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Turkish Adaptation of the Job-Related Anxiety Scale and the Relationship between Transformational Leadership on Job Performance: The Mediating Role of Job Autonomy and Moderating Role of Job-Related Anxiety

Yıl 2021, Cilt 16, Sayı 3, 821 - 841, 01.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.17153/oguiibf.973763

Öz

The purpose of this study is to adapt the job-related anxiety scale developed by Parker and DeCotiis (1983) into Turkish. Besides, the mediating role of job autonomy and the moderator role of job-related anxiety in the effect of transformational leadership on job performance were examined. In order to adapt the scale, the first sample (n = 159) consisting of nurses and, in testing the research hypotheses the second sample (n = 237) consisting of employees of a private company operating in the service sector in Turkey was used. In the analysis, it was determined that the original single-factor structure of the job-related anxiety scale was supported. However, it was determined that job autonomy has a mediating effect and job-related anxiety has a moderating effect on the relationship between transformational leadership and job performance.

Kaynakça

  • Abas, N. I.; Sawitri, H. S. R.; Puspawati, D. (2018), "Transformational Leadership, Job Performance, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Mediating Role of Work Engagement", Sriwijaya International Journal of Dynamic Economics and Business, Vol. 2, No. 4: 363–376.
  • Aiken, L. S.; West, S. G. (1991), Multiple Regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions, Newbury Park: CA: Sage.
  • Ajzen, I. (1991), "The Theory of Planned Behavior", Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 50, No. 2: 179–211.
  • Al Khajeh, E. H. (2018), "Impact of Leadership Styles on Organizational Performance", Journal of Human Reseources Management Research, Vol. 2018, 1–10.
  • Allen, D. G.; Shore, L. M.; Griffeth, R. W. (2003), "The Role of Perceived Organizational Support and Supportive Human Resource Practices in the Turnover Process", Journal of Management, Vol. 29, No. 1: 99–118.
  • Alpkan, L.; Bulut, C.; Gunday, G.; Ulusoy, G.; Kilic, K. (2010), "Organizational Support for Intrapreneurship and Its Interaction with Human Capital to Enhance Innovative Performance", Management Decision, Vol. 48, No. 5: 732–755.
  • Anderson, J. C.; Gerbing, D. W. (1988), "Structural Equation Modeling in Practice: A Review and Recommended Two-Step Approach", Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 103, No. 3: 411–423.
  • Avolio, B. J.; Yammarino, F. J. (2002), "Introduction to, and Overview of, Transformational and Charismatic Leadership", Transformational and Charismatic Leadership: The Road Ahead, (Ed. B. J. Avolio ve F. J. Yammarino), Oxford: Elsevier Science: 17-23.
  • Baba, V. V.; Jamal, M. (1991), "Routinization of Job Context and Job Content as Related to Employees ’ Quality of Working Life : A Study of Canadian Nurses", Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 12, No. 5: 379–386.
  • Bass, B. M. (1985), Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations, New York: Free Press.
  • Bass, B. M. (1999), "Two Decades of Research and Development in Transformational Leadership", European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 8, No. 1: 9–32.
  • Bass, B. M.; Avolio, B. J. (1990), "Developing Transformational Leadership: 1992 and Beyond", Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 14, No. 5: 21–27.
  • Blau, P. M. (1964), Exchange and Power in Social Life, New York: John-Wiley & Sons Pub.
  • Bliese, P. D.; Edwards, J. R.; Sonnentag, S. (2017), "Stress and Well-Being at Work: A Century of Empirical Trends Reflecting Theoretical and Societal Influences Paul", Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 102, No. 3: 389–402.
  • Brislin, R. W.; Lonner, W. J.; R.M. Thorndike. (1973), Cross Cultural Research Methods, 1. Basım, New York: John-Wiley & Sons Pub.
  • Buil, I.; Martínez, E.; Matute, J. (2019), "Transformational Leadership and Employee Performance: The Role of Identification, Engagement and Proactive Personality", International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 77, 64–75.
  • Carayon, P.; Smith, M. J.; Haims, M. C. (1999), "Work Organization, Job Stress, and Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders", Human Factors, Vol. 41, No. 4: 644–663.
  • Carless, S. A.; Wearing, A. J.; Mann, L. (2000), "A Short Measure of Transformational Leadership", Journal of Business and Psychology, Vol. 14, No. 3: 389–405.
  • Chandrasekara, W. (2019), "The Effect of Transformational Leadership Style on Employees Job Satisfaction and Job Performance: A Case of Apparel Manufacturing Industry in Sri Lanka", International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, Vol. 7, No. 7: 385–393.
  • Cheng, B. H.; McCarthy, J. M. (2018), "Understanding the Dark and Bright Sides of Anxiety: A Theory of Workplace Anxiety", Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 103, No. 5: 537–560.
  • Choi, Y.; Yoon, D. J.; Kim, D. (2020), "Leader Behavioral Integrity and Employee In-Role Performance: The Roles of Coworker Support and Job Autonomy", International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 17, 1–14.
  • Cole, M. S.; Walter, F.; Bruch, H. (2008), "Affective Mechanisms Linking Dysfunctional Behavior to Performance in Work Teams: A Moderated Mediation Study", Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 93, No. 5: 945–958.
  • Conger, J. A.; Kanungo, R. N. (1988), "The Empowerment Process: Integrating Theory and Practice", The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 13, No. 3: 471–482.
  • De Clercq, D.; Haq, I. U.; Azeem, M. U. (2017), "Perceived Threats of Terrorism and Job performance: The Roles of Job-Related Anxiety and Religiousness", Journal of Business Research, Vol. 78, 23–32.
  • De Clercq, D.; Haq, I. U.; Azeem, M. U. (2018), "Self-Efficacy to Spur Job Performance: Roles of Job-Related Anxiety and Perceived Workplace Incivility", Management Decision, Vol. 56, No. 4: 891–907.
  • Deadrick, D. L.; Gardner, D. G. (2008), "Maximal and Typical Measures of Job Performance: An Analysis of Performance Variability Over Time", Human Resource Management Review, Vol. 18, No. 3: 133–145.
  • Dias, M. A. M. J.; Borges, R. S. G. E. (2017), "Performance and Leadership Style: When Do Leaders and Followers Disagree?", Revista de Administração Mackenzie – RAM, Vol. 18, No. 2: 104–129.
  • Fila, M. J.; Eatough, E. (2018), "Extending Knowledge of Illegitimate Tasks: Student Satisfaction, Anxiety, and Emotional Exhaustion", Stress and Health, Vol. 34, No. 1: 152–162.
  • Foa, E. B.; Foa, U. G. (1974), Societal Structures of the Mind, Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
  • Fuller, J. B.; Patterson, C. E. P.; Hester, K.; Stringer, D. Y. (1996), "A Quantitative Review of Research on Charismatic Leadership", Psychological Reports, Vol. 78, 271–287.
  • García-Morales, V. J.; Lloréns-Montes, F. J.; Verdú-Jover, A. J. (2008), "The Effects of Transformational Leadership on Organizational Performance through Knowledge and Innovation", British Journal of Management, Vol. 19, No. 4: 299–319.
  • Gilbert, M.-H.; Dagenais-Desmarais, V.; St-Hilaire, F. (2017), "Transformational Leadership and Autonomy Support Management Behaviors", Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 38, No. 2: 1–38.
  • Gözükara, I.; Simşek, O. F. (2015), "Linking Transformational Leadership to Work Engagement and the Mediator Effect of Job Autonomy: A Study in a Turkish Private Non-Profit University", Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 195, 963–971.
  • Grant, A. M.; Sumanth, J. J. (2009), "Mission Possible? The Performance of Prosocially Motivated Employees Depends on Manager Trustworthiness", Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 94, 927–944.
  • Gross, E. (2017), "Work, Organization, and Stress", Social Stress, (Ed. S. Levine ve N. A. Scotch), London and New York: Routledge.
  • Hackman, J. R.; Oldham, G. R. (1976), "Motivation Through the Design of Work: Test of a Theory", Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, Vol. 16, 250–279.
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  • Hui, R. T. yin; Sue-Chan, C. (2018), "Variations in Coaching Style and Their Impact on Subordinates’ Work Outcomes", Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 39, No. 5: 663–679.
  • Jain, P.; Duggal, T. (2018), "Transformational Leadership, Organizational Commitment, Emotional Intelligence and Job Autonomy: Empirical Analysis on the Moderating and Mediating Variables", Management Research Review, Vol. 41, No. 9: 1033–1046.
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  • Joo, B.-K.; Jeung, C.-W.; Yoon, H. J. (2010), "Investigating the Influences of Core Self-Evaluations, Job Autonomy, and Intrinsic Motivation on In-Role Job Performance", Human Resource Development Quartely, Vol. 21, No. 4: 353–371.
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İşle İlgili Kaygı Ölçeğinin Türkçe Uyarlaması ve Dönüştürücü Liderlik ile İş Performansı Arasındaki İlişki: İş Özerkliğinin Aracı ve İşle İlgili Kaygının Düzenleyici Rolü

Yıl 2021, Cilt 16, Sayı 3, 821 - 841, 01.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.17153/oguiibf.973763

Öz

Bu araştırmanın amacı Parker ve DeCotiis (1983) tarafından geliştirilmiş olan işle ilgili kaygı ölçeğinin Türkçe uyarlamasını yapmaktır. Ayrıca dönüştürücü liderliğin iş performansı üzerindeki etkisinde iş özerkliğinin aracı ve işle ilgili kaygının düzenleyici rolü incelenmiştir. Ölçeğin uyarlamasını yapmak için hemşirelerden oluşan birinci örneklemden (n = 159), araştırma hipotezlerinin testinde ise Türkiye’ de hizmet sektöründe faaliyet gösteren özel bir şirketin çalışanlarından oluşan ikinci örneklemden (n = 237) yararlanılmıştır. Yapılan analizlerde işle ilgili kaygı ölçeğinin orijinal tek faktörlü yapısının desteklendiği tespit edilmiştir. Bununla birlikte, dönüştürücü liderlik ile iş performansı arasındaki ilişkide iş özerkliğinin aracı ve işle ilgili kaygının düzenleyici rolünün olduğu belirlenmiştir.

Kaynakça

  • Abas, N. I.; Sawitri, H. S. R.; Puspawati, D. (2018), "Transformational Leadership, Job Performance, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Mediating Role of Work Engagement", Sriwijaya International Journal of Dynamic Economics and Business, Vol. 2, No. 4: 363–376.
  • Aiken, L. S.; West, S. G. (1991), Multiple Regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions, Newbury Park: CA: Sage.
  • Ajzen, I. (1991), "The Theory of Planned Behavior", Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 50, No. 2: 179–211.
  • Al Khajeh, E. H. (2018), "Impact of Leadership Styles on Organizational Performance", Journal of Human Reseources Management Research, Vol. 2018, 1–10.
  • Allen, D. G.; Shore, L. M.; Griffeth, R. W. (2003), "The Role of Perceived Organizational Support and Supportive Human Resource Practices in the Turnover Process", Journal of Management, Vol. 29, No. 1: 99–118.
  • Alpkan, L.; Bulut, C.; Gunday, G.; Ulusoy, G.; Kilic, K. (2010), "Organizational Support for Intrapreneurship and Its Interaction with Human Capital to Enhance Innovative Performance", Management Decision, Vol. 48, No. 5: 732–755.
  • Anderson, J. C.; Gerbing, D. W. (1988), "Structural Equation Modeling in Practice: A Review and Recommended Two-Step Approach", Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 103, No. 3: 411–423.
  • Avolio, B. J.; Yammarino, F. J. (2002), "Introduction to, and Overview of, Transformational and Charismatic Leadership", Transformational and Charismatic Leadership: The Road Ahead, (Ed. B. J. Avolio ve F. J. Yammarino), Oxford: Elsevier Science: 17-23.
  • Baba, V. V.; Jamal, M. (1991), "Routinization of Job Context and Job Content as Related to Employees ’ Quality of Working Life : A Study of Canadian Nurses", Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 12, No. 5: 379–386.
  • Bass, B. M. (1985), Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations, New York: Free Press.
  • Bass, B. M. (1999), "Two Decades of Research and Development in Transformational Leadership", European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 8, No. 1: 9–32.
  • Bass, B. M.; Avolio, B. J. (1990), "Developing Transformational Leadership: 1992 and Beyond", Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 14, No. 5: 21–27.
  • Blau, P. M. (1964), Exchange and Power in Social Life, New York: John-Wiley & Sons Pub.
  • Bliese, P. D.; Edwards, J. R.; Sonnentag, S. (2017), "Stress and Well-Being at Work: A Century of Empirical Trends Reflecting Theoretical and Societal Influences Paul", Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 102, No. 3: 389–402.
  • Brislin, R. W.; Lonner, W. J.; R.M. Thorndike. (1973), Cross Cultural Research Methods, 1. Basım, New York: John-Wiley & Sons Pub.
  • Buil, I.; Martínez, E.; Matute, J. (2019), "Transformational Leadership and Employee Performance: The Role of Identification, Engagement and Proactive Personality", International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 77, 64–75.
  • Carayon, P.; Smith, M. J.; Haims, M. C. (1999), "Work Organization, Job Stress, and Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders", Human Factors, Vol. 41, No. 4: 644–663.
  • Carless, S. A.; Wearing, A. J.; Mann, L. (2000), "A Short Measure of Transformational Leadership", Journal of Business and Psychology, Vol. 14, No. 3: 389–405.
  • Chandrasekara, W. (2019), "The Effect of Transformational Leadership Style on Employees Job Satisfaction and Job Performance: A Case of Apparel Manufacturing Industry in Sri Lanka", International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, Vol. 7, No. 7: 385–393.
  • Cheng, B. H.; McCarthy, J. M. (2018), "Understanding the Dark and Bright Sides of Anxiety: A Theory of Workplace Anxiety", Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 103, No. 5: 537–560.
  • Choi, Y.; Yoon, D. J.; Kim, D. (2020), "Leader Behavioral Integrity and Employee In-Role Performance: The Roles of Coworker Support and Job Autonomy", International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 17, 1–14.
  • Cole, M. S.; Walter, F.; Bruch, H. (2008), "Affective Mechanisms Linking Dysfunctional Behavior to Performance in Work Teams: A Moderated Mediation Study", Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 93, No. 5: 945–958.
  • Conger, J. A.; Kanungo, R. N. (1988), "The Empowerment Process: Integrating Theory and Practice", The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 13, No. 3: 471–482.
  • De Clercq, D.; Haq, I. U.; Azeem, M. U. (2017), "Perceived Threats of Terrorism and Job performance: The Roles of Job-Related Anxiety and Religiousness", Journal of Business Research, Vol. 78, 23–32.
  • De Clercq, D.; Haq, I. U.; Azeem, M. U. (2018), "Self-Efficacy to Spur Job Performance: Roles of Job-Related Anxiety and Perceived Workplace Incivility", Management Decision, Vol. 56, No. 4: 891–907.
  • Deadrick, D. L.; Gardner, D. G. (2008), "Maximal and Typical Measures of Job Performance: An Analysis of Performance Variability Over Time", Human Resource Management Review, Vol. 18, No. 3: 133–145.
  • Dias, M. A. M. J.; Borges, R. S. G. E. (2017), "Performance and Leadership Style: When Do Leaders and Followers Disagree?", Revista de Administração Mackenzie – RAM, Vol. 18, No. 2: 104–129.
  • Fila, M. J.; Eatough, E. (2018), "Extending Knowledge of Illegitimate Tasks: Student Satisfaction, Anxiety, and Emotional Exhaustion", Stress and Health, Vol. 34, No. 1: 152–162.
  • Foa, E. B.; Foa, U. G. (1974), Societal Structures of the Mind, Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
  • Fuller, J. B.; Patterson, C. E. P.; Hester, K.; Stringer, D. Y. (1996), "A Quantitative Review of Research on Charismatic Leadership", Psychological Reports, Vol. 78, 271–287.
  • García-Morales, V. J.; Lloréns-Montes, F. J.; Verdú-Jover, A. J. (2008), "The Effects of Transformational Leadership on Organizational Performance through Knowledge and Innovation", British Journal of Management, Vol. 19, No. 4: 299–319.
  • Gilbert, M.-H.; Dagenais-Desmarais, V.; St-Hilaire, F. (2017), "Transformational Leadership and Autonomy Support Management Behaviors", Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 38, No. 2: 1–38.
  • Gözükara, I.; Simşek, O. F. (2015), "Linking Transformational Leadership to Work Engagement and the Mediator Effect of Job Autonomy: A Study in a Turkish Private Non-Profit University", Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 195, 963–971.
  • Grant, A. M.; Sumanth, J. J. (2009), "Mission Possible? The Performance of Prosocially Motivated Employees Depends on Manager Trustworthiness", Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 94, 927–944.
  • Gross, E. (2017), "Work, Organization, and Stress", Social Stress, (Ed. S. Levine ve N. A. Scotch), London and New York: Routledge.
  • Hackman, J. R.; Oldham, G. R. (1976), "Motivation Through the Design of Work: Test of a Theory", Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, Vol. 16, 250–279.
  • Hackman, J. R.; Oldham, G. R. (1980), Work Redesign, Canada: Addison-Wesley Publications.
  • Harman, H. H. (1976), Modern Factor Analysis, University of Chicago Press.
  • Hayes, A. F. (2017), Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis, Introduction to Mediation, Moderation and Conditional Process Analysis, New York: The Guilford Press.
  • Hofstede, G. (1980), "Motivation, Leadership and Organization: Do American Theories Apply Abroad?", Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 9, No. 1: 42–63.
  • Hui, R. T. yin; Sue-Chan, C. (2018), "Variations in Coaching Style and Their Impact on Subordinates’ Work Outcomes", Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 39, No. 5: 663–679.
  • Jain, P.; Duggal, T. (2018), "Transformational Leadership, Organizational Commitment, Emotional Intelligence and Job Autonomy: Empirical Analysis on the Moderating and Mediating Variables", Management Research Review, Vol. 41, No. 9: 1033–1046.
  • Jones, M. K.; Latreille, P. L.; Sloane, P. J. (2016), "Job Anxiety, Work-Related Psychological Illness and Workplace Performance", British Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol. 54, No. 4: 742–767.
  • Joo, B.-K.; Jeung, C.-W.; Yoon, H. J. (2010), "Investigating the Influences of Core Self-Evaluations, Job Autonomy, and Intrinsic Motivation on In-Role Job Performance", Human Resource Development Quartely, Vol. 21, No. 4: 353–371.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Emre GÜL (Sorumlu Yazar)
ERZİNCAN BİNALİ YILDIRIM ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-4884-3974
Türkiye


Daimi KOÇAK
ERZİNCAN BİNALİ YILDIRIM ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-9099-2055
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 1 Aralık 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 22 Temmuz 2021
Kabul Tarihi 2 Eylül 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 16, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

APA Gül, E. & Koçak, D. (2021). İşle İlgili Kaygı Ölçeğinin Türkçe Uyarlaması ve Dönüştürücü Liderlik ile İş Performansı Arasındaki İlişki: İş Özerkliğinin Aracı ve İşle İlgili Kaygının Düzenleyici Rolü . Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi , 16 (3) , 821-841 . DOI: 10.17153/oguiibf.973763