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KURUMSAL YAPI VE YENİLİKLERİN EKONOMİK BÜYÜMEYE ETKİLERİ: ETKİNLİK ÇEKİŞLİ VE YENİLİK ÇEKİŞLİ ÜLKELER ÖRNEĞİ

Yıl 2021, Cilt: 11 Sayı: 22, 287 - 305, 31.12.2021

Öz

Sürdürülebilir büyüme için sadece fiziksel ve beşeri sermayenin yeterli olmadığı, teşvik edici kurumların ve yeniliklerin sürdürülebilir büyümeyi sağlamada önemli rol oynadığı son dönemde ekonomi literatüründe sıklıkla tartışılmaktadır. Öte yandan yapılan çalışmalar yeniliği ortaya çıkaran ve yeniliğin yayılmasına yol açan etmenlerin ülkelerin kurumsal yapılarından bağımsız olmadığını ortaya koymaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, kurumsal yapının ve yeniliklerin ekonomik büyümeye etkilerini farklı yenilik düzeyine sahip ülke grupları için analiz etmektir. Panel veri analiz yönteminin kullanıldığı çalışmada 2003-2016 döneminde etkinlik çekişli 15 ve yenilik çekişli 24 ülke analize dâhil edilmiştir. Ülkelerin tasnifinde Dünya Ekonomik Forumu tarafından hazırlanan Küresel Rekabetçilik Endeksi sınıflandırması dikkate alınmıştır. Elde edilen bulgular, kurumsal yapı ve yeniliklerin ekonomik büyümeyi pozitif olarak etkilediğini göstermektedir. Ancak, etkinlik çekişli ekonomilerde yeniliğin ekonomik büyüme üzerindeki etkisi daha yüksek tespit edilmiştir. Bu sonuç, sürdürülebilir büyümeyi gerçekleştirmek isteyen politika uygulayıcılarının yeniliğin pozitif etkilerinden daha fazla yararlanabilmek için ülkeye özgü faktörleri dikkate almaları ve teşvik edici kurumsal yapıyı desteklemeleri gereğini ortaya koymaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • Acemoglu, D., Naidu, S., Restrepo, P., & Robinson, J. A. (2019). Democracy Does Cause Growth, Journal of Political Economy, 127(1), 47-100.
  • Acemoğlu, D. & Robinson, J. A. (2012). Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty, Suffolk: Profile Books.
  • Acemoğlu, D., Johnson, S., & Robinson, J. A. (2001). The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation, American Economic Review, 91(5), 1369-1401.
  • Acemoğlu, D., Johnson, S., & Robinson, J. A. (2005). Institutions as a Fundamental Cause of Long-Run Growth, P. Aghion ve S. N. Durlauf (Ed.), Handbook of Economic Growth Volume 1A, içinde (385-472), Amsterdam: North-Holland.
  • Aghion, P. & Howitt, P. (1992). A Model of Growth Through Creative Destruction, Econometrica, 60(2), 323-351.
  • Aghion, P. & Howitt, P. (1999). Endogenous Growth Theory, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
  • Akçomak, İ. S. & Ter Weel, B. (2009). Social Capital, Innovation and Growth: Evidence From Europe, European Economic Review, 53(5), 544-567.
  • Artan, S., & Hayaloğlu, P. (2014). Kurumsal Yapı ve İktisadi Büyüme İlişkisi: Türkiye Örneği, Sosyoekonomi, 22(22), 347-366.
  • Beugelsdijk, S. (2006). A Note on The Theory and Measurement of Trust in Explaining Differences in Economic Growth, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 30(3), 371-387.
  • Coase, R. (1998). The New Institutional Economics, The American Economic Review, 88(2), 72-74.
  • Coase, R. H. (1937). The Nature of the Firm, Economica, 4(16), 386-405.
  • Coase, R. H. (1960). The Problem of Social Cost, C. Gopalakrishnan (Ed.), Classic Papers in Natural Resource Economics, içinde (87-137), London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • d’Agostino, G. & Scarlato, M. (2014). Inclusive Institutions, Innovation and Economic Growth: Estimates for European Countries, https://ssrn.com/abstract=2539521 (11.12.2018).
  • Dawson, J. W. (1998). Institutions, Investment, and Growth: New Cross-Country and Panel Data Evidence, Economic Inquiry, 36(4), 603-619.
  • Dinopoulos, E., & Segerstrom, P. (2010). Intellectual Property Rights, Multinational Firms and Economic Growth, Journal of Development Economics, 92(1), 13-27.
  • Dollar, D. ve Kraay, A. (2003). Institutions, Trade, and Growth, Journal of Monetary Economics, 50(1), 133-162.
  • Driscoll, J. C. ve Kraay, A. C. (1998). Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation With Spatially Dependent Panel Data, Review of Economics and Statistics, 80(4), 549-560.
  • Easterly, W. ve Levine, R. (2003). Tropics, Germs, and Crops: How Endowments Influence Economic Development, Journal of Monetary Economics, 50(1), 3-39.
  • Evans, P., & Rauch, J. E. (1999). Bureaucracy And Growth: A Cross-National Analysis of The Effects of “Weberian” State Structures on Economic Growth, American Sociological Review, 64(5), 748-765.
  • Galindo, M. Á., & Méndez‐Picazo, M. T. (2013). Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth, Management Decision, 51(3), 501-514.
  • Glaeser, E. L., La Porta, R., Lopez-de-Silanes, F., & Shleifer, A. (2004). Do Institutions Cause Growth?, Journal of Economic Growth, 9(3), 271-303.
  • Griffith, R., Redding, S., & Reenen, J. V. (2004). Mapping the Two Faces of R&D: Productivity Growth in a Panel of OECD Industries, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 86(4), 883-895.
  • Gründler, K., & Potrafke, N. (2019). Corruption and Economic growth: New Empirical Evidence, European Journal of Political Economy, 60, 1-14.
  • Hasan, I. & Tucci, C. L. (2010). The Innovation-Economic Growth Nexus: Global Evidence, Research Policy, 39(10), 1264-1276.
  • Jones, C. I. & Vollrath, D. (2013). Introduction to Economic Growth, New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
  • Knack, S. ve Keefer, P. (1995). Institutions and Economic Performance: Cross-Country Tests Using Alternative Institutional Measures, Economics & Politics, 7(3), 207-227.
  • Lin, J. Y. & Nugent, J. B. (1995). Institutions and Economic Development, J. Behrman & T. N. Srinivasan (Ed.), Handbook of Development Economics Volume 3A, içinde (2301-2370), Amsterdam: North Holland.
  • Lucas Jr., R. E. (1988). On the Mechanics of Economic Development, Journal of Monetary Economics, 22(1), 3-42.
  • Lundvall, B. (Ed.) (2010). National Systems of Innovation: Toward a Theory of Innovation and Interactive Learning, London: Anthem Press.
  • Maseland, R. (2013). Parasitical Cultures? The Cultural Origins of Institutions and Development, Journal of Economic Growth, 18(2), 109-136.
  • Mauro, Paolo (1995). Corruption and Growth, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 110(3), 681-712.
  • Meirun, T., Mihardjo, L. W., Haseeb, M., Khan, S. A. R., & Jermsittiparsert, K. (2021). The Dynamics Effect of Green Technology Innovation on Economic Growth and CO2 Emission in Singapore: New Evidence from Bootstrap ARDL Approach. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(4), 4184-4194.
  • Mokyr, J. (1992). The Lever of Riches, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Nelson, R. R. & Winter, S. G. (1982). An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press.
  • North, D. C. (1990). Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • North, D. C. (1991). Institutions, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 5(1), 97-112.
  • North, D. C. (1994). Economic Performance Through Time, The American Economic Review, 84(3), 359-368.
  • OECD & Eurostat (2018). Oslo Manual 2018: Guidelines for Collecting, Reporting and Using Data on Innovation, Paris/Luxembourg: OECD Publishing.
  • Pece, A. M., Simona, O. E. O., & Salisteanu, F. (2015). Innovation and Economic Growth: An Empirical Analysis for CEE Countries, Procedia Economics and Finance, 26, 461-467.
  • Rodrik, D. (2007). One Economics, Many Recipes: Globalization, Institutions, and Economic Growth, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
  • Rodrik, D., Subramanian, A., & Trebbi, F. (2004). Institutions Rule: The Primacy of Institutions over Geography and Integration in Economic Development, Journal of Economic Growth, 9(2), 131-165.
  • Romer, P. M. (1990). Endogenous Technological Change, Journal of Political Economy, 98(5), 71-102.
  • Sachs, J. D. (2003). Institutions Don’t Rule: Direct Effects of Geography on Per Capita Income, NBER Working Paper No. 9490.
  • Schumpeter, J. A. (1949). The Theory of Economic Development: An Inquiry into Profits, Capital, Credit, Interest, and The Business Cycle, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
  • Schwab, K. (Ed.) (2018). The Global Competitiveness Report 2017-2018, Genova: World Economic Forum.
  • Searle, John R. (2005). What is an Institution?, Journal of Institutional Economics, 1(1), 1-22.
  • Shukarov, M. & Marić, K. (2016). Institutions, Education and Innovation and Their Impact on Economic Growth, Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems, 14(2), 157-164.
  • Silve, F. & Plekhanov, A. (2018). Institutions, Innovation and Growth: Evidence from Industry Data, Economics of Transition, 26(3), 335-362.
  • Soete, L., Verspagen, B., & Ter Weel, B. (2010). Systems of Innovation, B. H. Hall ve N. Rosenberg (Ed.). Handbook of the Economics of Innovation Volume 2, içinde (1159-1180), Amsterdam: North-Holland.
  • Tebaldi, E. & Elmslie, B. (2008). Institutions, Innovation and Economic Growth, MPRA Paper No. 9683.
  • The World Bank (2019). World Development Indicators, http://datatopics.worldbank.org/world-development-indicators/indicators (15.02.2019).
  • Tomizawa, A., Zhao, L., Bassellier, G., & Ahlstrom, D. (2020). Economic Growth, Innovation, Institutions, and The Great Enrichment, Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 37(1), 1-25.
  • Ulku, Hulya (2007). R&D, Innovation, and Growth: Evidence From Four Manufacturing Sectors in OECD Countries, Oxford Economic Papers, 59(3), 513-535.
  • UNESCO (2019). UNESCO Institute for Stastictics Database, http://data.uis.unesco.org/#, (15.02.2019).
  • Williamson, O. E. (1975). Markets and Hierarchies: Analysis and Antitrust Implications, New York: The Free Press.
  • Williamson, O. E. (1993). Transaction Cost Economics and Organization Theory, Industrial and Corporate Change, 2(2), 107-156.
  • Williamson, O. E. (2000). The New Institutional Economics: Taking Stock, Looking Ahead, Journal of Economic Literature, 38(3), 595-613.
  • Wong, P. K., Ho, Y. P. ve Autio, E. (2005). Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Economic Growth: Evidence from GEM Data. Small Business Economics, 24(3), 335-350.

THE EFFECTS OF INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE AND INNOVATION ON ECONOMIC GROWTH: THE CASE OF EFFICIENCY-DRIVEN AND INNOVATION-DRIVEN ECONOMIES

Yıl 2021, Cilt: 11 Sayı: 22, 287 - 305, 31.12.2021

Öz

It has been frequently argued in the economics literature recently that physical and human capital is not only sufficient for sustainable growth, but that incentive institutions and innovations play an important role in ensuring sustainable growth. In addition, studies proves that the factors that reveal innovation and lead to the spread of innovation are not independent of the institutional structures of countries. The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of institutional structure and innovations on economic growth for country groups with different levels of innovation. In the study, in which panel data analysis method was used, 15 countries with efficiency-driven and 24 countries with innovation-driven were included in the analysis during the 2003-2016 period. In the classification of countries, the Global Competitiveness Index classification prepared by the World Economic Forum has been taken into account. The findings show that institutional structure and innovations affect positively economic growth. However, the effect of innovation on economic growth was found to be higher in economies with efficiency-driven countries. This result reveals that policy implementers who want to make sustainable growth should consider the country-specific factors and support the encouraging institutional structure in order to benefit more from the positive effects of innovation.

Kaynakça

  • Acemoglu, D., Naidu, S., Restrepo, P., & Robinson, J. A. (2019). Democracy Does Cause Growth, Journal of Political Economy, 127(1), 47-100.
  • Acemoğlu, D. & Robinson, J. A. (2012). Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty, Suffolk: Profile Books.
  • Acemoğlu, D., Johnson, S., & Robinson, J. A. (2001). The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation, American Economic Review, 91(5), 1369-1401.
  • Acemoğlu, D., Johnson, S., & Robinson, J. A. (2005). Institutions as a Fundamental Cause of Long-Run Growth, P. Aghion ve S. N. Durlauf (Ed.), Handbook of Economic Growth Volume 1A, içinde (385-472), Amsterdam: North-Holland.
  • Aghion, P. & Howitt, P. (1992). A Model of Growth Through Creative Destruction, Econometrica, 60(2), 323-351.
  • Aghion, P. & Howitt, P. (1999). Endogenous Growth Theory, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
  • Akçomak, İ. S. & Ter Weel, B. (2009). Social Capital, Innovation and Growth: Evidence From Europe, European Economic Review, 53(5), 544-567.
  • Artan, S., & Hayaloğlu, P. (2014). Kurumsal Yapı ve İktisadi Büyüme İlişkisi: Türkiye Örneği, Sosyoekonomi, 22(22), 347-366.
  • Beugelsdijk, S. (2006). A Note on The Theory and Measurement of Trust in Explaining Differences in Economic Growth, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 30(3), 371-387.
  • Coase, R. (1998). The New Institutional Economics, The American Economic Review, 88(2), 72-74.
  • Coase, R. H. (1937). The Nature of the Firm, Economica, 4(16), 386-405.
  • Coase, R. H. (1960). The Problem of Social Cost, C. Gopalakrishnan (Ed.), Classic Papers in Natural Resource Economics, içinde (87-137), London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • d’Agostino, G. & Scarlato, M. (2014). Inclusive Institutions, Innovation and Economic Growth: Estimates for European Countries, https://ssrn.com/abstract=2539521 (11.12.2018).
  • Dawson, J. W. (1998). Institutions, Investment, and Growth: New Cross-Country and Panel Data Evidence, Economic Inquiry, 36(4), 603-619.
  • Dinopoulos, E., & Segerstrom, P. (2010). Intellectual Property Rights, Multinational Firms and Economic Growth, Journal of Development Economics, 92(1), 13-27.
  • Dollar, D. ve Kraay, A. (2003). Institutions, Trade, and Growth, Journal of Monetary Economics, 50(1), 133-162.
  • Driscoll, J. C. ve Kraay, A. C. (1998). Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation With Spatially Dependent Panel Data, Review of Economics and Statistics, 80(4), 549-560.
  • Easterly, W. ve Levine, R. (2003). Tropics, Germs, and Crops: How Endowments Influence Economic Development, Journal of Monetary Economics, 50(1), 3-39.
  • Evans, P., & Rauch, J. E. (1999). Bureaucracy And Growth: A Cross-National Analysis of The Effects of “Weberian” State Structures on Economic Growth, American Sociological Review, 64(5), 748-765.
  • Galindo, M. Á., & Méndez‐Picazo, M. T. (2013). Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth, Management Decision, 51(3), 501-514.
  • Glaeser, E. L., La Porta, R., Lopez-de-Silanes, F., & Shleifer, A. (2004). Do Institutions Cause Growth?, Journal of Economic Growth, 9(3), 271-303.
  • Griffith, R., Redding, S., & Reenen, J. V. (2004). Mapping the Two Faces of R&D: Productivity Growth in a Panel of OECD Industries, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 86(4), 883-895.
  • Gründler, K., & Potrafke, N. (2019). Corruption and Economic growth: New Empirical Evidence, European Journal of Political Economy, 60, 1-14.
  • Hasan, I. & Tucci, C. L. (2010). The Innovation-Economic Growth Nexus: Global Evidence, Research Policy, 39(10), 1264-1276.
  • Jones, C. I. & Vollrath, D. (2013). Introduction to Economic Growth, New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
  • Knack, S. ve Keefer, P. (1995). Institutions and Economic Performance: Cross-Country Tests Using Alternative Institutional Measures, Economics & Politics, 7(3), 207-227.
  • Lin, J. Y. & Nugent, J. B. (1995). Institutions and Economic Development, J. Behrman & T. N. Srinivasan (Ed.), Handbook of Development Economics Volume 3A, içinde (2301-2370), Amsterdam: North Holland.
  • Lucas Jr., R. E. (1988). On the Mechanics of Economic Development, Journal of Monetary Economics, 22(1), 3-42.
  • Lundvall, B. (Ed.) (2010). National Systems of Innovation: Toward a Theory of Innovation and Interactive Learning, London: Anthem Press.
  • Maseland, R. (2013). Parasitical Cultures? The Cultural Origins of Institutions and Development, Journal of Economic Growth, 18(2), 109-136.
  • Mauro, Paolo (1995). Corruption and Growth, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 110(3), 681-712.
  • Meirun, T., Mihardjo, L. W., Haseeb, M., Khan, S. A. R., & Jermsittiparsert, K. (2021). The Dynamics Effect of Green Technology Innovation on Economic Growth and CO2 Emission in Singapore: New Evidence from Bootstrap ARDL Approach. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(4), 4184-4194.
  • Mokyr, J. (1992). The Lever of Riches, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Nelson, R. R. & Winter, S. G. (1982). An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press.
  • North, D. C. (1990). Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • North, D. C. (1991). Institutions, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 5(1), 97-112.
  • North, D. C. (1994). Economic Performance Through Time, The American Economic Review, 84(3), 359-368.
  • OECD & Eurostat (2018). Oslo Manual 2018: Guidelines for Collecting, Reporting and Using Data on Innovation, Paris/Luxembourg: OECD Publishing.
  • Pece, A. M., Simona, O. E. O., & Salisteanu, F. (2015). Innovation and Economic Growth: An Empirical Analysis for CEE Countries, Procedia Economics and Finance, 26, 461-467.
  • Rodrik, D. (2007). One Economics, Many Recipes: Globalization, Institutions, and Economic Growth, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
  • Rodrik, D., Subramanian, A., & Trebbi, F. (2004). Institutions Rule: The Primacy of Institutions over Geography and Integration in Economic Development, Journal of Economic Growth, 9(2), 131-165.
  • Romer, P. M. (1990). Endogenous Technological Change, Journal of Political Economy, 98(5), 71-102.
  • Sachs, J. D. (2003). Institutions Don’t Rule: Direct Effects of Geography on Per Capita Income, NBER Working Paper No. 9490.
  • Schumpeter, J. A. (1949). The Theory of Economic Development: An Inquiry into Profits, Capital, Credit, Interest, and The Business Cycle, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
  • Schwab, K. (Ed.) (2018). The Global Competitiveness Report 2017-2018, Genova: World Economic Forum.
  • Searle, John R. (2005). What is an Institution?, Journal of Institutional Economics, 1(1), 1-22.
  • Shukarov, M. & Marić, K. (2016). Institutions, Education and Innovation and Their Impact on Economic Growth, Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems, 14(2), 157-164.
  • Silve, F. & Plekhanov, A. (2018). Institutions, Innovation and Growth: Evidence from Industry Data, Economics of Transition, 26(3), 335-362.
  • Soete, L., Verspagen, B., & Ter Weel, B. (2010). Systems of Innovation, B. H. Hall ve N. Rosenberg (Ed.). Handbook of the Economics of Innovation Volume 2, içinde (1159-1180), Amsterdam: North-Holland.
  • Tebaldi, E. & Elmslie, B. (2008). Institutions, Innovation and Economic Growth, MPRA Paper No. 9683.
  • The World Bank (2019). World Development Indicators, http://datatopics.worldbank.org/world-development-indicators/indicators (15.02.2019).
  • Tomizawa, A., Zhao, L., Bassellier, G., & Ahlstrom, D. (2020). Economic Growth, Innovation, Institutions, and The Great Enrichment, Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 37(1), 1-25.
  • Ulku, Hulya (2007). R&D, Innovation, and Growth: Evidence From Four Manufacturing Sectors in OECD Countries, Oxford Economic Papers, 59(3), 513-535.
  • UNESCO (2019). UNESCO Institute for Stastictics Database, http://data.uis.unesco.org/#, (15.02.2019).
  • Williamson, O. E. (1975). Markets and Hierarchies: Analysis and Antitrust Implications, New York: The Free Press.
  • Williamson, O. E. (1993). Transaction Cost Economics and Organization Theory, Industrial and Corporate Change, 2(2), 107-156.
  • Williamson, O. E. (2000). The New Institutional Economics: Taking Stock, Looking Ahead, Journal of Economic Literature, 38(3), 595-613.
  • Wong, P. K., Ho, Y. P. ve Autio, E. (2005). Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Economic Growth: Evidence from GEM Data. Small Business Economics, 24(3), 335-350.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Doğan KEŞAP
RECEP TAYYİP ERDOĞAN ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-7338-0698
Türkiye


Seyfettin ARTAN
KARADENİZ TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-4310-550X
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2021
Gönderilme Tarihi 13 Eylül 2021
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021 Cilt: 11 Sayı: 22

Kaynak Göster

APA
KEŞAP, D., & ARTAN, S. (2021). KURUMSAL YAPI VE YENİLİKLERİN EKONOMİK BÜYÜMEYE ETKİLERİ: ETKİNLİK ÇEKİŞLİ VE YENİLİK ÇEKİŞLİ ÜLKELER ÖRNEĞİ. Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 11(22), 287-305.
MLA
KEŞAP, Doğan ve Seyfettin ARTAN. “KURUMSAL YAPI VE YENİLİKLERİN EKONOMİK BÜYÜMEYE ETKİLERİ: ETKİNLİK ÇEKİŞLİ VE YENİLİK ÇEKİŞLİ ÜLKELER ÖRNEĞİ”. Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, c. 11, sy. 22, 2021, ss. 287-05.
Chicago
KEŞAP, Doğan, ve Seyfettin ARTAN. “KURUMSAL YAPI VE YENİLİKLERİN EKONOMİK BÜYÜMEYE ETKİLERİ: ETKİNLİK ÇEKİŞLİ VE YENİLİK ÇEKİŞLİ ÜLKELER ÖRNEĞİ”. Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 11, sy. 22 (Aralık 2021): 287-305.
EndNote
KEŞAP D, ARTAN S (01 Aralık 2021) KURUMSAL YAPI VE YENİLİKLERİN EKONOMİK BÜYÜMEYE ETKİLERİ: ETKİNLİK ÇEKİŞLİ VE YENİLİK ÇEKİŞLİ ÜLKELER ÖRNEĞİ. Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 11 22 287–305.
ISNAD
KEŞAP, Doğan - ARTAN, Seyfettin. “KURUMSAL YAPI VE YENİLİKLERİN EKONOMİK BÜYÜMEYE ETKİLERİ: ETKİNLİK ÇEKİŞLİ VE YENİLİK ÇEKİŞLİ ÜLKELER ÖRNEĞİ”. Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 11/22 (Aralık 2021), 287-305.
AMA
KEŞAP D, ARTAN S. KURUMSAL YAPI VE YENİLİKLERİN EKONOMİK BÜYÜMEYE ETKİLERİ: ETKİNLİK ÇEKİŞLİ VE YENİLİK ÇEKİŞLİ ÜLKELER ÖRNEĞİ. KTÜSBD. Aralık 2021;11(22):287-305.
Vancouver
KEŞAP D, ARTAN S. KURUMSAL YAPI VE YENİLİKLERİN EKONOMİK BÜYÜMEYE ETKİLERİ: ETKİNLİK ÇEKİŞLİ VE YENİLİK ÇEKİŞLİ ÜLKELER ÖRNEĞİ. KTÜSBD. 2021;11(22):287-305.
IEEE
D. KEŞAP ve S. ARTAN, “KURUMSAL YAPI VE YENİLİKLERİN EKONOMİK BÜYÜMEYE ETKİLERİ: ETKİNLİK ÇEKİŞLİ VE YENİLİK ÇEKİŞLİ ÜLKELER ÖRNEĞİ”, KTÜSBD, c. 11, sy. 22, ss. 287–305, 2021.
JAMA
KEŞAP D, ARTAN S. KURUMSAL YAPI VE YENİLİKLERİN EKONOMİK BÜYÜMEYE ETKİLERİ: ETKİNLİK ÇEKİŞLİ VE YENİLİK ÇEKİŞLİ ÜLKELER ÖRNEĞİ. KTÜSBD. 2021;11:287–305.

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