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COVID-19 Pandemic and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Yıl 2021, Cilt 13, Sayı 3, 588 - 604, 30.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.18863/pgy.829348

Öz

After the Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) was declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization, cleanliness, mask and social distance rules have also become warnings constantly reminded by both the centers for disease prevention and protection and the media. Common symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder include cleaning/washing compulsions and germ transmission obsessions became confusing with the COVID-19 prevention behaviors. Such measures have made COVID-19 transmission obsessions especially exacerbated by the symptoms of patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, as well as other disease transmission obsessions. While many studies have insisted symptoms of depression, anxiety disorders, Obsessive compulsive disorder symptoms have flared up and the frequency of new obsessive compulsive disorder diagnosis by clinicians has increased. COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected many children-adolescents, patients diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder and ongoing treatment, as well as many people at risk of developing obsessive compulsive disorder. As a result of this study, the media highlighted the need to be careful about the explanations made by the centers for disease prevention and to be more careful in the diagnosis and psychotherapy processes of clinicians who have to deal with obsessive compulsive disorder.

Kaynakça

  • Aardema, F. (2020). COVID-19, obsessive-compulsive disorder and invisible life forms that threaten the self, Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, 26, 100558.
  • Abba-Aji, A., Li, D., Hrabok, M., Shalaby, R., Gusnowski, A., Vuong, W., Surood, S., et al. (2020). COVID-19 Pandemic and Mental Health: Prevalence and Correlates of New-Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in a Canadian Province. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(19), 6986.
  • Benatti, B., Albert, U., Maina, G., Fiorillo, A., Celebre, L., Girone, N., . . . Dell’Osso, B. (2020). What Happened to Patients With Obsessive Compulsive Disorder During the COVID-19 Pandemic? A Multicentre Report From Tertiary Clinics in Northern Italy. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00720
  • Burke, T., Berry, A., Taylor, L. K., Stafford, O., Murphy, E., Shevlin, M., McHugh, L., et al. (2020). Increased Psychological Distress during COVID-19 and Quarantine in Ireland: A National Survey. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 9(11), 3481.
  • Capuzzi,E., Di Brita, C., Caldiroli, A., Colmegna, F., Nava, R., Buoli, M. ve Clerici,M. (2020). Psychiatric emergency care during Coronavirus 2019 (COVID 19) pandemic lockdown: results from a Department of Mental Health and Addiction of Northern Italy, Psychiatry Research, 293,113463.
  • Choi, E. P. H., Hui, B. P. H., & Wan, E. Y. F. (2020). Depression and Anxiety in Hong Kong during COVID-19. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(10), 3740.
  • Fenfen G., Mengtong W., Anni Z. and Jun Z.( 2020), How to deal with the negative psychological impact of COVID-19 for people who pay attention to anxiety and depression, Precision Clinical Medicine, 3(3), 161–168.
  • Fineberg, N., Ameringen, M. V., Drummond, L., Hollander, E., Stein, D., Geller, D., . . . Dell'osso, B. (2020). How to manage obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) under COVID-19: A clinician's guide from the International College of Obsessive Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS) and the Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders Research Network (OCRN) of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 100, 152174.
  • French, I., ve Lyne, J. (2020). Acute exacerbation of OCD symptoms precipitated by media reports of COVID-19. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine, 1-4.
  • Freud, S. (1909) Bir saplantı nevrozu olgusu üzerine notlar ("Sıçan Adam"). Olgu Öyküleri 2, (Çev. A Eğrilmez), İstanbul, 1996, Payel Yayınları, s.29-111.
  • Fontenelle, L. F., & Miguel, E. C. (2020). The impact of COVID‐19 in the diagnosis and treatment of obsessive‐compulsive disorder. Depression and Anxiety.
  • Jassi, A., Shahriyarmolki, K., Taylor, T., Peile, L., Challacombe, F., Clark, B., & Veale, D. (2020). OCD and COVID-19: A new frontier. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 13, E27. doi:10.1017/S1754470X20000318
  • Jelinek,L., Moritz, S., Miegel, F. ve Voderholzer, U. (2021).Obsessive-compulsive disorder during COVID-19: Turning a problem into an opportunity?, Journal of Anxiety Disorders,77,102329
  • Ji, G., Wei, W., Yue, K.C., Li, H., Shi, L.J., Ma, J.D., He, C.Y., Zhou, S.S., Zhao, Z., Lou, T., Cheng, J., Yang, S.C., Hu, X.Z. (2020). Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms Among University Students: Prospective Cohort Survey Study, J Med Internet Res 2020;22(9):e21915.
  • Köroğlu, E. (2016). Klinik Psikopatoloji, Ankara: HYB Basım Yayın.
  • Lensi, P., Cassano, G., Correddu, G., Ravagli, S., Kunovac, J., & Akiskal, H. (1996). Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder: Familial–Developmental History, Symptomatology, Comorbidity and Course with Special Reference to Gender-Related Differences. British Journal of Psychiatry, 169(1), 101-107.
  • Li, L. Q., Huang, T., Wang, Y. Q., Wang, Z. P., Liang, Y., Huang, T. B., Zhang, H. Y., Sun, W., & Wang, Y. (2020). COVID-19 patients' clinical characteristics, discharge rate, and fatality rate of meta-analysis. Journal of medical virology, 92(6), 577–583.
  • Li, S., Wang, Y., Xue, J., Zhao, N., & Zhu, T. (2020). The Impact of COVID-19 Epidemic Declaration on Psychological Consequences: A Study on Active Weibo Users. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(6), 2032.
  • López-Solà, C., Fontenelle, L., Bui, M., Hopper, J., Pantelis, C., Yücel, M., . . . Harrison, B. (2016). Aetiological overlap between obsessive–compulsive related and anxiety disorder symptoms: Multivariate twin study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 208(1), 26-33.
  • Mazza, C., Ricci, E., Biondi, S., Colasanti, M., Ferracuti, S., Napoli, C., & Roma, P. (2020). A Nationwide Survey of Psychological Distress among Italian People during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(9), 3165.
  • Mazza, M. G., Lorenzo, R. D., Conte, C., Poletti, S., Vai, B., Bollettini, I., . . . Benedetti, F. (2020). Anxiety and depression in COVID-19 survivors: Role of inflammatory and clinical predictors. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 89, 594-600. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2020.07.037
  • McKay,D., Minaya,C., ve Storch,E.A. (2020). Conducting exposure and response prevention treatment for contamination fears during COVID-19: The behavioral immune system impact on clinician approaches to treatment, Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 74, 102270
  • Nissen, J.B., Højgaard, D. & Thomsen, P.H.(2020). The immediate effect of COVID-19 pandemic on children and adolescents with obsessive compulsive disorder. BMC Psychiatry 20, 511. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02905-5
  • Onder, G., Rezza, G., & Brusaferro, S. (2020). Case-Fatality Rate and Characteristics of Patients Dying in Relation to COVID-19 in Italy. JAMA, 323(18), 1775–1776.
  • Passos, L., Prazeres, F., Teixeira, A., & Martins, C. (2020). Impact on Mental Health Due to COVID-19 Pandemic: Cross-Sectional Study in Portugal and Brazil. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(18), 6794.
  • Plunkett, R., Costello, S., McGovern, M., McDonald, C., & Hallahan, B. (2020). Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with pre-existing anxiety disorders attending secondary care. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine, 1-9.
  • Prestia, D., Pozza, A., Olcese, M., Escelsior, A, Dettore, D. ve Amore,M. (2020). The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with OCD: Effects of contamination symptoms and remission state before the quarantine in a preliminary naturalistic study, Psychiatry Research, 291, 113213.
  • Rivera, R. M., & Carballea, D. (2020). Coronavirus: A trigger for OCD and illness anxiety disorder?. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy.
  • Robertson, M.M., Eapen, V., Rizzo, R. et al. (2020) Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome: advice in the times of COVID-19 [version 2; peer review: 2 approved]. F1000Research, 9:257.
  • Rosso, G., Albert, U., Asinari, G. F., Bogetto, F., & Maina, G. (2012). Stressful life events and obsessive-compulsive disorder: clinical features and symptom dimensions. Psychiatry research, 197(3), 259–264.
  • Seçer, İ., Ulaş, S. (2020). An Investigation of the Effect of COVID-19 on OCD in Youth in the Context of Emotional Reactivity, Experiential Avoidance, Depression and Anxiety. Int J Ment Health Addiction, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00322-z
  • Stanton, R., To, Q. G., Khalesi, S., Williams, S. L., Alley, S. J., Thwaite, T. L., Fenning, A. S., et al. (2020). Depression, Anxiety and Stress during COVID-19: Associations with Changes in Physical Activity, Sleep, Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Australian Adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(11), 4065.
  • Türkiye Psikiyatri Derneği (2006). Anksiyete Bozuklukları Bilimsel Çalışma Birimi. Anksiyete Bozuklukları. Birinci baskı, Ankara: Pozitif Matbaacılık.
  • Pitman, R.K. (1987). Pierre Janet on obsessive-compulsive disorder (1903). Review and commentary. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 44:226-232.
  • Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., Ho, C. S., & Ho, R. C. (2020). Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(5), 1729.

COVID-19 Pandemisi ve Obsesif Kompulsif Bozukluk

Yıl 2021, Cilt 13, Sayı 3, 588 - 604, 30.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.18863/pgy.829348

Öz

Coronavirüs hastalığı-2019 (Covid-19) pandemisi Dünya Sağlık Örgütü tarafından bir pandemi olarak ilan edilmesinin ardından temizlik, maske ve sosyal mesafe kuralları da hem hastalık önleme ve koruma merkezleri hem de medya tarafından sürekli hatırlatılan uyarılar haline gelmiştir. Maske, temizlik ve sosyal mesafe hayatlarımızın yeni normalleri haline gelmiştir. Obsesif kompulsif bozukluğunun yaygın belirtiler arasında bulunan temizlik/temizleme kompulsiyonları ve mikrop bulaşma obsesyonları ve Covid-19’dan korunma davranışları ile alevlenmiş ve bu önlemler obsessif kompulsif bozukluğun semptomlarının nerede başladığını ve hangi davranışların obsesif kompulsif bozukluk olarak değerlendirilebileceği konusunda da kafa karışıklıklarına neden olmuştur. Bu gibi önlemler özellikle obsesif kompulsif bozukluğu olan olguların semptomlarının şiddetlenmesinin yanı sıra diğer hastalık bulaşma obsesyonlarını da Covid-19 bulaşma obsesyonu haline getirmiştir. Yapılan birçok çalışma depresyon, anksiyete bozuklukları belirtilerinin artmış olduğunu gösterirken obsesif kompulsif bozukluğu semptomlarının alevlendiğini, klinisyenler tarafından yeni obsesif kompulsif bozukluk tanı konulma sıklığının arttığını tespit edilmiştir. Covid-19 pandemisi çocuk-ergen, obsesif kompulsif bozukluk tanısı almış ve tedavisi devam eden olguların yanı sıra obsesif kompulsif bozukluk geliştirme riski olan birçok bireyi de olumsuz yönde etkilemiştir. Yapılan bu çalışma sonucunda medya, hastalık önleme merkezleri tarafından yapılan açıklamamalar konusunda dikkatli olunması ve klinisyenlerin de obsesif kompulsif bozukluk ile baş etmek durumunda olan olguların tanı ve psikoterapi süreçlerinde daha dikkatli olunması gerekliliğini ön plana çıkarmıştır.

Kaynakça

  • Aardema, F. (2020). COVID-19, obsessive-compulsive disorder and invisible life forms that threaten the self, Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, 26, 100558.
  • Abba-Aji, A., Li, D., Hrabok, M., Shalaby, R., Gusnowski, A., Vuong, W., Surood, S., et al. (2020). COVID-19 Pandemic and Mental Health: Prevalence and Correlates of New-Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in a Canadian Province. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(19), 6986.
  • Benatti, B., Albert, U., Maina, G., Fiorillo, A., Celebre, L., Girone, N., . . . Dell’Osso, B. (2020). What Happened to Patients With Obsessive Compulsive Disorder During the COVID-19 Pandemic? A Multicentre Report From Tertiary Clinics in Northern Italy. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00720
  • Burke, T., Berry, A., Taylor, L. K., Stafford, O., Murphy, E., Shevlin, M., McHugh, L., et al. (2020). Increased Psychological Distress during COVID-19 and Quarantine in Ireland: A National Survey. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 9(11), 3481.
  • Capuzzi,E., Di Brita, C., Caldiroli, A., Colmegna, F., Nava, R., Buoli, M. ve Clerici,M. (2020). Psychiatric emergency care during Coronavirus 2019 (COVID 19) pandemic lockdown: results from a Department of Mental Health and Addiction of Northern Italy, Psychiatry Research, 293,113463.
  • Choi, E. P. H., Hui, B. P. H., & Wan, E. Y. F. (2020). Depression and Anxiety in Hong Kong during COVID-19. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(10), 3740.
  • Fenfen G., Mengtong W., Anni Z. and Jun Z.( 2020), How to deal with the negative psychological impact of COVID-19 for people who pay attention to anxiety and depression, Precision Clinical Medicine, 3(3), 161–168.
  • Fineberg, N., Ameringen, M. V., Drummond, L., Hollander, E., Stein, D., Geller, D., . . . Dell'osso, B. (2020). How to manage obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) under COVID-19: A clinician's guide from the International College of Obsessive Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS) and the Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders Research Network (OCRN) of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 100, 152174.
  • French, I., ve Lyne, J. (2020). Acute exacerbation of OCD symptoms precipitated by media reports of COVID-19. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine, 1-4.
  • Freud, S. (1909) Bir saplantı nevrozu olgusu üzerine notlar ("Sıçan Adam"). Olgu Öyküleri 2, (Çev. A Eğrilmez), İstanbul, 1996, Payel Yayınları, s.29-111.
  • Fontenelle, L. F., & Miguel, E. C. (2020). The impact of COVID‐19 in the diagnosis and treatment of obsessive‐compulsive disorder. Depression and Anxiety.
  • Jassi, A., Shahriyarmolki, K., Taylor, T., Peile, L., Challacombe, F., Clark, B., & Veale, D. (2020). OCD and COVID-19: A new frontier. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 13, E27. doi:10.1017/S1754470X20000318
  • Jelinek,L., Moritz, S., Miegel, F. ve Voderholzer, U. (2021).Obsessive-compulsive disorder during COVID-19: Turning a problem into an opportunity?, Journal of Anxiety Disorders,77,102329
  • Ji, G., Wei, W., Yue, K.C., Li, H., Shi, L.J., Ma, J.D., He, C.Y., Zhou, S.S., Zhao, Z., Lou, T., Cheng, J., Yang, S.C., Hu, X.Z. (2020). Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms Among University Students: Prospective Cohort Survey Study, J Med Internet Res 2020;22(9):e21915.
  • Köroğlu, E. (2016). Klinik Psikopatoloji, Ankara: HYB Basım Yayın.
  • Lensi, P., Cassano, G., Correddu, G., Ravagli, S., Kunovac, J., & Akiskal, H. (1996). Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder: Familial–Developmental History, Symptomatology, Comorbidity and Course with Special Reference to Gender-Related Differences. British Journal of Psychiatry, 169(1), 101-107.
  • Li, L. Q., Huang, T., Wang, Y. Q., Wang, Z. P., Liang, Y., Huang, T. B., Zhang, H. Y., Sun, W., & Wang, Y. (2020). COVID-19 patients' clinical characteristics, discharge rate, and fatality rate of meta-analysis. Journal of medical virology, 92(6), 577–583.
  • Li, S., Wang, Y., Xue, J., Zhao, N., & Zhu, T. (2020). The Impact of COVID-19 Epidemic Declaration on Psychological Consequences: A Study on Active Weibo Users. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(6), 2032.
  • López-Solà, C., Fontenelle, L., Bui, M., Hopper, J., Pantelis, C., Yücel, M., . . . Harrison, B. (2016). Aetiological overlap between obsessive–compulsive related and anxiety disorder symptoms: Multivariate twin study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 208(1), 26-33.
  • Mazza, C., Ricci, E., Biondi, S., Colasanti, M., Ferracuti, S., Napoli, C., & Roma, P. (2020). A Nationwide Survey of Psychological Distress among Italian People during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(9), 3165.
  • Mazza, M. G., Lorenzo, R. D., Conte, C., Poletti, S., Vai, B., Bollettini, I., . . . Benedetti, F. (2020). Anxiety and depression in COVID-19 survivors: Role of inflammatory and clinical predictors. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 89, 594-600. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2020.07.037
  • McKay,D., Minaya,C., ve Storch,E.A. (2020). Conducting exposure and response prevention treatment for contamination fears during COVID-19: The behavioral immune system impact on clinician approaches to treatment, Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 74, 102270
  • Nissen, J.B., Højgaard, D. & Thomsen, P.H.(2020). The immediate effect of COVID-19 pandemic on children and adolescents with obsessive compulsive disorder. BMC Psychiatry 20, 511. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02905-5
  • Onder, G., Rezza, G., & Brusaferro, S. (2020). Case-Fatality Rate and Characteristics of Patients Dying in Relation to COVID-19 in Italy. JAMA, 323(18), 1775–1776.
  • Passos, L., Prazeres, F., Teixeira, A., & Martins, C. (2020). Impact on Mental Health Due to COVID-19 Pandemic: Cross-Sectional Study in Portugal and Brazil. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(18), 6794.
  • Plunkett, R., Costello, S., McGovern, M., McDonald, C., & Hallahan, B. (2020). Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with pre-existing anxiety disorders attending secondary care. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine, 1-9.
  • Prestia, D., Pozza, A., Olcese, M., Escelsior, A, Dettore, D. ve Amore,M. (2020). The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with OCD: Effects of contamination symptoms and remission state before the quarantine in a preliminary naturalistic study, Psychiatry Research, 291, 113213.
  • Rivera, R. M., & Carballea, D. (2020). Coronavirus: A trigger for OCD and illness anxiety disorder?. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy.
  • Robertson, M.M., Eapen, V., Rizzo, R. et al. (2020) Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome: advice in the times of COVID-19 [version 2; peer review: 2 approved]. F1000Research, 9:257.
  • Rosso, G., Albert, U., Asinari, G. F., Bogetto, F., & Maina, G. (2012). Stressful life events and obsessive-compulsive disorder: clinical features and symptom dimensions. Psychiatry research, 197(3), 259–264.
  • Seçer, İ., Ulaş, S. (2020). An Investigation of the Effect of COVID-19 on OCD in Youth in the Context of Emotional Reactivity, Experiential Avoidance, Depression and Anxiety. Int J Ment Health Addiction, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00322-z
  • Stanton, R., To, Q. G., Khalesi, S., Williams, S. L., Alley, S. J., Thwaite, T. L., Fenning, A. S., et al. (2020). Depression, Anxiety and Stress during COVID-19: Associations with Changes in Physical Activity, Sleep, Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Australian Adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(11), 4065.
  • Türkiye Psikiyatri Derneği (2006). Anksiyete Bozuklukları Bilimsel Çalışma Birimi. Anksiyete Bozuklukları. Birinci baskı, Ankara: Pozitif Matbaacılık.
  • Pitman, R.K. (1987). Pierre Janet on obsessive-compulsive disorder (1903). Review and commentary. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 44:226-232.
  • Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., Ho, C. S., & Ho, R. C. (2020). Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(5), 1729.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Psikoloji
Bölüm Derleme
Yazarlar

Zihniye OKRAY (Sorumlu Yazar)
EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY OF LEFKE
0000-0002-9117-4991
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Eylül 2021
Kabul Tarihi 30 Ocak 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 13, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

AMA Okray Z. COVID-19 Pandemisi ve Obsesif Kompulsif Bozukluk. pgy. 2021; 13(3): 588-604.

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