2014-aca-code-of-ethics.pdf?sfvrsn=fde89426_5
  • Adams, G., & Plaut, V. C. (2003). The cultural grounding of personal relationship: Friendship in North American and West African worlds. Personal Relationships, 10(3), 333–347. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6811.00053
  • Arends-Toth, J. V., & van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2006). Issues in conceptualization and assessment of acculturation. In M. H. Bornstein & L. R. Cote (Eds.), Acculturation and parent-child relationships: Measurement and development (pp. 33–62). Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Bektas, Y., Demir, A., & Bowden, R. (2009). Psychological adaptation of Turkish students at U.S. campuses. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 31(2), 130–143. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-009-9073-5
  • Berry, J. W. (1988). Understanding the process of acculturation for primary prevention. Refugee Assistance Program–Mental Health Technical Assistance Center. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED308441.pdf
  • Berry, J. W. (2006). Stress perspectives on acculturation. In D. L. Sam & J. W. Berry (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology (pp. 43–57). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511489891.007
  • Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77–101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa
  • Burkholder, J. R. (2014). Reflections of Turkish international graduate students: Studies on life at a U.S. Midwestern university. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 36(1), 43–57. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-013-9189-5
  • Cetin, Y., Bahar, M., & Griffiths, C. (2017). International students’ views on local culture: Turkish experience. Journal of International Students, 7(3), 467–485. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.569940
  • Cheng, D., Leong, F. T. L., & Geist, R. (1993). Cultural differences in psychological distress between Asian and Caucasian American college students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 21(3), 182–189.
  • Chiu, M. L. (1995). The influence of anticipatory fear on foreign student adjustment: An exploratory study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 19(1), 1–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(94)00022-P
  • Doucerain, M. M. (2019). Moving forward in acculturation research by integrating insights from cultural psychology. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 73, 11–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2019.07.010
  • Duru, E., & Poyrazli, S. (2007). Personality dimensions, psychosocial-demographic variables, and English language competency in predicting level of acculturative stress among Turkish international students. International Journal of Stress Management, 14(1), 99–110. https://doi.org/10.1037/1072-5245.14.1.99
  • Duru, E., & Poyrazli, S. (2011). Perceived discrimination, social connectedness, and other predictors of adjustment difficulties among Turkish international students. International Journal of Psychology, 46(6), 446–454. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207594.2011.585158
  • Etikan, I., Musa, S. A., & Alkassim, R. S. (2016). Comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics, 5(1), 1–4.
  • Farrugia, C. A., & Bhandari, R. (2014). Open doors 2014 report on international education exchange. Institute of International Education. Retrieved from https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/bitstream/handle/10919/83145/InternationalStudentsUnitedStates.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  • Imamoglu, E. O. (2003). Individuation and relatedness: Not opposing but distinct and complementary. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 129(4), 367–402.
  • Ishii, K., Mojaverian, T., Masuno, K., & Kim, H. S. (2017). Cultural differences in motivation for seeking social support and the emotional consequences of receiving support: The role of influence and adjustment goals. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 48(9), 1442–1456. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022117731091
  • Jacob, E. J., & Greggo, J. W. (2011). Using counselor training and collaborative programming strategies in working with international students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 29(1), 73–88. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1912.2001.tb00504.x
  • Kilinc, A., & Granello, P. F. (2003). Overall life satisfaction and help-seeking attitudes of Turkish college students in the United States: Implications for college counselors. Journal of College Counseling, 6(1), 56–68. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1882.2003.tb00227.x
  • Kress, V. E., Dixon, A. L., & Shannonhouse, L. R. (2010). Multicultural diagnosis and conceptualization. In D. G. Hayes & B. T. Erford (Eds.), Developing multicultural counseling competence: A systems approach (pp. 558–590). Pearson.
  • Lee, J. S., Koeske, G. F., & Sales, E. (2004). Social support buffering of acculturative stress: A study of mental health symptoms among Korean international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 28(5), 399–414. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2004.08.005
  • Mesidor, J. K., & Sly, K. F. (2016). Factors that contribute to the adjustment of international students. Journal of International Students, 6(1), 262–282. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1083269.pdf
  • Misra, R., Crist, M., & Burant, C. J. (2003). Relationships among life stress, social support, academic stressors, and reactions to stressors of international students in the United States. International Journal of Stress Management, 10(2), 137–157.
  • Mocan-Aydin, G. (2000). Western models of counseling and psychotherapy within Turkey: Crossing cultural boundaries. The Counseling Psychologist, 28(2), 281–298. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000000282007
  • Mojaverian, T., Hashimoto, T., & Kim, H. S. (2013). Cultural differences in professional help seeking: A comparison of Japan and the U.S. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 615. Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00615/full
  • Mori, S. C. (2000). Addressing the mental health concerns of international students. Journal of Counseling & Development, 78(2), 137–144. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.2000.tb02571.x
  • Nilsson, J. E., Berkel, L. A., Flores, L. Y., & Lucas, M. S. (2004). Utilization rate and presenting concerns of international students at a university counseling center: Implications for outreach programming. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 19(2), 49–59. https://doi.org/10.1300/J035v19n02_05
  • Pedersen. P. (1991). Counseling international students. The Counseling Psychologist, 19, 10–58. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000091191002
  • Poyrazli, S., & Mitchell, M. A. (2020). Mental health problems of U.S. students studying abroad. Journal of International Students, 10(1), 17–27. https://doi.org/10.32674/jis.v10i1.1014
  • Safdar, S., Lay, C., & Struthers, W. (2003). The process of acculturation and basic goals: Testing a multidimensional individual difference acculturation model with Iranian immigrants in Canada. Applied Psychology, 52, 555–579. https://doi.org/10.1111/1464-0597.00151
  • Shavitt, S., Cho, Y. I., Johnson, T. P., Jiang, D., Holbrook, A., & Stavrakantonaki, M. (2016). Culture moderates the relation between perceived stress, social support, and mental and physical health. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47(7), 956–980.
  • Statista. (2020). Number of international students in the U.S., by country of origin, 2019/20. Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/statistics/233880/international-students-in-the-us-by-country-of-origin/
  • Sumer, Z. H., & Rasmussen, P. R. (2012). Individual psychology in Turkey. Journal of Individual Psychology, 68(4), 411–421.
  • Tatar, M., & Horenczyk, G. (2000). Counseling students on the move: The effects of culture of origin and permanence of relocation among international college students. Journal of College Counseling, 3(1), 49–62. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1882.2000.tb00163.x
  • Ting, J. Y., & Hwang, W. C. (2009). Cultural influences on help‐seeking attitudes in Asian American students. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 79(1), 125–132. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015394
  • Topkaya, N., Vogel, D. L., & Brenner, R. E. (2017). Examination of the stigmas toward help seeking among Turkish college students. Journal of Counseling & Development, 95(2), 213–225. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcad.12133
  • Tung, W. C. (2011). Acculturative stress and help-seeking behaviors among international students. Home Health Care Management & Practice, 23(5), 383–385. https://doi.org/10.1177/1084822311405454
  • UNESCO Institute for Statistics (n.d.). Global flow of tertiary-level students. Retrieved from http://uis.unesco.org/en/uis-student- flow?fbclid=IwAR2w8lNt5AQ0VCaGRD2D3Ndl7phhgIHrG79IhubDVn6aWne4fm5 oII3CpVs
  • Ward, C., Bochner, S., & Furnham, A. (2001). The psychology of culture shock (2nd ed.). Routledge.
  • Yoon, E., & Portman, T. A. A. (2004). Critical issues of literature on counseling international students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 32(1), 33–44. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1912.2004.tb00359.x
  • Zhou, Y., Jindal-Snape, D., Topping, K., & Todman, J. (2008). Theoretical models of culture shock and adaptation in international students in higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 33(1), 63–75. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075070701794833

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Psikoloji
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Seda ERTURK> (Sorumlu Yazar)
Eötvös Loránd University
0000-0001-7761-0454
Hungary


Lan Anh NGUYEN LUU Bu kişi benim
Eötvös Loránd University
0000-0003-2045-3763
Hungary

Destekleyen Kurum Lan Anh Nguyen Luu was supported by a grant from the Hungarian National Research, Development and Innovation Office – NKFIH, Budapest, Hungary (K-120433).
Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 3, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Erturk, S. & Nguyen Luu, L. A. (2021). Adjustment Challenges and Help Seeking Among Turkish International Students in the United States/ Amerika Birleşik Devletleri'ndeki Türk Uluslararası Öğrencilerin Uyum Zorlukları ve Yardım Arama Davranışları . Nitel Sosyal Bilimler , 3 (2) , 213-230 . DOI: 10.47105/nsb.951339