Araştırma Makalesi
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Independent Living Needs of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

Yıl 2020, Cilt 11, Sayı 2, 193 - 217, 30.04.2020
https://doi.org/10.17569/tojqi.671287

Öz

The aim of this study was to determine the independent living needs of young adults with intellectual disability (YAID) in preparing for adulthood and work life. This study was conducted using the phenomenological design, which is one of the qualitative research methods. 10 YAIDs were observed, their skills were evaluated, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with a total of 30 individuals consisting of 10 individuals from each group, with their parents, employers, and teachers regarding the employment education course. The results of the study indicated that YAIDs had difficulties in independent living skills and adaptation to work rather than employment skills while preparing for adulthood and work life and that those difficulties were mostly due to the lack of knowledge and skills. It was revealed that the needs of YAIDs in preparing for work life were primarily personal care and hygiene, interpersonal skills and self-determination, employability skills, sexual education, and safety skills.

Kaynakça

  • Agran, M., Hughes, C., Thoma, C. A., & Scott, L. A. (2016). Employment social skills: What skills are really valued?. Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals, 39(2), 111-120.
  • Alwell, M., & Cobb, B. (2009). Functional life skills curricular interventions for youth with disabilities: A systematic review. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 32(2), 82-93.
  • Arnett, J. J. (2007). Emerging adulthood: What is it, and what is it good for?. Child Development Perspectives, 1(2), 68-73.
  • Barkley, E. F., & Major, C. H. (2016). Learning assessment techniques: A handbook for college faculty. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Belva, B. C., & Matson, J. L. (2013). An examination of specific daily living skills deficits in adults with profound intellectual disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(1), 596-604.
  • Bouck, E. C. (2010). Reports of life skills training for students with intellectual disabilities in and out of school. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 54(12), 1093-1103.
  • Brolin, D. E. (1997). Life centered career education: A competency based approach. (5th Edition). USA: The Council for Exceptional Children.
  • Brown, M., & McCann, E. (2018). Sexuality issues and the voices of adults with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review of the literature. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 74, 124-138.
  • Chou, Y. C., Lee, Y. C., Chang, S. C., & Pei-Lung Yu, A. (2013). Evaluating the supports intensity scale as a potential assessment instrument for resource allocation for persons with intellectual disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34, 2056- 2063.
  • Council for the Education of Exceptional Children (CEC). (2011). Reauthorization of the workforce investment act (WIA): Priorities & concerns for students with disabilities. Issue Brief. USA: Arlington.
  • Creswell, J. W. (2008). Educational research planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative, and qualitative research. (3th Edition). Pearson Education International.
  • Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. (4th Edition). SAGE Publications.
  • Eisenman, D. P., Bazzano, A., Koniak-Griffin, D., Tseng, C. H., Lewis, M. A., Lamb, K., & Lehrer, D. (2014). Peer-mentored preparedness (PM-Prep): A New disaster preparedness program for adults living independently in the community. Mental Retardation, 52(1), 49-59.
  • Faloon, B. J., & Rehfeldt, R. A. (2008). The role of overt and covert self‐rules in establishing a daily living skill in adults with mild developmental disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41(3), 393-404.
  • Folk, E. D., Yamamoto, K. K., & Stodden, R. A. (2012). Implementing inclusion and collaborative teaming in a model program of postsecondary education for young adults with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 9(4), 257-269.
  • Gil-Llario, M. D., Morell-Menguel, V., Diaz-Rodriguez, I., & Ballester-Arnal, R. (2019). Prevalence and sequelae of self-reported and other-reported sexual abuse in adults with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 63(2), 138-148.
  • Gimenez-Garcia, C., Gil-Llario, M. D., Ruiz-Palomino, E., & Diaz-Rodriguez, I. (2017). Sexual abuse and intellectual disability: How people with intellectual disabilities and their professionals identify and value the experience. International Journal of Developmental and Educational Psychology, 4(1), 129-136.
  • Guba, E. G., & Lincoln, Y. S. (1989). Fourth generation evaluation. SAGE Publication.
  • Harries, J., Guscia, R., Kirby, N., Nettelbeck, T., & Taplin, J. (2005). Support needs and adaptive behaviors. American Jorunal on Mental Retardation, 110(5), 393-404.
  • Harris, J. C. (2006). Intellectual disability: Understanding its development, causes, classification, evaluation, and treatment. London: Oxford University Press.
  • Healy, E., McGuire, B. E., Evans, D. S., & Carley, S. N. (2009). Sexuality and personel relationships for people with an intellectual disability. Part I: service-user perspectives. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 53(2), 905-912.
  • Hickson, L., Khemka, I., Golden, H., & Chatzistyli, A. (2008). Profiles of women who have mental retardation with and without a documented history of abuse. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 113(2), 133-142.
  • Hilgenkamp, T. L., Wijck, R., & Evenhuis, H. M. (2011). Instrumental activities of daily living in older adults with intellectual disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(5), 1977-1987.
  • Hsieh, K., Rimmer, J., & Heller, T. (2012). Prevalence of falls and risk factors in adult with intellectual disability. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 117(6), 442-454.
  • Kaya, A. (2017). Bakım ve koruma altında bulunanzihin yetersizliği olan bireylere yönelik günlük yaşam eğitimi programı geliştirilmesi. Yayımlanmış Doktora Tezi. Eskişehir: Anadolu Üniversitesi, Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü.
  • Lamoureux-Hebert, M., Morin, D., & Crocker, A. (2010). Support needs of individuals with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviors. Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 3(2), 67-84.
  • Lane, V. (2012). Examining attachment in person with a disability and their transition to independent living. Published Master’s Thesis. USA: Saint Mary’s College of California.
  • Lumley, V. A., Miltenberger, R. G., Long, E. S., Rapp, J. T., & Roberts, J. A. (1998). Evaluation of a sexual abuse prevention program for adults with mental retardation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31(1), 91-101.
  • Luthra, R., Högdin, S., Westberg, N., & Tideman, M. (2018). After upper secondary school: Young adults with intellectual disability not involved in employment, education or daily activity in Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 20(1), 50-61.
  • Mansell, M. J., Ashman, B. McDonald, S., & Beadle-Brown, J. (2002). Deinstitutionalisation and community living: Position statement of the comparative policy and practice special interest research proup pf the international association for the scientific study of intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 46(8), 625-633.
  • McLaughlin, M. (1995). Employability Skills Profile: What Are Employers Looking For?. ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Student Services Greensboro NC., Canadian Guidance and Counselling Foundation Ottawa (Ontario).
  • Merriam, S. B. (2013). Nitel araştırma desen ve uygulama için bir rehber. (Çev: S. Turan). Ankara: Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık. Ministy of National Education. (2018). Special education services regulations. http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/07/20180707-8.htm (Accessed Date: 23.10.2018).
  • Mueller, M. M., & Stack-Dunner, S. E. (1989). A study to test the realiability of an independent living skills assessment instrument. California: San Jose State University Department of Occupational Thearpy.
  • Nye-Lengerman, K., Narby, C., & Pettingell, S. (2017). Bringing Employment First to Scale: What is the relationship between gender end employment status for individuals with IDD?. Boston, MA: University of Massachusetts Boston, Institute for Community Inclusion.
  • Onukwube, V. C. (2010). Experiences, feelings, and perceptions of former foster care youth about independent living program. Published Doctoral Dissertation. U.S.: Walden University.
  • Rubin, H. J., & Rubin, I. S. (2005). Qualitative interviewing the art of hearing data (2nd Edition). SAGE Publications.
  • Ruteere, R. K., Mutia, J. M., Mwoma, T., & Runo, M. (2015). Challenges experienced in teaching daily living skills to learners with mental retardation. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(18), 159-163.
  • Sabornie, E. J., & DeBettencourt, L. U. (2009). Teaching students with mild and high-incidence disabilities at the secondary level. Prentice Hall.
  • Shalock, R. L., Borthwick-Duffy, S. A., Brandley, V. J., Buntinx, W. H. E., Coulter, D. L., Craig, E. M., Gomez, S. C., Lachapelle, Y., Luckasson, R., & Reeve, A. (2010). Intellectual disability definition, classification, and systems of supports. AAIDD Publication.
  • Steere, D. E., Rose, E., & Cavaiuolo, D. (2007). Growing up: Transition to adult life for students with disabilities. Pearson: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Sunder, V. (2007). Development of an instrument for the evaluation of independent living skills in adults with disabilities. Published Doctoral Dissertation. U.S.: State University of New York Depermant of Rehabilitation Science.
  • Thoma, C. A., Browder, D., Lemons, C., Thurlow, M., Morningstar, M., Agran, M., Goode, T., Carslon, D., Lowery, A., Scott, L. A., Terpstra, J., Johnson, D. R., Thompson, J. & Cain, I. (2016). Education of students with intellectual and developmental disabilities. P. V. Berns, J. Butterworth, D. Carlson, T. Heller, A. Hewitt, A. Imparato, W. B. Jackson, A. Lulinski, M. Nygren, & D. Webber (Eds.) in Critical issues in intellectual and developmental disabilities: Contemporary, research, practice and policy, (p. 37-71). AAIDD Publication.
  • Thompson, J. R., Bradley, V. J., Buntinx, W. H., Schalock, R. L., Shogren, K. A., Snell, M. E., ... & Gomez, S. C. (2009). Conceptualizing supports and the support needs of people with intellectual disability. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 47(2), 135-146.
  • Tice, C. J., & Harnek Hall, D. M. (2008). Sexuality education and adolescents with developmental disabilities: Assessment, policy, and advocacy. Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation, 7(1), 47-62.
  • Wandry, D., Wehmeyer, M. L., & Glor-Scheib, S. (2013). Life centered education: The teacher’s guide. Council for Exceptional Children.
  • Wehman, P. (2013). Transition: New horizons and challenges. P. Wehman (Ed.) in Life beyond the classroom: Transition strategies for young people with disabilities, (p. 3-41). Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing Company.
  • Wehmeyer, M. L., Chapman, T. E., Little, T. D., Thompson, J. R., Schalock, R., & Tasse, M. (2009). Efficacy of the support intensy scale (SIS) to predict extraordinary support needs. American Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 114(1), 3-14.
  • Yuan Ru, H. (2015). New home, hearty hope-the experience of community living and independent living program for people with mental disability. Published Doctoral Dissertation. China: Tzu Chi University.

Zihin Yetersizliği Olan Genç Yetişkinlerin Bağımsız Yaşam Gereksinimleri

Yıl 2020, Cilt 11, Sayı 2, 193 - 217, 30.04.2020
https://doi.org/10.17569/tojqi.671287

Öz

Zihin yetersizliği olan bireyler örgün eğitimlerini tamamladıktan sonra gençlik ve yetişkinlik dönemlerinde okul sonrası eğitimlere katılabilmektedirler. Bu süreçte okuldan mezuniyet ve çalışma yaşamına hazırlanma gibi geçiş dönemleri bireylerin bağımsızlığa adım attığı ve desteğe gereksinim duyduğu dönemlerdir. Bu çalışmanın amacı zihin yetersizliği olan genç yetişkinlerin (ZYOGY) yetişkinliğe ve çalışma yaşamına hazırlanmalarındaki bağımsız yaşam gereksinimlerini belirlemektir. Araştırma, bu amacı gerçekleştirmek üzere nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden fenomenolojik desen ile yürütülmüştür. Çalışmaya amaçlı örneklemeyle 10 ZYOGY, 10 ebeveyn, 10 işveren ve 10 öğretmen olmak üzere toplam 40 kişi katılmıştır. İşveren, öğretmen ve ebeveynlerden oluşan 30 kişiyle yarı yapılandırılmış görüşmeler yapılmış, 10 ZYOGY ise gözlenerek beceri kontrol listesi aracılığıyla beceri ve davranışları değerlendirilmiştir. Gerçekleştirilen yarı yapılandırılmış görüşmelerden elde edilen veriler tümevarım analiziyle, kontrol listesinden elde edilen veriler betimsel analizle analiz edilmiştir. Araştırma bulguları ZYOGY’lerin yetişkinliğe ve çalışma yaşamına hazırlanmada bağımsız yaşam becerilerinde güçlük yaşadıkları bu nedenle okul sonrasında bir bağımsız yaşam eğitimine gereksinim olduğunu göstermiştir. ZYOGY’lerin bu dönemde yoğunlukla kişisel bakım ve temizlik, kişilerarası beceriler, güvenlik ve sağlık becerileri ve istihdam edilebilirlik becerilerine gereksinim duydukları görülmüştür.

Kaynakça

  • Agran, M., Hughes, C., Thoma, C. A., & Scott, L. A. (2016). Employment social skills: What skills are really valued?. Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals, 39(2), 111-120.
  • Alwell, M., & Cobb, B. (2009). Functional life skills curricular interventions for youth with disabilities: A systematic review. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 32(2), 82-93.
  • Arnett, J. J. (2007). Emerging adulthood: What is it, and what is it good for?. Child Development Perspectives, 1(2), 68-73.
  • Barkley, E. F., & Major, C. H. (2016). Learning assessment techniques: A handbook for college faculty. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Belva, B. C., & Matson, J. L. (2013). An examination of specific daily living skills deficits in adults with profound intellectual disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(1), 596-604.
  • Bouck, E. C. (2010). Reports of life skills training for students with intellectual disabilities in and out of school. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 54(12), 1093-1103.
  • Brolin, D. E. (1997). Life centered career education: A competency based approach. (5th Edition). USA: The Council for Exceptional Children.
  • Brown, M., & McCann, E. (2018). Sexuality issues and the voices of adults with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review of the literature. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 74, 124-138.
  • Chou, Y. C., Lee, Y. C., Chang, S. C., & Pei-Lung Yu, A. (2013). Evaluating the supports intensity scale as a potential assessment instrument for resource allocation for persons with intellectual disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34, 2056- 2063.
  • Council for the Education of Exceptional Children (CEC). (2011). Reauthorization of the workforce investment act (WIA): Priorities & concerns for students with disabilities. Issue Brief. USA: Arlington.
  • Creswell, J. W. (2008). Educational research planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative, and qualitative research. (3th Edition). Pearson Education International.
  • Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. (4th Edition). SAGE Publications.
  • Eisenman, D. P., Bazzano, A., Koniak-Griffin, D., Tseng, C. H., Lewis, M. A., Lamb, K., & Lehrer, D. (2014). Peer-mentored preparedness (PM-Prep): A New disaster preparedness program for adults living independently in the community. Mental Retardation, 52(1), 49-59.
  • Faloon, B. J., & Rehfeldt, R. A. (2008). The role of overt and covert self‐rules in establishing a daily living skill in adults with mild developmental disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41(3), 393-404.
  • Folk, E. D., Yamamoto, K. K., & Stodden, R. A. (2012). Implementing inclusion and collaborative teaming in a model program of postsecondary education for young adults with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 9(4), 257-269.
  • Gil-Llario, M. D., Morell-Menguel, V., Diaz-Rodriguez, I., & Ballester-Arnal, R. (2019). Prevalence and sequelae of self-reported and other-reported sexual abuse in adults with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 63(2), 138-148.
  • Gimenez-Garcia, C., Gil-Llario, M. D., Ruiz-Palomino, E., & Diaz-Rodriguez, I. (2017). Sexual abuse and intellectual disability: How people with intellectual disabilities and their professionals identify and value the experience. International Journal of Developmental and Educational Psychology, 4(1), 129-136.
  • Guba, E. G., & Lincoln, Y. S. (1989). Fourth generation evaluation. SAGE Publication.
  • Harries, J., Guscia, R., Kirby, N., Nettelbeck, T., & Taplin, J. (2005). Support needs and adaptive behaviors. American Jorunal on Mental Retardation, 110(5), 393-404.
  • Harris, J. C. (2006). Intellectual disability: Understanding its development, causes, classification, evaluation, and treatment. London: Oxford University Press.
  • Healy, E., McGuire, B. E., Evans, D. S., & Carley, S. N. (2009). Sexuality and personel relationships for people with an intellectual disability. Part I: service-user perspectives. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 53(2), 905-912.
  • Hickson, L., Khemka, I., Golden, H., & Chatzistyli, A. (2008). Profiles of women who have mental retardation with and without a documented history of abuse. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 113(2), 133-142.
  • Hilgenkamp, T. L., Wijck, R., & Evenhuis, H. M. (2011). Instrumental activities of daily living in older adults with intellectual disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(5), 1977-1987.
  • Hsieh, K., Rimmer, J., & Heller, T. (2012). Prevalence of falls and risk factors in adult with intellectual disability. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 117(6), 442-454.
  • Kaya, A. (2017). Bakım ve koruma altında bulunanzihin yetersizliği olan bireylere yönelik günlük yaşam eğitimi programı geliştirilmesi. Yayımlanmış Doktora Tezi. Eskişehir: Anadolu Üniversitesi, Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü.
  • Lamoureux-Hebert, M., Morin, D., & Crocker, A. (2010). Support needs of individuals with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviors. Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 3(2), 67-84.
  • Lane, V. (2012). Examining attachment in person with a disability and their transition to independent living. Published Master’s Thesis. USA: Saint Mary’s College of California.
  • Lumley, V. A., Miltenberger, R. G., Long, E. S., Rapp, J. T., & Roberts, J. A. (1998). Evaluation of a sexual abuse prevention program for adults with mental retardation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31(1), 91-101.
  • Luthra, R., Högdin, S., Westberg, N., & Tideman, M. (2018). After upper secondary school: Young adults with intellectual disability not involved in employment, education or daily activity in Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 20(1), 50-61.
  • Mansell, M. J., Ashman, B. McDonald, S., & Beadle-Brown, J. (2002). Deinstitutionalisation and community living: Position statement of the comparative policy and practice special interest research proup pf the international association for the scientific study of intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 46(8), 625-633.
  • McLaughlin, M. (1995). Employability Skills Profile: What Are Employers Looking For?. ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Student Services Greensboro NC., Canadian Guidance and Counselling Foundation Ottawa (Ontario).
  • Merriam, S. B. (2013). Nitel araştırma desen ve uygulama için bir rehber. (Çev: S. Turan). Ankara: Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık. Ministy of National Education. (2018). Special education services regulations. http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/07/20180707-8.htm (Accessed Date: 23.10.2018).
  • Mueller, M. M., & Stack-Dunner, S. E. (1989). A study to test the realiability of an independent living skills assessment instrument. California: San Jose State University Department of Occupational Thearpy.
  • Nye-Lengerman, K., Narby, C., & Pettingell, S. (2017). Bringing Employment First to Scale: What is the relationship between gender end employment status for individuals with IDD?. Boston, MA: University of Massachusetts Boston, Institute for Community Inclusion.
  • Onukwube, V. C. (2010). Experiences, feelings, and perceptions of former foster care youth about independent living program. Published Doctoral Dissertation. U.S.: Walden University.
  • Rubin, H. J., & Rubin, I. S. (2005). Qualitative interviewing the art of hearing data (2nd Edition). SAGE Publications.
  • Ruteere, R. K., Mutia, J. M., Mwoma, T., & Runo, M. (2015). Challenges experienced in teaching daily living skills to learners with mental retardation. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(18), 159-163.
  • Sabornie, E. J., & DeBettencourt, L. U. (2009). Teaching students with mild and high-incidence disabilities at the secondary level. Prentice Hall.
  • Shalock, R. L., Borthwick-Duffy, S. A., Brandley, V. J., Buntinx, W. H. E., Coulter, D. L., Craig, E. M., Gomez, S. C., Lachapelle, Y., Luckasson, R., & Reeve, A. (2010). Intellectual disability definition, classification, and systems of supports. AAIDD Publication.
  • Steere, D. E., Rose, E., & Cavaiuolo, D. (2007). Growing up: Transition to adult life for students with disabilities. Pearson: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Sunder, V. (2007). Development of an instrument for the evaluation of independent living skills in adults with disabilities. Published Doctoral Dissertation. U.S.: State University of New York Depermant of Rehabilitation Science.
  • Thoma, C. A., Browder, D., Lemons, C., Thurlow, M., Morningstar, M., Agran, M., Goode, T., Carslon, D., Lowery, A., Scott, L. A., Terpstra, J., Johnson, D. R., Thompson, J. & Cain, I. (2016). Education of students with intellectual and developmental disabilities. P. V. Berns, J. Butterworth, D. Carlson, T. Heller, A. Hewitt, A. Imparato, W. B. Jackson, A. Lulinski, M. Nygren, & D. Webber (Eds.) in Critical issues in intellectual and developmental disabilities: Contemporary, research, practice and policy, (p. 37-71). AAIDD Publication.
  • Thompson, J. R., Bradley, V. J., Buntinx, W. H., Schalock, R. L., Shogren, K. A., Snell, M. E., ... & Gomez, S. C. (2009). Conceptualizing supports and the support needs of people with intellectual disability. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 47(2), 135-146.
  • Tice, C. J., & Harnek Hall, D. M. (2008). Sexuality education and adolescents with developmental disabilities: Assessment, policy, and advocacy. Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation, 7(1), 47-62.
  • Wandry, D., Wehmeyer, M. L., & Glor-Scheib, S. (2013). Life centered education: The teacher’s guide. Council for Exceptional Children.
  • Wehman, P. (2013). Transition: New horizons and challenges. P. Wehman (Ed.) in Life beyond the classroom: Transition strategies for young people with disabilities, (p. 3-41). Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing Company.
  • Wehmeyer, M. L., Chapman, T. E., Little, T. D., Thompson, J. R., Schalock, R., & Tasse, M. (2009). Efficacy of the support intensy scale (SIS) to predict extraordinary support needs. American Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 114(1), 3-14.
  • Yuan Ru, H. (2015). New home, hearty hope-the experience of community living and independent living program for people with mental disability. Published Doctoral Dissertation. China: Tzu Chi University.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Gizem YILDIZ> (Sorumlu Yazar)
ANADOLU UNIVERSITY
0000-0003-2693-6264
Türkiye


Atilla CAVKAYTAR>
ANADOLU UNIVERSITY
0000-0001-8067-1602
Türkiye

Destekleyen Kurum Anadolu University
Proje Numarası 1609E614
Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Nisan 2020
Başvuru Tarihi 6 Ocak 2020
Kabul Tarihi 27 Nisan 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 11, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { tojqi671287, journal = {Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry}, eissn = {1309-6591}, address = {}, publisher = {Abdullah KUZU}, year = {2020}, volume = {11}, number = {2}, pages = {193 - 217}, doi = {10.17569/tojqi.671287}, title = {Independent Living Needs of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities}, key = {cite}, author = {Yıldız, Gizem and Cavkaytar, Atilla} }
APA Yıldız, G. & Cavkaytar, A. (2020). Independent Living Needs of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities . Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry , 11 (2) , 193-217 . DOI: 10.17569/tojqi.671287
MLA Yıldız, G. , Cavkaytar, A. "Independent Living Needs of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities" . Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry 11 (2020 ): 193-217 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tojqi/issue/54063/671287>
Chicago Yıldız, G. , Cavkaytar, A. "Independent Living Needs of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities". Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry 11 (2020 ): 193-217
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Zihin Yetersizliği Olan Genç Yetişkinlerin Bağımsız Yaşam Gereksinimleri AU - GizemYıldız, AtillaCavkaytar Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.17569/tojqi.671287 DO - 10.17569/tojqi.671287 T2 - Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 193 EP - 217 VL - 11 IS - 2 SN - -1309-6591 M3 - doi: 10.17569/tojqi.671287 UR - https://doi.org/10.17569/tojqi.671287 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry Independent Living Needs of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities %A Gizem Yıldız , Atilla Cavkaytar %T Independent Living Needs of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities %D 2020 %J Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry %P -1309-6591 %V 11 %N 2 %R doi: 10.17569/tojqi.671287 %U 10.17569/tojqi.671287
ISNAD Yıldız, Gizem , Cavkaytar, Atilla . "Independent Living Needs of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities". Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry 11 / 2 (Nisan 2020): 193-217 . https://doi.org/10.17569/tojqi.671287
AMA Yıldız G. , Cavkaytar A. Independent Living Needs of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities. TOJQI. 2020; 11(2): 193-217.
Vancouver Yıldız G. , Cavkaytar A. Independent Living Needs of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry. 2020; 11(2): 193-217.
IEEE G. Yıldız ve A. Cavkaytar , "Independent Living Needs of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities", Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry, c. 11, sayı. 2, ss. 193-217, Nis. 2020, doi:10.17569/tojqi.671287