Derleme
PDF EndNote BibTex Kaynak Göster

Özel Eğitime Açılan Yeni Bir Pencere: Göz İzleme Tekniği

Yıl 2022, Cilt 4, Sayı 1, 49 - 63, 30.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.37233/TRSPED.2022.122

Öz

Göz izleme, bireylerin göz hareketlerinin kaydedilerek nereye, ne zaman, ne kadar süreyle ve hangi sırada baktıklarına ilişkin fizyolojik veri sağlayan önemli bir tekniktir. Göz izleme teknolojileri yaklaşık bir buçuk asırdır tıp, veterinerlik, psikoloji, dilbilim, spor bilimleri ve özel eğitim gibi oldukça farklı araştırma alanlarında güvenilir veri toplamak için yaygın bir biçimde kullanılmaktadır. Bu çalışmada ise göz izleme tekniği, göz hareketleri ve göz izleme verileri betimlenerek tanımlanmaktadır. Aynı zamanda özel eğitim alanında okuma bozukluğu ve otizm spektrum bozukluğuna ilişkin göz izleme tekniği ile gerçekleştirilen bazı önemli çalışmalara yer verilmektedir. Araştırmalar okuma bozukluğu ve otizm spektrum bozukluğunun hem doğasının incelenmesi hem de okuma bozukluğu ve otizm spektrum bozukluğu şüphesi ile değerlendirmeye alınan bireylerin tanı-değerlendirme ve müdahale süreçlerine ilişkin kapsamlı bilgiler sunmaktadır. Sonuç olarak, özel eğitim alanında da yaygın olarak kullanılan göz izleme ile objektif, kolay, hızlı, teknoloji temelli ve yenilikçi bir biçimde araştırma ve incelemelerin yapıldığı görülmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Abrams, R. A., Meyer, D. E., & Kornblum, S. (1989). Speed and accuracy of saccadic eye movements: Characteristics of impulse variability in the oculomotor system. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 15(3), 529. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.15.3.529
  • Baş, T., & Tüzün, H. (2014). Tüketicileri (kullanıcıları) ve ürün kullanımlarını analiz etmek için göz izleme yönteminin kullanılması. Tüketici Yazıları, 4, 217-234.
  • Bojko, A. (2013). Eye tracking the user experience a practical guide to research. Rosenfeld.
  • Bradshaw, J., Shic, F., & Chawarska, K. (2011). Brief report: Face-specific recognition deficits in young children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(10), 1429-1435. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-010-1150-4
  • Carter, B. T., & Luke, S. G. (2020). Best practices in eye tracking research. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 155, 49-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2020.05.010
  • Chawarska, K., Macari, S., & Shic, F. (2012). Context modulates attention to social scenes in toddlers with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(8), 903-913. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02538.x
  • Chawarska K, Klin A., Volkmar F. (2003). Automatic attention cueing through eye movement in 2-year-old children with autism. Child Development,74(4), 1108-1122. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00595
  • Chawarska, K., & Shic, F. (2009). Looking but not seeing: atypical visual scanning and recognition of faces in 2 and 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(12), 1663-1672. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-009-0803-7
  • Chawarska, K., & Volkmar, F. (2007). Impairments in monkey and human face recognition in 2-year-old toddlers with autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay. Developmental Science, 10, 266-279. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2006.00543.x
  • Chawarska, K., Volkmar, F., & Klin, A. (2010). Limited attentional bias for faces in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(2), 178-185. https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.194
  • Dawson, G., Webb, S. J., Wijsman, E., Schellenberg, G., Estes, A., Munson, J., & Faja, S. (2005). Neurocognitive and electrophysiological evidence of altered face processing in parents of children with autism: Implications for a model of abnormal development of social brain circuitry in autism. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 679-697. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579405050327
  • De Luca, M., Borrelli, M., Judica, A., Spinelli, D., & Zoccolotti, P. (2002). Reading words and pseudowords: An eye movement study of developmental dyslexia. Brain and Language, 80(3), 617-626. https://doi.org/10.1006/brln.2001.2637
  • Dürrwächter, U., Sokolov, A. N., Reinhard, J., Klosinski, G., & Trauzettel-Klosinski, S. (2010). Word length and word frequency affect eye movements in dyslexic children reading in a regular (German) orthography. Annals of Dyslexia, 60(1), 86-101. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11881-010-0034-9
  • Gangl, M., Moll, K., Jones, M. W., Banfi, C., Schulte-Körne, G., & Landerl, K. (2018). Lexical reading in dysfluent readers of German. Scientific Studies of Reading, 22(1), 24-40. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/10888438.2017.1339709
  • Hawelka, S., Gagl, B., & Wimmer, H. (2010). A dual-route perspective on eye movements of dyslexic readers. Cognition, 115(3), 367-379. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2009.11.004
  • https://hci.cc.metu.edu.tr/tr/goz-izleme
  • https://www.tobiipro.com/product-listing/nano/
  • Hutzler, F., & Wimmer, H. (2004). Eye movements of dyslexic children when reading in a regular orthography. Brain and Language, 89(1), 235-242. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0093-934X(03)00401-2
  • Jacob, R. J. K., & Karn, K. S. (2003). Eye tracking in human-computer interaction and usability research: Ready to deliver the promises (Section Commentary). In Hyönä, J., Radach, R., & Deubel, H. (Eds.), The mind's eye: Cognitive and applied aspects of eye movement research (pp. 573-605). Elsevier Science.
  • Lai, M. L., Tsai, M. J., Yang, F. Y., Hsu, C. Y., Liu, T. C., Lee, S. W. Y., Lee, M. H., Chiou, G. L., Liang, J. C., Tsai, C. C. (2013). A review of using eye-tracking technology in exploring from 2000 to 2012. Educational Research Review, 10, 90-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2013.10.001
  • Leppänen, J. M., & Nelson, C. A. (2009). Tuning the developing brain to social signals of emotions. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10(1), 37-47. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2554
  • Liversedge, S. P., Paterson, K. B., & Pickering, M. J. (1998). Eye movements and measures of reading time. In G. Underwood (Ed.), Eye guidance in reading and scene perception (pp. 55-76). Elsevier.
  • MacKeben, M., Trauzettel-Klosinski, S., Reinhard, J., Dürrwächter, U., Adler, M., & Klosinski, G. (2004). Eye movement control during single-word reading in dyslexics. Journal of Vision, 4(5), 388-402. https://doi.org/10.1167/4.5.4
  • Özer, E. (2019). Yetkin ve zayıf okurların okuma becerileri ile göz hareketleri arasındaki ilişkinin karşılaştırılarak incelenmesi [Comparative examination of the relationship between reading skills and eye movements of good and poor readers] (Tez Numarası: 593749) [Doktora tezi, Gazi Üniversitesi]. Yükseköğretim Kurulu Ulusal Tez Merkezi.
  • Özer, E., & Özdemir, S. (2015). Otizm spektrum bozukluğu olan çocuklarda yüz işleme ve göz işleme becerileri. International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education (INT-JECSE), 7(1), 1-23.
  • Özer, E., & Özdemir, S. (2021a). Okuma araştırmalarında geçmişten günümüze göz izleme tekniği. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Özel Eğitim Dergisi, Erken Görünüm. https://doi.org/10.21565/ozelegitimdergisi.844707
  • Özer, E., & Özdemir, S. (2021b). The relation between reading performance and eye movement parameters of high-skilled and low-skilled readers. Education and Science, 46(208), 395-412. https://doi.org/10.15390/EB.2021.9777
  • Özer, E. & Özdemir, S. (2021c). Yetkin ve zayıf okurların sıklığı yüksek olan sözcüklere ilk sabitleme sürelerinin incelenmesi. Ana Dili Eğitimi Dergisi, 9(3), 804-819. https://doi.org/10.16916/aded.886835
  • Özer, E., Özdemir, S., & Kara, M. (2020). Göz izleme tekniği ile okuma becerisinin incelenmesi. Journal of Turkish Educational Sciences, 18(1), 437-455. https://doi.org/10.37217/tebd.714158
  • Özdemir S, Akın-Bülbül I, Kök İ, Özdemir S. (2022). Development of a visual attention based decision support system for autism spectrum disorder screening. International Journal of Psychophysiology, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2022.01.004
  • Özdemir, S., Gürel Selimoğlu, Ö., Töret, G., & Suna, H. E. (2017). Otizm spektrum bozukluğu olan çocuklar ve normal gelişim gösteren çocukların statik ve hareketli materyallerde yüz işlemelerinin karşılaştırılması. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Özel Eğitim Dergisi, 18(2), 271-290. https://doi.org/10.21565/ozelegitimdergisi.327784
  • Pascalis, O., Scott, L. S., Kelly, D. J., Shannon, R. W., Nicholson, E., Coleman, M., & Nelson, C. A. (2005). Plasticity of face processing in infancy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(14), 5297-5300. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0406627102
  • Pellicano, E. (2008). Autism: Face-processing clues to inheritance. Current Biology, 18(17), 748-750. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2008.07.004
  • Rayner, K. (1978). Eye movement latencies for parafoveally presented words. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 11(1), 13-16. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03336753
  • Rayner, K. (1998). Eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research. Psychological Bulletin, 124(3), 372-422. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.124.3.372
  • Rayner, K. (2009). Eye movements and attention in reading, scene perception, and visual search. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62(8), 1457-1506. https://doi.org/10.1080/17470210902816461
  • Rayner, K., Pollatsek, A., Ashby, J., & Clifton Jr, C. (2012). Psychology of reading. Psychology.
  • Santos, A., Chaminade, T., Da Fonseca, D., Silva, C., Rosset, D., & Deruelle, C. (2012). Just another social scene: Evidence for decreased attention to negative social scenes in high-functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(9), 1790-1798. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-011-1415-6
  • Schall, A. J., & Bergstrom, J. R. (2014). Eye tracking in user experience design. In Bergstrom, J. R. & Schall, A. (Eds.), Introduction to eye tracking (pp. 3-26). Elsevier.
  • Scherf, K. S., Behrmann, M., Kimchi, R., & Luna, B. (2009). Emergence of global shape processing continues through adolescence. Child Development, 80, 162-177. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01252.x
  • Töret, G., Özdemir, S., Gürel-Selimoğlu, Ö., & Suna, E. H. (2018). Otizm spektrum bozukluğu olan ve tipik gelişim gösteren çocukların üç boyutlu animasyon ve canlı insan model video materyalleri üzerinde yüz işlemelerinin karşılaştırılması. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Özel Eğitim Dergisi, 19(3), 553-576. https://doi.org/10.21565/ozelegitimdergisi.349440
  • Trauzettel‐Klosinski, S., Koitzsch, A. M., Dürrwächter, U., Sokolov, A. N., Reinhard, J., & Klosinski, G. (2010). Eye movements in German‐speaking children with and without dyslexia when reading aloud. Acta Ophthalmologica, 88(6), 681-691. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-3768.2009.01523.x
  • Wade, N. J., & Tatler, B. W. (2011). Origins and applications of eye movement research. In S. P. Liversedge, I. D. Gilchrist, & S. Everling (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of eye movements (pp. 17-43). Oxford University Press.
  • Wade, N. J., Tatler, B. W., & Heller, D. (2003). Dodge-ing the issue: Dodge, Javal, Hering, and the measurement of saccades in eye-movement research. Perception, 32(7), 793-804. https://doi.org/10.1068/p3470

A New Window to Special Education: Eye Tracking Technique

Yıl 2022, Cilt 4, Sayı 1, 49 - 63, 30.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.37233/TRSPED.2022.122

Öz

Eye tracking is an important technique that provides physiological data on where, when, how long and which order individuals look by recording their eye movements. Eye tracking technologies have been used extensively for nearly a century and a half to collect reliable data in research fields as diverse as medicine, veterinary medicine, psychology, linguistics, sports sciences, and special education. In this study, eye tracking technique, eye movements and eye tracking data are defined by describing. At the same time, some important studies with eye tracking on reading disorder and autism spectrum disorder in special education are included. Comprehensive information is presented on both the nature of reading disorder and autism spectrum disorder and the diagnosis-assessment and intervention of individuals who are evaluated with reading disorder and autism spectrum disorder suspicion. As a result, with eye tracking, which is widely used in special education, studies are carried out in an objective, easy, fast, technology-based and innovative way.

Kaynakça

  • Abrams, R. A., Meyer, D. E., & Kornblum, S. (1989). Speed and accuracy of saccadic eye movements: Characteristics of impulse variability in the oculomotor system. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 15(3), 529. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.15.3.529
  • Baş, T., & Tüzün, H. (2014). Tüketicileri (kullanıcıları) ve ürün kullanımlarını analiz etmek için göz izleme yönteminin kullanılması. Tüketici Yazıları, 4, 217-234.
  • Bojko, A. (2013). Eye tracking the user experience a practical guide to research. Rosenfeld.
  • Bradshaw, J., Shic, F., & Chawarska, K. (2011). Brief report: Face-specific recognition deficits in young children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(10), 1429-1435. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-010-1150-4
  • Carter, B. T., & Luke, S. G. (2020). Best practices in eye tracking research. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 155, 49-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2020.05.010
  • Chawarska, K., Macari, S., & Shic, F. (2012). Context modulates attention to social scenes in toddlers with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(8), 903-913. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02538.x
  • Chawarska K, Klin A., Volkmar F. (2003). Automatic attention cueing through eye movement in 2-year-old children with autism. Child Development,74(4), 1108-1122. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00595
  • Chawarska, K., & Shic, F. (2009). Looking but not seeing: atypical visual scanning and recognition of faces in 2 and 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(12), 1663-1672. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-009-0803-7
  • Chawarska, K., & Volkmar, F. (2007). Impairments in monkey and human face recognition in 2-year-old toddlers with autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay. Developmental Science, 10, 266-279. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2006.00543.x
  • Chawarska, K., Volkmar, F., & Klin, A. (2010). Limited attentional bias for faces in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(2), 178-185. https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.194
  • Dawson, G., Webb, S. J., Wijsman, E., Schellenberg, G., Estes, A., Munson, J., & Faja, S. (2005). Neurocognitive and electrophysiological evidence of altered face processing in parents of children with autism: Implications for a model of abnormal development of social brain circuitry in autism. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 679-697. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579405050327
  • De Luca, M., Borrelli, M., Judica, A., Spinelli, D., & Zoccolotti, P. (2002). Reading words and pseudowords: An eye movement study of developmental dyslexia. Brain and Language, 80(3), 617-626. https://doi.org/10.1006/brln.2001.2637
  • Dürrwächter, U., Sokolov, A. N., Reinhard, J., Klosinski, G., & Trauzettel-Klosinski, S. (2010). Word length and word frequency affect eye movements in dyslexic children reading in a regular (German) orthography. Annals of Dyslexia, 60(1), 86-101. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11881-010-0034-9
  • Gangl, M., Moll, K., Jones, M. W., Banfi, C., Schulte-Körne, G., & Landerl, K. (2018). Lexical reading in dysfluent readers of German. Scientific Studies of Reading, 22(1), 24-40. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/10888438.2017.1339709
  • Hawelka, S., Gagl, B., & Wimmer, H. (2010). A dual-route perspective on eye movements of dyslexic readers. Cognition, 115(3), 367-379. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2009.11.004
  • https://hci.cc.metu.edu.tr/tr/goz-izleme
  • https://www.tobiipro.com/product-listing/nano/
  • Hutzler, F., & Wimmer, H. (2004). Eye movements of dyslexic children when reading in a regular orthography. Brain and Language, 89(1), 235-242. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0093-934X(03)00401-2
  • Jacob, R. J. K., & Karn, K. S. (2003). Eye tracking in human-computer interaction and usability research: Ready to deliver the promises (Section Commentary). In Hyönä, J., Radach, R., & Deubel, H. (Eds.), The mind's eye: Cognitive and applied aspects of eye movement research (pp. 573-605). Elsevier Science.
  • Lai, M. L., Tsai, M. J., Yang, F. Y., Hsu, C. Y., Liu, T. C., Lee, S. W. Y., Lee, M. H., Chiou, G. L., Liang, J. C., Tsai, C. C. (2013). A review of using eye-tracking technology in exploring from 2000 to 2012. Educational Research Review, 10, 90-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2013.10.001
  • Leppänen, J. M., & Nelson, C. A. (2009). Tuning the developing brain to social signals of emotions. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10(1), 37-47. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2554
  • Liversedge, S. P., Paterson, K. B., & Pickering, M. J. (1998). Eye movements and measures of reading time. In G. Underwood (Ed.), Eye guidance in reading and scene perception (pp. 55-76). Elsevier.
  • MacKeben, M., Trauzettel-Klosinski, S., Reinhard, J., Dürrwächter, U., Adler, M., & Klosinski, G. (2004). Eye movement control during single-word reading in dyslexics. Journal of Vision, 4(5), 388-402. https://doi.org/10.1167/4.5.4
  • Özer, E. (2019). Yetkin ve zayıf okurların okuma becerileri ile göz hareketleri arasındaki ilişkinin karşılaştırılarak incelenmesi [Comparative examination of the relationship between reading skills and eye movements of good and poor readers] (Tez Numarası: 593749) [Doktora tezi, Gazi Üniversitesi]. Yükseköğretim Kurulu Ulusal Tez Merkezi.
  • Özer, E., & Özdemir, S. (2015). Otizm spektrum bozukluğu olan çocuklarda yüz işleme ve göz işleme becerileri. International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education (INT-JECSE), 7(1), 1-23.
  • Özer, E., & Özdemir, S. (2021a). Okuma araştırmalarında geçmişten günümüze göz izleme tekniği. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Özel Eğitim Dergisi, Erken Görünüm. https://doi.org/10.21565/ozelegitimdergisi.844707
  • Özer, E., & Özdemir, S. (2021b). The relation between reading performance and eye movement parameters of high-skilled and low-skilled readers. Education and Science, 46(208), 395-412. https://doi.org/10.15390/EB.2021.9777
  • Özer, E. & Özdemir, S. (2021c). Yetkin ve zayıf okurların sıklığı yüksek olan sözcüklere ilk sabitleme sürelerinin incelenmesi. Ana Dili Eğitimi Dergisi, 9(3), 804-819. https://doi.org/10.16916/aded.886835
  • Özer, E., Özdemir, S., & Kara, M. (2020). Göz izleme tekniği ile okuma becerisinin incelenmesi. Journal of Turkish Educational Sciences, 18(1), 437-455. https://doi.org/10.37217/tebd.714158
  • Özdemir S, Akın-Bülbül I, Kök İ, Özdemir S. (2022). Development of a visual attention based decision support system for autism spectrum disorder screening. International Journal of Psychophysiology, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2022.01.004
  • Özdemir, S., Gürel Selimoğlu, Ö., Töret, G., & Suna, H. E. (2017). Otizm spektrum bozukluğu olan çocuklar ve normal gelişim gösteren çocukların statik ve hareketli materyallerde yüz işlemelerinin karşılaştırılması. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Özel Eğitim Dergisi, 18(2), 271-290. https://doi.org/10.21565/ozelegitimdergisi.327784
  • Pascalis, O., Scott, L. S., Kelly, D. J., Shannon, R. W., Nicholson, E., Coleman, M., & Nelson, C. A. (2005). Plasticity of face processing in infancy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(14), 5297-5300. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0406627102
  • Pellicano, E. (2008). Autism: Face-processing clues to inheritance. Current Biology, 18(17), 748-750. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2008.07.004
  • Rayner, K. (1978). Eye movement latencies for parafoveally presented words. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 11(1), 13-16. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03336753
  • Rayner, K. (1998). Eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research. Psychological Bulletin, 124(3), 372-422. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.124.3.372
  • Rayner, K. (2009). Eye movements and attention in reading, scene perception, and visual search. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62(8), 1457-1506. https://doi.org/10.1080/17470210902816461
  • Rayner, K., Pollatsek, A., Ashby, J., & Clifton Jr, C. (2012). Psychology of reading. Psychology.
  • Santos, A., Chaminade, T., Da Fonseca, D., Silva, C., Rosset, D., & Deruelle, C. (2012). Just another social scene: Evidence for decreased attention to negative social scenes in high-functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(9), 1790-1798. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-011-1415-6
  • Schall, A. J., & Bergstrom, J. R. (2014). Eye tracking in user experience design. In Bergstrom, J. R. & Schall, A. (Eds.), Introduction to eye tracking (pp. 3-26). Elsevier.
  • Scherf, K. S., Behrmann, M., Kimchi, R., & Luna, B. (2009). Emergence of global shape processing continues through adolescence. Child Development, 80, 162-177. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01252.x
  • Töret, G., Özdemir, S., Gürel-Selimoğlu, Ö., & Suna, E. H. (2018). Otizm spektrum bozukluğu olan ve tipik gelişim gösteren çocukların üç boyutlu animasyon ve canlı insan model video materyalleri üzerinde yüz işlemelerinin karşılaştırılması. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Özel Eğitim Dergisi, 19(3), 553-576. https://doi.org/10.21565/ozelegitimdergisi.349440
  • Trauzettel‐Klosinski, S., Koitzsch, A. M., Dürrwächter, U., Sokolov, A. N., Reinhard, J., & Klosinski, G. (2010). Eye movements in German‐speaking children with and without dyslexia when reading aloud. Acta Ophthalmologica, 88(6), 681-691. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-3768.2009.01523.x
  • Wade, N. J., & Tatler, B. W. (2011). Origins and applications of eye movement research. In S. P. Liversedge, I. D. Gilchrist, & S. Everling (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of eye movements (pp. 17-43). Oxford University Press.
  • Wade, N. J., Tatler, B. W., & Heller, D. (2003). Dodge-ing the issue: Dodge, Javal, Hering, and the measurement of saccades in eye-movement research. Perception, 32(7), 793-804. https://doi.org/10.1068/p3470

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Eğitim, Özel
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Esmehan ÖZER> (Sorumlu Yazar)
KIRIKKALE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-5919-8072
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Mart 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 4, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @derleme { trsped1062931, journal = {Turkish Journal of Special Education Research and Practice}, eissn = {2687-6213}, address = {Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi, Özel Eğitim Bölümü A Blok Atakum/Samsun}, publisher = {Salih RAKAP}, year = {2022}, volume = {4}, number = {1}, pages = {49 - 63}, doi = {10.37233/TRSPED.2022.122}, title = {Özel Eğitime Açılan Yeni Bir Pencere: Göz İzleme Tekniği}, key = {cite}, author = {Özer, Esmehan} }
APA Özer, E. (2022). Özel Eğitime Açılan Yeni Bir Pencere: Göz İzleme Tekniği . Turkish Journal of Special Education Research and Practice , 4 (1) , 49-63 . DOI: 10.37233/TRSPED.2022.122
MLA Özer, E. "Özel Eğitime Açılan Yeni Bir Pencere: Göz İzleme Tekniği" . Turkish Journal of Special Education Research and Practice 4 (2022 ): 49-63 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/trsped/issue/69897/1062931>
Chicago Özer, E. "Özel Eğitime Açılan Yeni Bir Pencere: Göz İzleme Tekniği". Turkish Journal of Special Education Research and Practice 4 (2022 ): 49-63
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Özel Eğitime Açılan Yeni Bir Pencere: Göz İzleme Tekniği AU - Esmehan Özer Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.37233/TRSPED.2022.122 DO - 10.37233/TRSPED.2022.122 T2 - Turkish Journal of Special Education Research and Practice JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 49 EP - 63 VL - 4 IS - 1 SN - -2687-6213 M3 - doi: 10.37233/TRSPED.2022.122 UR - https://doi.org/10.37233/TRSPED.2022.122 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Turkish Journal of Special Education Research and Practice Özel Eğitime Açılan Yeni Bir Pencere: Göz İzleme Tekniği %A Esmehan Özer %T Özel Eğitime Açılan Yeni Bir Pencere: Göz İzleme Tekniği %D 2022 %J Turkish Journal of Special Education Research and Practice %P -2687-6213 %V 4 %N 1 %R doi: 10.37233/TRSPED.2022.122 %U 10.37233/TRSPED.2022.122
ISNAD Özer, Esmehan . "Özel Eğitime Açılan Yeni Bir Pencere: Göz İzleme Tekniği". Turkish Journal of Special Education Research and Practice 4 / 1 (Mart 2022): 49-63 . https://doi.org/10.37233/TRSPED.2022.122
AMA Özer E. Özel Eğitime Açılan Yeni Bir Pencere: Göz İzleme Tekniği. TRSPED. 2022; 4(1): 49-63.
Vancouver Özer E. Özel Eğitime Açılan Yeni Bir Pencere: Göz İzleme Tekniği. Turkish Journal of Special Education Research and Practice. 2022; 4(1): 49-63.
IEEE E. Özer , "Özel Eğitime Açılan Yeni Bir Pencere: Göz İzleme Tekniği", Turkish Journal of Special Education Research and Practice, c. 4, sayı. 1, ss. 49-63, Mar. 2022, doi:10.37233/TRSPED.2022.122