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Zihniyet Kuramı ve Öğrenme Motivasyonu

Yıl 2021, Cilt: 2 Sayı: 2, 153 - 162, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.54971/synergy.986217

Öz

ÖZET
Zor problemlerle karşılaştıklarında bazı öğrenciler hemen pes edip çalışmayı bırakırken, bazıları problemi çözmek için neden daha fazla uğraşmaktadırlar? Çocukların başarısızlıkla nasıl başetmeye çalıştıkları üzerine araştırmalar yapan Amerikalı sosyal psikolog Carol Dweck, bu durumu zihniyet kuramı ile açıklamaktadır. Öz inanç veya örtük zekâ kuramı adı ile de ifade edilen bu kurama göre, insanların temel özellikleri ile ilgili inançları; onların motivasyonlarını, öğrenmeye yaklaşımlarını ve başarı durumlarını yakından etkilemektedir. Bu kurama göre insanlar, sabit ve büyüme zihniyetine sahip olmak üzere iki gruba ayrılmaktadırlar. Sabit zihniyete sahip bireyler, zeka, yetenek veya kişilik gibi temel özelliklerinin değişmeyeceğine inanırlar. Bu zihniyete sahip bireylerin gelişme umutları fazla olmadığından genellikle öğrenmeye karşı motivasyonları, azim ve kararlılıkları da düşüktür. Büyüme zihniyetine sahip bireylerde; zeka, yetenek gibi temel özelliklerinin deştirilebileceği düşüncesi hakimdir. Büyüme zihniyetine sahip bireyler öğrenmeye karşı yüksek bir motivasyona sahip olup, daha iyi olmak için sürekli çaba sarfederler. Yapılan çalışmalar zihniyetin değiştirilebileceğine, gelişme zihniyetinin okuldaki yüksek başarı ile bağlantılı olduğuna dair önemli kanıtlar olduğunu ortaya koymaktadır. Bu çalışma, büyüme zihniyetinin öğrenme motivasyonu üzerine etkisini ilgili literatüre göre incelemeyi amaçlamaktadır. Zihniyet kuramı, öğrenmenin anlaşılması ve arttırılması için geniş bir çerçeve sunmaktadır. Bu nedenle çalışmanın, eğitimciler, ebeveynler ve öğrenciler için uygun öğrenme ortamları sağlamada yararlı olacağı düşünülmektedir.
Anahtar Kelimeler; Zihniyet kuramı, öğrenme motivasyonu, sabit zihniyet, büyüme zihniyeti.

Kaynakça

  • Arnold, J., Robertson, I. T., & Cooper, C. L. (1991). Work Psychology: Understanding human behaviour in the workplace. Financial Times/Prentice Hall.
  • Au, J., Sheehan, E., Tsai, N., Duncan, G. J., Buschkuehl, M., & Jaeggi, S. M. (2015). Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory: a meta-analysis. Psychonomic bulletin & review, 22(2), 366-377.
  • Baruch-Feldman, C. (2017). The Grit Guide for Teens: A Workbook to Help You Build Perseverance, Self-Control, and a Growth Mindset. New Harbinger Publications.
  • Bayrakçeken, S, Oktay, Ö, Samancı, O, Canpolat, N. (2021). Motivasyon Kuramları Çerçevesinde Öğrencilerin Öğrenme Motivasyonlarının Arttırılması: Bir Derleme Çalışması. Atatürk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 25 (2) , 677-698.
  • Bedford, S. (2017). Growth mindset and motivation: A study into secondary school science learning. Research papers in education, 32(4), 424-443.
  • Beere, J. (2016). The Growth Mindset Edge: Your Guide to Developing Grit. Simon and Schuster.
  • Bernecker, K., & Job, V. (2019). Mindset Theory. In Social Psychology in Action (pp. 179-191). Springer, Cham.). Mindset Theory. In Social Psychology in Action (pp. 179-191). Springer, Cham.
  • Briceno, E. (2015). Growth mindset: Clearing up some common confusions. KQED News; Mindshift.
  • Council, N. R. (2000). How people learn: brain, mind, experience and school. Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press.
  • Çelik, S.,and Bayrakçeken, S. (2006). The effect of a ‘Science, Technology and Society’course on prospective teachers’ conceptions of the nature of science. Research in Science & Technological Education, 24(2), 255-273.
  • Deckers, L. (2018). Motivation: Biological, psychological, and environmental. 5th Ed.,New York, NY, Routledge.
  • Dweck, C. S. (2007). The promise and perils of praise. Educational Leadership, 65(2), 34-39.
  • Dweck, C. S. (2016). Mindset: The new psychology of success (Updated edition).
  • Dweck, CS, Walton, GM ve Cohen, GL (2014). Akademik kararlılık: Uzun vadeli öğrenmeyi destekleyen zihniyetler ve beceriler. Bill ve Melinda Gates Vakfı.
  • Dweck, C. S., & Yeager, D. S. (2019). Mindsets: A view from two eras. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 14(3), 481-496.
  • Dweck, C.S. (2006). Aklını en doğru şekilde kullan (Çeviren: Uğurcan Kaya), İstanbul: Yakamaz Kitap.
  • Hastings, E. C., & West, R. L. (2011). Goal orientation and self-efficacy in relation to memory in adulthood. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 18(4), 471-493. Henderlong, J., & Lepper, M. R. (2002). The effects of praise on children's intrinsic motivation: A review and synthesis. Psychological bulletin, 128(5), 774.
  • Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Jonides, J., & Perrig, W. J. (2008). Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(19), 6829-6833.
  • Kanouse, D. E., Gumpert, P., & Canavan-Gumpert, D. (1981). The semantics of praise. New directions in attribution research, 3, 97-115.
  • Lin-Siegler, X., Dweck, C. S., & Cohen, G. L. (2016). Instructional interventions that motivate classroom learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(3), 295.
  • Mullins, L., & Christy, G. (2011). Essentials of Organisational Behaviour. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
  • NASEM (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine). (2018). How people learn II: Learners, contexts, and cultures. National Academies Press.
  • Öztürk, E. Ö. (2012). Contemporary motivation theories in educational psychology and language learning: An overview. The International Journal of social sciences, 3(1), 33-46.
  • Pakdel, B. (2013). The historical context of motivation and analysis theories individual motivation. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(18), 240-247.
  • Pintrich, P. R. (2003). A motivational science perspective on the role of student motivation in learning and teaching contexts. Journal of educational Psychology, 95(4), 667.
  • Schunk, D. H., Pintrich, P. R. And Meece, JL (2014). Motivation in education: Theory, research, and applications. 4th Ed., Upper Saddle River,NJ; Pearson Education.
  • Şahin, S. (2007). Driving Key for Effective Learning: Motivation. Gaziantep University Journal of Social Sciences, 6(1), 1-8.
  • Yeager, D.S., Hanselman, P., Walton, G.M. et al. (2019). A national experiment reveals where a growth mindset improves achievement. Nature 573, 364–369.

Theory of Mindset and Motivation to Learn

Yıl 2021, Cilt: 2 Sayı: 2, 153 - 162, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.54971/synergy.986217

Öz

Why do a number of students struggle more while others easily give up studying when encountering tough problems? American Social Psychologist Carol Dweck, who does research on how children attempt to cope with failure, explains this case through the theory of mindset. According to this theory, which is also referred to as Implicit Beliefs about Intelligence or Implicit Theory of Intelligence, people’s beliefs about their own basic skills influence their motivations, approaches to learning and achievement levels vastly. This theory views that people are divided into two groups: ones with a fixed mindset and others with a growth mindset. Individuals with a fixed mindset believe that their basic features such as intelligence, abilities and personalities do not change. Individuals with such a mindset generally have low motivation, enthusiasm and decisiveness as they do not have high hopes to improve. For the individuals with growth mindset, the prevailing opinion is that basic traits like intelligence and aptitude may be changed. Individuals with growth mindset have high motivation to learn and always struggle to succeed. Studies conducted provide significant proofs that mindset may be modified and growth mindset is closely related to high achievement at school. This study aims to investigate the impact of growth mindset on learning motivation regarding the relevant literature. Theory of mindset presents a wide framework to understand and improve learning. Therefore, it is believed that the present study will be beneficial for educators, parents and students in providing appropriate learning environments.

Kaynakça

  • Arnold, J., Robertson, I. T., & Cooper, C. L. (1991). Work Psychology: Understanding human behaviour in the workplace. Financial Times/Prentice Hall.
  • Au, J., Sheehan, E., Tsai, N., Duncan, G. J., Buschkuehl, M., & Jaeggi, S. M. (2015). Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory: a meta-analysis. Psychonomic bulletin & review, 22(2), 366-377.
  • Baruch-Feldman, C. (2017). The Grit Guide for Teens: A Workbook to Help You Build Perseverance, Self-Control, and a Growth Mindset. New Harbinger Publications.
  • Bayrakçeken, S, Oktay, Ö, Samancı, O, Canpolat, N. (2021). Motivasyon Kuramları Çerçevesinde Öğrencilerin Öğrenme Motivasyonlarının Arttırılması: Bir Derleme Çalışması. Atatürk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 25 (2) , 677-698.
  • Bedford, S. (2017). Growth mindset and motivation: A study into secondary school science learning. Research papers in education, 32(4), 424-443.
  • Beere, J. (2016). The Growth Mindset Edge: Your Guide to Developing Grit. Simon and Schuster.
  • Bernecker, K., & Job, V. (2019). Mindset Theory. In Social Psychology in Action (pp. 179-191). Springer, Cham.). Mindset Theory. In Social Psychology in Action (pp. 179-191). Springer, Cham.
  • Briceno, E. (2015). Growth mindset: Clearing up some common confusions. KQED News; Mindshift.
  • Council, N. R. (2000). How people learn: brain, mind, experience and school. Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press.
  • Çelik, S.,and Bayrakçeken, S. (2006). The effect of a ‘Science, Technology and Society’course on prospective teachers’ conceptions of the nature of science. Research in Science & Technological Education, 24(2), 255-273.
  • Deckers, L. (2018). Motivation: Biological, psychological, and environmental. 5th Ed.,New York, NY, Routledge.
  • Dweck, C. S. (2007). The promise and perils of praise. Educational Leadership, 65(2), 34-39.
  • Dweck, C. S. (2016). Mindset: The new psychology of success (Updated edition).
  • Dweck, CS, Walton, GM ve Cohen, GL (2014). Akademik kararlılık: Uzun vadeli öğrenmeyi destekleyen zihniyetler ve beceriler. Bill ve Melinda Gates Vakfı.
  • Dweck, C. S., & Yeager, D. S. (2019). Mindsets: A view from two eras. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 14(3), 481-496.
  • Dweck, C.S. (2006). Aklını en doğru şekilde kullan (Çeviren: Uğurcan Kaya), İstanbul: Yakamaz Kitap.
  • Hastings, E. C., & West, R. L. (2011). Goal orientation and self-efficacy in relation to memory in adulthood. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 18(4), 471-493. Henderlong, J., & Lepper, M. R. (2002). The effects of praise on children's intrinsic motivation: A review and synthesis. Psychological bulletin, 128(5), 774.
  • Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Jonides, J., & Perrig, W. J. (2008). Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(19), 6829-6833.
  • Kanouse, D. E., Gumpert, P., & Canavan-Gumpert, D. (1981). The semantics of praise. New directions in attribution research, 3, 97-115.
  • Lin-Siegler, X., Dweck, C. S., & Cohen, G. L. (2016). Instructional interventions that motivate classroom learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(3), 295.
  • Mullins, L., & Christy, G. (2011). Essentials of Organisational Behaviour. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
  • NASEM (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine). (2018). How people learn II: Learners, contexts, and cultures. National Academies Press.
  • Öztürk, E. Ö. (2012). Contemporary motivation theories in educational psychology and language learning: An overview. The International Journal of social sciences, 3(1), 33-46.
  • Pakdel, B. (2013). The historical context of motivation and analysis theories individual motivation. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(18), 240-247.
  • Pintrich, P. R. (2003). A motivational science perspective on the role of student motivation in learning and teaching contexts. Journal of educational Psychology, 95(4), 667.
  • Schunk, D. H., Pintrich, P. R. And Meece, JL (2014). Motivation in education: Theory, research, and applications. 4th Ed., Upper Saddle River,NJ; Pearson Education.
  • Şahin, S. (2007). Driving Key for Effective Learning: Motivation. Gaziantep University Journal of Social Sciences, 6(1), 1-8.
  • Yeager, D.S., Hanselman, P., Walton, G.M. et al. (2019). A national experiment reveals where a growth mindset improves achievement. Nature 573, 364–369.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Alan Eğitimleri
Bölüm Derleme Makale
Yazarlar

Samih BAYRAKÇEKEN 0000-0001-8777-6714

Osman SAMANCI

Nur GÖKBULUT 0000-0002-2561-969X

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2021
Gönderilme Tarihi 23 Ağustos 2021
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021 Cilt: 2 Sayı: 2

Kaynak Göster

APA BAYRAKÇEKEN, S., SAMANCI, O., & GÖKBULUT, N. (2021). Zihniyet Kuramı ve Öğrenme Motivasyonu. Sinerji Uluslararası Alan Eğitimi Araştırmaları Dergisi, 2(2), 153-162. https://doi.org/10.54971/synergy.986217

Derginin tarandığı indeksler: ASOS İndeks, CiteFactor, ERIH PLUS


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