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Örtmeceli Küfürlerin Görsel-İşitsel Çevirisinde Soru ve Sorunlar: İyi Yer Örneği

Yıl 2021, Cilt 6, Sayı 3, 858 - 878, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.29110/soylemdergi.993948

Öz

Mizah ve küfür gibi kültüre özgü ögeler, diller arası aktarımlarında ortaya çıkan zorlayıcı yönler ve bunların sonuçları açısından görsel-işitsel çeviri alanında farklı bağlamlar üzerinden çalışılmıştır (Chen, 2004; Fernández Dobao, 2006; Ávila-Cabrera, 2015). Bu çalışmada, bu iki ögenin önemli yer tuttuğu Netflix yapımı Amerikan dizisi İyi Yer (The Good Place) incelenerek sansürlü küfür kullanımının mizah unsuru olarak işlev görmesine odaklanılmıştır. 2016-2020 yılları arasında yayınlanan dizi, kurmaca dünyasının bir parçası olarak küfür filtresi bulunması ve bunun sonucunda küfürlerin sözcük oyunlarıyla sansüre uğratılması açısından küfür, örtmece ve mizah ögelerini bir araya getirmektedir. Bu açıdan, dizideki küfür filtresi yaratıcı dil kullanımının görsel-işitsel alanda çeviri yoluyla yeniden üretimi üzerinde rol oynayan faktörleri tartışma olanağı sunmaktadır. Çalışmamızın amacı, kaynak metindeki örtmeceli küfürlerin Türkçe çevirisinde ne tür yollar izlendiğini tespit etmek ve bu küfürlerin dizinin kurmaca dünyasındaki anlamlandırmalarının erek metinde ne ölçüde aktarıldığını incelemektir. Bunu yaparken İyi Yer’deki sansürlü küfürlerin görsel-işitsel çevirisinde verilen kararları incelemek adına, dizinin İngilizce orijinali ile altyazı ve dublaj çevirisi karşılaştırılacaktır. Örtmeceli küfürlerin hem kaynak hem de erek metinde yeniden modelleme yoluyla oluşturulduğu ancak Türkçede örtmece oluşturma biçimlerinde dikkat çeken bir tutarsızlık olduğu ve bu tutarsızlıkların küfür filtresinin etkisinin aktarılmasında anlam kaybı ve karakter temsilinde kaymalara neden olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Sözü edilen kaymaların muhtemel nedenleri ve sonuçları yaratım süreçlerindeki farklılıklar, dilsel kısıtlamalar ve bağlamsal faktörler üzerinden tartışılacaktır.

Kaynakça

  • Allan, K., Burridge, K. (1991). Euphemism and dysphemism: language used as shield and weapon, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Allan, K., Burridge, K. (2006). Forbidden words: taboo and the censoring of language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Allan, K. (2012). “X-phemism and creativity.” Lexis 7.
  • Andersson, L. G., Trudgill, P. (1990). Bad language. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
  • Ávila-Cabrera, J. J. (2015). “An account of the subtitling of offensive and taboo language in Tarantino’s screenplays.” Sendebar: Revista de la Facultad de Traducción e Interpretació, 26, 37–56.
  • Bednarek, M. (2019). “‘Don’t say crap. Don’t use swear words.’ – Negotiating the use of swear/taboo words in the narrative mass media.” Discourse, Context & Media, 29, 1-14.
  • Bricker, T. (20 Eylül 2016). The Good Place's Kristen Bell and Ted Danson Reveal Their Forkin' Favorite Alternative Curse Words. Retrieved from https://www.eonline.com/news/796046/the-good-place-s-kristen-bell-and-ted-danson-reveal-their-forkin-favorite-alternative-curse-words>
  • Chaume, F. (2004). “Discourse markers in audiovisual translating.” Meta 49(4), 843-855.
  • Chaume, F. (2012). Audiovisual translation: Dubbing. London & New York: Routledge.
  • Chen, C (2004). “On the Hong Kong Chinese subtitling of English swearwords.” Meta: journal des traducteurs / Meta: Translators’ Journal 49(1), 135–147.
  • Delabastita, D. (1989). “Translation and mass-communication: Film and T.V. translation as evidence of cultural Dynamics.” Babel, 35(4), 193–218.
  • Devellioğlu, F. (1980). Türk argosu. Ankara: Aydın Kitabevi Yayınları, 6. Baskı.
  • Díaz Cintas, J. (2001). “Sex, (sub)titles and videotapes.” Traducción subordinada II: el subtitulado (inglés – español/galego). Lourdes Lorenzo García and Ana María Pereira Rodríguez (eds), 47-67. Vigo: Universidad de Vigo.
  • Díaz Cintas, J., Remael, A. (2007). Audiovisual translation: subtitling. Manchester: St Jerome.
  • Farghal M. (1995). “Euphemism in Arabic: A Gricean interpretation.” Anthropological Linguistics, 37, 336-378.
  • Fernández Dobao, A. M. (2006). “Linguistic and cultural aspects of the translation of swearing: The Spanish version of Pulp Fiction.” Babel, 52(3). 222–242.
  • Greenall, A. K. (2011). The non-translation of swearing in subtitling: loss of so¬cial implicature? In Audiovisual Translation in Close-up: Practical and Theoretical Approaches. Adriana Şerban, Anna Matamala, and Jean-Marc Lavaur (eds.), (pp. 45-60). Bern: Peter Lang.
  • Günay-Köprülü, S. (2016). “Film çevirisinde fonetik eşleme.” ODÜ Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi (ODÜSOBİAD), 6(15), 488-503.
  • Hazen, K. (Temmuz 2020). “Zounds! What the fork are minced oaths? And why are we still fecking using them today?” The Conversation https://theconversation.com/zounds-what-the-fork-are-minced-oaths-and-why-are-we-still-fecking-using-them-today-141423 (erişim 15.03.2021)
  • Herbst, T. (1994). Linguistische Aspekte der Synchronisation von Fernsehserien: Phonetik, Textlinguistik, Übersetzungstheorie. Linguistische Arbeiten; 318. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
  • Keyes, R. (2010). Euphemania. Our Love Affairs with Euphemisms.
  • Lantto, H. (2014). “Code-switching, swearing and slang: The colloquial register of Basque in Greater Bilbao.” International Journal of Bilingualism. 18(6), 633-648.
  • McEnery, T. (2005). Swearing in English: Bad language, purity and power from 1586 to the present. London/New York: Routledge.
  • Oğuz, D. (2018). “Görsel-işitsel çeviri: dublaj ve göstergebilim.” Hacettepe Üniversitesi Çeviribilim ve Uygulamaları Dergisi, 24, 99-116.
  • Oğuz, D. (2017). “Altyazı çevirisinde bir kısıtlama: senkron.” Turkish Studies International Periodical for the Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic, 12(7), 275- 290.
  • Pujol, D. (2006). “The translation and dubbing of ‘fuck’ into Catalan: The case of From Dusk till Dawn.” The Journal of Specialised Translation, 6, 121–133.
  • Soler Pardo, B. (2013). “Translating and dubbing verbal violence in Reservoir Dogs. Censorship in the linguistic transference of Quentin Tarantino’s (swear)words.” The Journal of Specialised Translation, 20, 122-133.
  • Thawabteh, M. A. (2012). “The translatability of euphemism and dysphemism in Arabic-English subtitling.” Lexis [Online], 7, 145-156.
  • Trupej, J. (2019). “Avoiding offensive language in audio-visual translation: A case study of subtitling from English to Slovenian.” Across Languages and Cultures, 20(1), 57–77.
  • Whitmen-Linsen, C. (1992). Through the Dubbing Glass: The synchronisation of American motion pictures into German, French and Spanish. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

The Questions and Challenges in the Audio-Visual Translation of Euphemised Swear Words: The Case of The Good Place

Yıl 2021, Cilt 6, Sayı 3, 858 - 878, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.29110/soylemdergi.993948

Öz

Humour and swearing have been investigated in audio-visual translation across different contexts in terms of the challenges and implications in the interlingual transfer of these culture-specific elements (Chen, 2004; Fernández Dobao, 2006; Ávila-Cabrera, 2015). This study focuses on the case of The Good Place, an American television series produced by Netflix, where the censored use of swearing serves a humorous function. The show, produced between 2016 and 2020, incorporates the elements of swearing, euphemisation and humour through a curse filter in its fictional world and consequent censorship of swear words through wordplays. This distinguishing aspect of the show allows for discussing the functions of this filter in terms of its effects on reproducing the creative use of language through translation. Our study aims to identify the steps taken to translate the euphemised versions of swear words into Turkish and explore to what extent their signification is conveyed in the target text. To these ends, the subtitled and dubbed versions in Turkish will be compared with the originals to examine the decisions taken in the audio-visual translation of censored swear words. The study demonstrates that euphemised swear words are created through remodelling in both English and Turkish. However, there is a remarkable inconsistency in the reproduction of euphemisms in Turkish, which causes a shift in the representation of characters and a loss of meaning in conveying the curse filter. Possible reasons for these shifts will be discussed in relation to the linguistic constraints, context-bound factors and differences in the creative processes.

Kaynakça

  • Allan, K., Burridge, K. (1991). Euphemism and dysphemism: language used as shield and weapon, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Allan, K., Burridge, K. (2006). Forbidden words: taboo and the censoring of language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Allan, K. (2012). “X-phemism and creativity.” Lexis 7.
  • Andersson, L. G., Trudgill, P. (1990). Bad language. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
  • Ávila-Cabrera, J. J. (2015). “An account of the subtitling of offensive and taboo language in Tarantino’s screenplays.” Sendebar: Revista de la Facultad de Traducción e Interpretació, 26, 37–56.
  • Bednarek, M. (2019). “‘Don’t say crap. Don’t use swear words.’ – Negotiating the use of swear/taboo words in the narrative mass media.” Discourse, Context & Media, 29, 1-14.
  • Bricker, T. (20 Eylül 2016). The Good Place's Kristen Bell and Ted Danson Reveal Their Forkin' Favorite Alternative Curse Words. Retrieved from https://www.eonline.com/news/796046/the-good-place-s-kristen-bell-and-ted-danson-reveal-their-forkin-favorite-alternative-curse-words>
  • Chaume, F. (2004). “Discourse markers in audiovisual translating.” Meta 49(4), 843-855.
  • Chaume, F. (2012). Audiovisual translation: Dubbing. London & New York: Routledge.
  • Chen, C (2004). “On the Hong Kong Chinese subtitling of English swearwords.” Meta: journal des traducteurs / Meta: Translators’ Journal 49(1), 135–147.
  • Delabastita, D. (1989). “Translation and mass-communication: Film and T.V. translation as evidence of cultural Dynamics.” Babel, 35(4), 193–218.
  • Devellioğlu, F. (1980). Türk argosu. Ankara: Aydın Kitabevi Yayınları, 6. Baskı.
  • Díaz Cintas, J. (2001). “Sex, (sub)titles and videotapes.” Traducción subordinada II: el subtitulado (inglés – español/galego). Lourdes Lorenzo García and Ana María Pereira Rodríguez (eds), 47-67. Vigo: Universidad de Vigo.
  • Díaz Cintas, J., Remael, A. (2007). Audiovisual translation: subtitling. Manchester: St Jerome.
  • Farghal M. (1995). “Euphemism in Arabic: A Gricean interpretation.” Anthropological Linguistics, 37, 336-378.
  • Fernández Dobao, A. M. (2006). “Linguistic and cultural aspects of the translation of swearing: The Spanish version of Pulp Fiction.” Babel, 52(3). 222–242.
  • Greenall, A. K. (2011). The non-translation of swearing in subtitling: loss of so¬cial implicature? In Audiovisual Translation in Close-up: Practical and Theoretical Approaches. Adriana Şerban, Anna Matamala, and Jean-Marc Lavaur (eds.), (pp. 45-60). Bern: Peter Lang.
  • Günay-Köprülü, S. (2016). “Film çevirisinde fonetik eşleme.” ODÜ Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi (ODÜSOBİAD), 6(15), 488-503.
  • Hazen, K. (Temmuz 2020). “Zounds! What the fork are minced oaths? And why are we still fecking using them today?” The Conversation https://theconversation.com/zounds-what-the-fork-are-minced-oaths-and-why-are-we-still-fecking-using-them-today-141423 (erişim 15.03.2021)
  • Herbst, T. (1994). Linguistische Aspekte der Synchronisation von Fernsehserien: Phonetik, Textlinguistik, Übersetzungstheorie. Linguistische Arbeiten; 318. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
  • Keyes, R. (2010). Euphemania. Our Love Affairs with Euphemisms.
  • Lantto, H. (2014). “Code-switching, swearing and slang: The colloquial register of Basque in Greater Bilbao.” International Journal of Bilingualism. 18(6), 633-648.
  • McEnery, T. (2005). Swearing in English: Bad language, purity and power from 1586 to the present. London/New York: Routledge.
  • Oğuz, D. (2018). “Görsel-işitsel çeviri: dublaj ve göstergebilim.” Hacettepe Üniversitesi Çeviribilim ve Uygulamaları Dergisi, 24, 99-116.
  • Oğuz, D. (2017). “Altyazı çevirisinde bir kısıtlama: senkron.” Turkish Studies International Periodical for the Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic, 12(7), 275- 290.
  • Pujol, D. (2006). “The translation and dubbing of ‘fuck’ into Catalan: The case of From Dusk till Dawn.” The Journal of Specialised Translation, 6, 121–133.
  • Soler Pardo, B. (2013). “Translating and dubbing verbal violence in Reservoir Dogs. Censorship in the linguistic transference of Quentin Tarantino’s (swear)words.” The Journal of Specialised Translation, 20, 122-133.
  • Thawabteh, M. A. (2012). “The translatability of euphemism and dysphemism in Arabic-English subtitling.” Lexis [Online], 7, 145-156.
  • Trupej, J. (2019). “Avoiding offensive language in audio-visual translation: A case study of subtitling from English to Slovenian.” Across Languages and Cultures, 20(1), 57–77.
  • Whitmen-Linsen, C. (1992). Through the Dubbing Glass: The synchronisation of American motion pictures into German, French and Spanish. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Dil ve Dil Bilim
Bölüm DİLBİLİM / ARAŞTIRMA MAKALELERİ
Yazarlar

Aysun KIRAN (Sorumlu Yazar)
Marmara University
0000-0003-1551-3776
Türkiye


Derya OĞUZ
MARMARA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-5228-076X
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 10 Eylül 2021
Kabul Tarihi 23 Kasım 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 6, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

APA Kıran, A. & Oğuz, D. (2021). Örtmeceli Küfürlerin Görsel-İşitsel Çevirisinde Soru ve Sorunlar: İyi Yer Örneği . Söylem Filoloji Dergisi , 6 (3) , 858-878 . DOI: 10.29110/soylemdergi.993948