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ADAPTATION OF THE MINDFULNESS INVENTORY FOR SPORT INTO TURKISH: A VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY STUDY

Yıl 2020, Cilt 18, Sayı 1, 71 - 80, 17.03.2020
https://doi.org/10.33689/spormetre.642682

Öz

The objective of the current study was to adapt the Mindfulness Inventory for Sport (MIS) developed by Thienot et al. into Turkish on a group of university student-athletes. For the linguistic equivalence study, initially, the English-Turkish and Turkish-English translations were done by experts, then the master students in the English Language Teaching Department, 4th-grade students of English Teaching Department, and English teachers were incorporated in the study. Correlations between English-Turkish and Turkish-English forms applied at two-week intervals were found to be positive and significant. As a result of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses applied to determine the factor structure of the MIS, it was observed that the original structure of 15 items consisting of awareness, non-judgmental, and refocusing subscales was similar. In order to ensure parallel forms of validity, the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) was used. A significant correlation was found between MIS and MAAS at .64 (p <.01) level. The Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency of the scale was calculated as .82. There was a high positive correlation between the first and the second application according to the test re-test results of two weeks interval of MIS (r = .89, p <.01). The 15-item scale was separated from the odd-numbered items and the even-numbered items, and it was found that r = .80 as a result of the split-half reliability test. As a result of the present study, the Mindfulness Inventory for Sport (MIS) was determined as a valid and reliable instrument in Turkey’s conditions. 

Kaynakça

  • Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Allen, K. B. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: The Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills. Assessment, 11(3), 191-206. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1073191104268029
  • Bernier, M., Thienot, E., Codron, R., Fournier, J. F. (2009). Mindfulness and acceptance approaches in sport performance. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 3(4), 320-333. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.3.4.320
  • Bowen, S., Enkema, M. C. (2014). Relationship between dispositional mindfulness and substance use: Findings from a clinical sample. Addictive behaviors, 39(3), 532-537. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.10.026
  • Brinker, J. K. ve Dozois, D. J. (2009). Ruminative thought style and depressed mood. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20542
  • Brown, K. W., Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(4), 822. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.822
  • Comrey, A. L., Lee, H. B. (2013). A first course in factor analysis. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 217.
  • Dane, E., Brummel, B. J. (2014). Examining workplace mindfulness and its relations to job performance and turnover intention. Human relations, 67(1), 105-128. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0018726713487753
  • De Petrillo, L. A., Kaufman, K. A., Glass, C. R., Arnkoff, D. B. (2009). Mindfulness for long-distance runners: An open trial using Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE). Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 3(4), 357-376. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.3.4.357
  • Evans, S., Ferrando, S., Findler, M., Stowell, C., Smart, C., Haglin, D. (2008). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of anxiety disorders, 22(4), 716-721. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2007.07.005
  • Feltman, R., Robinson, M. D., Ode, S. (2009). Mindfulness as a moderator of neuroticism–outcome relations: A self-regulation perspective. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(6), 953-961. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2009.08.009
  • Forza, C., Filippini, R. (1998). TQM impact on quality conformance and customer satisfaction: a causal model. International journal of production economics, 55(1), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-5273(98)00007-3
  • Gardner, F. L., Moore, Z. E. (2004). A mindfulness-acceptance-commitment-based approach to athletic performance enhancement: Theoretical considerations. Behavior therapy, 35(4), 707-723. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(04)80016-9
  • Glass, C. R., Spears, C. A., Perskaudas, R., Kaufman, K. A. (2019). Mindful sport performance enhancement: Randomized controlled trial of a mental training program with collegiate athletes. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 13(4), 609-628. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.2017-0044
  • Goldin, P. R., Gross, J. J. (2010). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder. Emotion, 10(1), 83. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/a0018441
  • Greenspoon, P. J., Saklofske, D. H. (1998). Confirmatory factor analysis of the multidimensional students’ life satisfaction scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 25(5), 965-971. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00115-9
  • Gustafsson, H., Skoog, T., Davis, P., Kenttä, G., Haberl, P. (2015). Mindfulness and its relationship with perceived stress, affect, and burnout in elite junior athletes. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 9(3), 263-281. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4098 sayfasından erişilmiştir.
  • Hinkle, D. E., Wiersma, W., Jurs, S. G. (2003). Applied statistics for the behavioral sciences (Vol. 663). Houghton Mifflin College Division.
  • Howell, A. J., Digdon, N. L., Buro, K., Sheptycki, A. R. (2008). Relations among mindfulness, well-being, and sleep. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(8), 773-777. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.08.005
  • John, S., Verma, S. K., Khanna, G. L. (2011). The effect of mindfulness meditation on HPA-Axis in pre-competition stress in sports performance of elite shooters. National Journal of Integrated Research in Medicine, 2(3), 15-21. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/34fa/5173398e20aeb7c1c6255905a02974bad483.pdf sayfasından erişilmiştir.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J. (1982). An outpatient program in behavioral medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfulness meditation: Theoretical considerations and preliminary results. General Hospital Psychiatry, 4, 33–47.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness. New York: Delacourte. 59-72.
  • Kabat‐Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness‐based interventions in context: past, present, and future. Clinical psychology: Science and practice, 10(2), 144-156. https://doi.org/10.1093/clipsy.bpg016
  • Kaiseler, M., Poolton, J. M., Backhouse, S. H., Stanger, N. (2017). The relationship between mindfulness and life stress in student-athletes: The mediating role of coping effectiveness and decision rumination. The Sport Psychologist, 31(3), 288-298. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2016-0083
  • Kaufman, K. A., Glass, C. R., Arnkoff, D. B. (2009). Evaluation of Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE): A new approach to promote flow in athletes. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 3(4), 334-356. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.3.4.334
  • Kaufman, K. A., Glass, C. R., Pineau, T. R. (2018). Mindful sport performance enhancement: Mental training for athletes and coaches. American Psychological Association. 3-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0000048-001
  • Mallery, P., George, D. (2003). SPSS for Windows step by step. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
  • Martin, L. L. ve Tesser, A. (1996). Some ruminative thoughts. Advances in Social Cognition, 9, 1-47.
  • Meyers, L. S., Gamst, G., Guarino, A. J. (2016). Applied multivariate research: Design and interpretation. Sage publications.
  • Moen, F., Federici, R. A., Abrahamsen, F. (2015). Examining possible Relationships between mindfulness, stress, school-and sport performances and athlete burnout. International Journal of Coaching Science, 9(1). 3-19.
  • Özyeşil, Z., Arslan, C., Kesici, Ş., Deniz, M. E. (2011). Bilinçli farkındalık ölçeği’ni Türkçeye uyarlama çalışması. Eğitim ve Bilim, 36(160). 224-235. http://eb.ted.org.tr/index.php/EB sayfasından erişilmiştir.
  • Reibel, D. K., Greeson, J. M., Brainard, G. C., Rosenzweig, S. (2001). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health-related quality of life in a heterogeneous patient population. General hospital psychiatry, 23(4), 183-192. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0163-8343(01)00149-9
  • Sar, V., Ozturk, E. (2006). What is trauma and dissociation?. Journal of Trauma Practice, 4(1-2), 7-20. https://doi.org/10.1300/J189v04n01_02
  • Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of psychological research online, 8(2), 23-74.
  • Schwanhausser, L. (2009). Application of the mindfulness-acceptance-commitment (MAC) protocol with an adolescent springboard diver. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 3(4), 377-395. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.3.4.377
  • Segal, Z.V., Williams, J.M.G., Teasdale, J.D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach to preventing relapse. New York: Guilford Press
  • Siegel, R. D., Germer, C. K., Olendzki, A. (2009). Mindfulness: What is it? Where did it come from?. In Clinical handbook of mindfulness. Springer, New York, NY. 17-35https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-09593-6_2
  • Sousa, V. D., Rojjanasrirat, W. (2011). Translation, adaptation and validation of instruments or scales for use in cross‐cultural health care research: a clear and user‐friendly guideline. Journal of evaluation in clinical practice, 17(2), 268-274. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2753.2010.01434.x
  • Şahin, A. R. (1991). Peptik ülser ve aleksitimi. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 2(3), 25-30.
  • Thienot, E., Jackson, B., Dimmock, J., Grove, J. R., Bernier, M., Fournier, J. F. (2014). Development and preliminary validation of the mindfulness inventory for sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(1), 72-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.10.003
  • Thompson, B. L., Waltz, J. A. (2008). Mindfulness, self-esteem, and unconditional self-acceptance. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 26(2), 119-126. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-007-0059-0
  • Thompson, R. W., Kaufman, K. A., De Petrillo, L. A., Glass, C. R., Arnkoff, D. B. (2011). One year follow-up of mindful sport performance enhancement (MSPE) with archers, golfers, and runners. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 5(2), 99-116. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.5.2.99
  • Walker, S. P. (2013). Mindfulness and burnout among competitive adolescent tennis players. South African Journal of Sports Medicine, 25(4), 105-108. oi:10.7196/SAJSM.498
  • Yaşlıoğlu, M. M. (2017). Sosyal bilimlerde faktör analizi ve geçerlilik: Keşfedici ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizlerinin kullanılması. İstanbul Üniversitesi İşletme Fakültesi Dergisi, 46, 74-85.

SPORCU BİLİNÇLİ FARKINDALIK (MINDFULNESS) ÖLÇEĞİ: TÜRKÇEYE UYARLAMA, GEÇERLİK VE GÜVENİRLİK ÇALIŞMASI

Yıl 2020, Cilt 18, Sayı 1, 71 - 80, 17.03.2020
https://doi.org/10.33689/spormetre.642682

Öz

Bu çalışmanın amacı, Thienot ve ark. (2014) tarafından geliştirilen Sporcu Bilinçli Farkındalık (Mindfulness) Ölçeğini (SBFÖ) üniversiteli sporculardan oluşan bir grup üzerinde Türkçeye uyarlamaktır. Dilsel eşdeğerlik çalışması için öncelikle İngilizce-Türkçe ve Türkçe-İngilizce çevirileri uzmanlar tarafından yapılmış, ardından İngiliz Dili Eğitimi Bölümünde yüksek lisans yapan öğrenciler, İngilizce Öğretmenliği 4. sınıf öğrencileri ve İngilizce öğretmenleri çalışmaya dahil edilmiştir.  İki hafta arayla uygulanan İngilizce-Türkçe ve Türkçe-İngilizce formlar arasındaki korelasyonlar pozitif ve anlamlı bulunmuştur. SBFÖ’nün faktör yapısını belirlemek için uygulanan açımlayıcı ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizleri sonucunda; farkındalık, yargılamama ve yeniden odaklanma olmak üzere 3 boyutlu 15 maddelik orijinal yapısını koruduğu görülmüştür. SBFÖ’nin ölçüt eş değer formlar geçerliğini sağlamak için Bilinçli Farkındalık Ölçeği (BİFÖ) ölçüt alınmıştır. SBFÖ ile BİFÖ arasında .64 (p<.01) düzeyinde anlamlı ilişki bulunmuştur. Ölçeğin Cronbach’s alpha iç tutarlılık kat sayısı .82 olarak hesaplanmıştır.  SBFÖ’nün iki hafta arayla uygulanan test tekrar test sonucuna göre birinci ve ikinci uygulama arasında yüksek düzeyde pozitif bir ilişki olduğu görülmüştür (r= .89, p<.01). 15 maddelik ölçeği tek numaralı maddeleri ile çift numaralı maddeleri ayrılmış ve iki yarım güvenirliği analizi sonucu r = .80 olarak hesaplanmıştır. Yapılan bu çalışma sonucunda Sporcu Bilinçli Farkındalık (Mindfulness) Ölçeğinin (SBFÖ) Türkiye koşullarında geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçek olduğu belirlenmiştir. 

Kaynakça

  • Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Allen, K. B. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: The Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills. Assessment, 11(3), 191-206. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1073191104268029
  • Bernier, M., Thienot, E., Codron, R., Fournier, J. F. (2009). Mindfulness and acceptance approaches in sport performance. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 3(4), 320-333. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.3.4.320
  • Bowen, S., Enkema, M. C. (2014). Relationship between dispositional mindfulness and substance use: Findings from a clinical sample. Addictive behaviors, 39(3), 532-537. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.10.026
  • Brinker, J. K. ve Dozois, D. J. (2009). Ruminative thought style and depressed mood. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20542
  • Brown, K. W., Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(4), 822. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.822
  • Comrey, A. L., Lee, H. B. (2013). A first course in factor analysis. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 217.
  • Dane, E., Brummel, B. J. (2014). Examining workplace mindfulness and its relations to job performance and turnover intention. Human relations, 67(1), 105-128. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0018726713487753
  • De Petrillo, L. A., Kaufman, K. A., Glass, C. R., Arnkoff, D. B. (2009). Mindfulness for long-distance runners: An open trial using Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE). Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 3(4), 357-376. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.3.4.357
  • Evans, S., Ferrando, S., Findler, M., Stowell, C., Smart, C., Haglin, D. (2008). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of anxiety disorders, 22(4), 716-721. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2007.07.005
  • Feltman, R., Robinson, M. D., Ode, S. (2009). Mindfulness as a moderator of neuroticism–outcome relations: A self-regulation perspective. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(6), 953-961. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2009.08.009
  • Forza, C., Filippini, R. (1998). TQM impact on quality conformance and customer satisfaction: a causal model. International journal of production economics, 55(1), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-5273(98)00007-3
  • Gardner, F. L., Moore, Z. E. (2004). A mindfulness-acceptance-commitment-based approach to athletic performance enhancement: Theoretical considerations. Behavior therapy, 35(4), 707-723. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(04)80016-9
  • Glass, C. R., Spears, C. A., Perskaudas, R., Kaufman, K. A. (2019). Mindful sport performance enhancement: Randomized controlled trial of a mental training program with collegiate athletes. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 13(4), 609-628. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.2017-0044
  • Goldin, P. R., Gross, J. J. (2010). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder. Emotion, 10(1), 83. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/a0018441
  • Greenspoon, P. J., Saklofske, D. H. (1998). Confirmatory factor analysis of the multidimensional students’ life satisfaction scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 25(5), 965-971. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00115-9
  • Gustafsson, H., Skoog, T., Davis, P., Kenttä, G., Haberl, P. (2015). Mindfulness and its relationship with perceived stress, affect, and burnout in elite junior athletes. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 9(3), 263-281. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:gih:diva-4098 sayfasından erişilmiştir.
  • Hinkle, D. E., Wiersma, W., Jurs, S. G. (2003). Applied statistics for the behavioral sciences (Vol. 663). Houghton Mifflin College Division.
  • Howell, A. J., Digdon, N. L., Buro, K., Sheptycki, A. R. (2008). Relations among mindfulness, well-being, and sleep. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(8), 773-777. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.08.005
  • John, S., Verma, S. K., Khanna, G. L. (2011). The effect of mindfulness meditation on HPA-Axis in pre-competition stress in sports performance of elite shooters. National Journal of Integrated Research in Medicine, 2(3), 15-21. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/34fa/5173398e20aeb7c1c6255905a02974bad483.pdf sayfasından erişilmiştir.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J. (1982). An outpatient program in behavioral medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfulness meditation: Theoretical considerations and preliminary results. General Hospital Psychiatry, 4, 33–47.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness. New York: Delacourte. 59-72.
  • Kabat‐Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness‐based interventions in context: past, present, and future. Clinical psychology: Science and practice, 10(2), 144-156. https://doi.org/10.1093/clipsy.bpg016
  • Kaiseler, M., Poolton, J. M., Backhouse, S. H., Stanger, N. (2017). The relationship between mindfulness and life stress in student-athletes: The mediating role of coping effectiveness and decision rumination. The Sport Psychologist, 31(3), 288-298. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2016-0083
  • Kaufman, K. A., Glass, C. R., Arnkoff, D. B. (2009). Evaluation of Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE): A new approach to promote flow in athletes. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 3(4), 334-356. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.3.4.334
  • Kaufman, K. A., Glass, C. R., Pineau, T. R. (2018). Mindful sport performance enhancement: Mental training for athletes and coaches. American Psychological Association. 3-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0000048-001
  • Mallery, P., George, D. (2003). SPSS for Windows step by step. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
  • Martin, L. L. ve Tesser, A. (1996). Some ruminative thoughts. Advances in Social Cognition, 9, 1-47.
  • Meyers, L. S., Gamst, G., Guarino, A. J. (2016). Applied multivariate research: Design and interpretation. Sage publications.
  • Moen, F., Federici, R. A., Abrahamsen, F. (2015). Examining possible Relationships between mindfulness, stress, school-and sport performances and athlete burnout. International Journal of Coaching Science, 9(1). 3-19.
  • Özyeşil, Z., Arslan, C., Kesici, Ş., Deniz, M. E. (2011). Bilinçli farkındalık ölçeği’ni Türkçeye uyarlama çalışması. Eğitim ve Bilim, 36(160). 224-235. http://eb.ted.org.tr/index.php/EB sayfasından erişilmiştir.
  • Reibel, D. K., Greeson, J. M., Brainard, G. C., Rosenzweig, S. (2001). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health-related quality of life in a heterogeneous patient population. General hospital psychiatry, 23(4), 183-192. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0163-8343(01)00149-9
  • Sar, V., Ozturk, E. (2006). What is trauma and dissociation?. Journal of Trauma Practice, 4(1-2), 7-20. https://doi.org/10.1300/J189v04n01_02
  • Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of psychological research online, 8(2), 23-74.
  • Schwanhausser, L. (2009). Application of the mindfulness-acceptance-commitment (MAC) protocol with an adolescent springboard diver. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 3(4), 377-395. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.3.4.377
  • Segal, Z.V., Williams, J.M.G., Teasdale, J.D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach to preventing relapse. New York: Guilford Press
  • Siegel, R. D., Germer, C. K., Olendzki, A. (2009). Mindfulness: What is it? Where did it come from?. In Clinical handbook of mindfulness. Springer, New York, NY. 17-35https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-09593-6_2
  • Sousa, V. D., Rojjanasrirat, W. (2011). Translation, adaptation and validation of instruments or scales for use in cross‐cultural health care research: a clear and user‐friendly guideline. Journal of evaluation in clinical practice, 17(2), 268-274. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2753.2010.01434.x
  • Şahin, A. R. (1991). Peptik ülser ve aleksitimi. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 2(3), 25-30.
  • Thienot, E., Jackson, B., Dimmock, J., Grove, J. R., Bernier, M., Fournier, J. F. (2014). Development and preliminary validation of the mindfulness inventory for sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(1), 72-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.10.003
  • Thompson, B. L., Waltz, J. A. (2008). Mindfulness, self-esteem, and unconditional self-acceptance. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 26(2), 119-126. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-007-0059-0
  • Thompson, R. W., Kaufman, K. A., De Petrillo, L. A., Glass, C. R., Arnkoff, D. B. (2011). One year follow-up of mindful sport performance enhancement (MSPE) with archers, golfers, and runners. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 5(2), 99-116. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.5.2.99
  • Walker, S. P. (2013). Mindfulness and burnout among competitive adolescent tennis players. South African Journal of Sports Medicine, 25(4), 105-108. oi:10.7196/SAJSM.498
  • Yaşlıoğlu, M. M. (2017). Sosyal bilimlerde faktör analizi ve geçerlilik: Keşfedici ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizlerinin kullanılması. İstanbul Üniversitesi İşletme Fakültesi Dergisi, 46, 74-85.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Spor Bilimleri
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Emre Ozan TİNGAZ> (Sorumlu Yazar)

0000-0002-7048-2055
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 17 Mart 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 18, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Tingaz, E. O. (2020). SPORCU BİLİNÇLİ FARKINDALIK (MINDFULNESS) ÖLÇEĞİ: TÜRKÇEYE UYARLAMA, GEÇERLİK VE GÜVENİRLİK ÇALIŞMASI . SPORMETRE Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi , 18 (1) , 71-80 . DOI: 10.33689/spormetre.642682

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