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AB’nin En Uzun Yılı İçin Turnusol Testi: Dayanışma İlkesi ve COVID-19 Salgınının 2020’deki Meydan Okumaları

Yıl 2021, Cilt 18, Sayı 71, 21 - 43, 26.10.2021
https://doi.org/10.33458/uidergisi.947511

Öz

Dayanışma, Avrupa Birliği’nin (AB) en eski ama müphemliğini hâlâ koruyan ilkelerinden biridir. 2020 yılında, COVID-19, AB’nin daha önce sınandığı birçok turnusol testinin arasında yerini aldı. Avrupa kurumlarının başlangıçtaki tereddütleri ve pandeminin yol açtığı eşi görülmemiş sosyal ve ekonomik yıkımla başa çıkmak için etkin ortak afetle mücadele mekanizmalarının yokluğu, dayanışma ilkesine karşı sert bir eleştiri dalgasını yeniden tetikledi. AB’de dayanışmanın ortaya çıkışı ve dönüşümü hakkında kısa bir değerlendirmeden sonra, bu makale esas olarak COVID-19’un, dayanışma algısı üzerindeki etkisine odaklanmaktadır. Pandemi sona ermemiş ve bunun AB’deki genel sonuçlarını ölçmek için henüz çok erken olsa da, makale, AB üyelerinin dayanışma ilkesine bağlılığı konusunda olumlu eğilimin yükselişte olduğunu iddia etmektedir.

Kaynakça

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  • Aydın, Mustafa and Sinem Akgül-Açıkmeşe (26 April 2020). “Avrupa Covid-19 salgınından nasıl etkilendi? AB’nin dayanışma prensibi neden çöktü? Avrupa ve AB salgın sonrasında ekonomik ve siyasi olarak yeniden nasıl şekillenecek?”, https://www.uikpanorama.com/blog/2020/04/26/panorama-soruyor-ii/ (Accesed 31 December 2020).
  • Beaucillon, Charlotte (2020). “International and European emergency assistance to EU Member States in the Covid-19 crisis: Why European solidarity is not dead and what we need to make it both happen and last”, European Papers, Vol. 5, No 1, p. 387-401.
  • Chopin Thierry et.al. (10 April 2020). “The Eu Facing The Coronavirus: A Political Urgency To Embody European Solidarity”, https://institutdelors.eu/en/publications/lue-face-au-coronavirus-lindispensable-incarnation-politique-de-la-solidarite-europeenne/ (Accessed 31 December 2020).
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  • De Ruijter, Anniek et al. (2020). EU solidarity and policy in fighting infectious diseases: state of play, obstacles, citizen preferences and ways forward, The Amsterdam Centre for European Studies SSRN Research Paper, Amsterdam.
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  • French, Julian Lindley (2020). “Covid-19 Europe’s Defence and The Riga Test”, The Riga Conference Policy Brief, Riga.
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  • Habermas, Jürgen (26 April 2013). “Democracy, Solidarity and the European Crisis”, Lecture delivered on 26 April 2013 in Leuven Univ.,https://www.pro-europa.eu/europe/jurgen-habermasdemocracy-solidarity-and-the-european-crisis/ (Accessed 31 December 2020).
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  • Kommer, Florian (2018). “The Clash of Solidarities in the European Union”, Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol. 11, No 2, p.175–190.
  • Kotzur, Markus (2017). “Solidarity as a Legal Concept”, Andreas Grimmel and Susanne MyGiang (eds.), Solidarity in the European Union: Fundamental Value in Crisis, Switzerland, Springer, 2017, p. 37-47.
  • Loss, Rafael and Jana Puglierin (26 June 2020). “The truth about European solidarity during corona”,https://ecfr.eu/article/commentary_the_truth_about_european_solidarity_during_corona/ (Accessed 18 November 2020).
  • Massari, Maurizio (10 March 2020). “Italian ambassador to the EU: Italy needs Europe’s help”, Politicio, https://www.politico.eu/article/coronavirus-italy-needs-europe-help/ (Accessed 12 October 2020).
  • McMurtry, Alyssa (05 April 2020). “Coronavirus puts EU’s future to test: Spanish premier Pedro Sanchez says unless Europe responds with unwavering solidarity, EU will fail”, https://www.aa.com.tr/en/europe/coronavirus-puts-eu-s-future-to-test-spanish-premier/1793275 (Accessed 1 December 2020).
  • Michalopoulos, Sarantis (25 March 2020). “Nine member states ask for eurobonds to face coronavirus crisis”, https://www.euractiv.com/section/economy-jobs/news/nine-member-states-askfor-eurobonds-to-face-coronavirus-crisis/ (Accessed 18 November 2020).
  • “More EU solidarity needed to fight coronavirus- von der Leyen” (2 April 2020). Reuters, https://www.reuters.com/article/health-coronavirus-italy-vonderleyen-idUSL8N2BQ0YR (Accessed 3 September 2020).
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A Litmus Test for the EU's Longest Year: Solidarity Principle and Challenges by COVID-19 in 2020

Yıl 2021, Cilt 18, Sayı 71, 21 - 43, 26.10.2021
https://doi.org/10.33458/uidergisi.947511

Öz

Solidarity is one of the oldest but still ambiguous principles of the European Union (EU). In the year 2020, COVID-19 took its place among many other previous litmus tests over solidarity. Initial reluctance of European instutions and lack of effective joint counter-disaster mechanisms, to cope with the unprecedented social and economic devastation caused by the pandemic, triggered once more a wave of harsh criticism of solidarity principle. Although the pandemic did not reach to its end, and it is still too early to measure its overall results in the EU, the article asserts that, a positive tendency for European members’ adherence to solidarity principle is on rise.

Kaynakça

  • Anderson, Michael et al. (2020). “Covid-19 exposes weaknesses in European response to outbreaks”, British Medical Journal, 2020;368:m1075, p.1-2.
  • Aydın, Mustafa and Sinem Akgül-Açıkmeşe (26 April 2020). “Avrupa Covid-19 salgınından nasıl etkilendi? AB’nin dayanışma prensibi neden çöktü? Avrupa ve AB salgın sonrasında ekonomik ve siyasi olarak yeniden nasıl şekillenecek?”, https://www.uikpanorama.com/blog/2020/04/26/panorama-soruyor-ii/ (Accesed 31 December 2020).
  • Beaucillon, Charlotte (2020). “International and European emergency assistance to EU Member States in the Covid-19 crisis: Why European solidarity is not dead and what we need to make it both happen and last”, European Papers, Vol. 5, No 1, p. 387-401.
  • Chopin Thierry et.al. (10 April 2020). “The Eu Facing The Coronavirus: A Political Urgency To Embody European Solidarity”, https://institutdelors.eu/en/publications/lue-face-au-coronavirus-lindispensable-incarnation-politique-de-la-solidarite-europeenne/ (Accessed 31 December 2020).
  • Consolidated version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union Part Five- The Union’s External Action Title VII- Solidarity Clause Article 222.
  • Council of the European Union, https://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-14310-2020-ADD-1/en/pdf (Accessed 25 December 2020).
  • Council of the European Union, https://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-14310-2020-ADD-2/en/pdf (Accessed 25 December 2020).
  • Crotian Presidency of the Council of The EU, https://eu2020.hr/Home/OneNews?id=160 (Accessed: 12 October 2020).
  • De Ruijter, Anniek et al. (2020). EU solidarity and policy in fighting infectious diseases: state of play, obstacles, citizen preferences and ways forward, The Amsterdam Centre for European Studies SSRN Research Paper, Amsterdam.
  • Decision (EU) 2019/420 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 March 2019 amending Decision No 1313/2013/EU on a Union Civil Protection Mechanism (OJ L 77I, 20.3.2019, p. 1–15).
  • Decision No 1313/2013/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32013D1313.
  • Decision of The European Parliament and of The Council amending Decision No 1313/2013/EU on a Union Civil Protection Mechanism, Brussels, 2.6.2020 COM (2020) 220 final 2020/0097 (COD).
  • Domurath, Irina (2013). “The Three Dimensions of Solidarity in the EU Legal Order: Limits of the Judicial and Legal Approach”, Journal of European Integration, 35:(4), p. 459-475.
  • European Commission https://ec.europa.eu/transport/sites/transport/files/legislation/2020-03-23-communication-green-lanes_en.pdf (Accessed 1 December 2020).
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  • European Parliament, https://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/headlines/society/20200604STO80507/health-threats-boosting-eu-readiness-and-crisis-management (Accessed 26 November 2020).
  • Fernández, Jonatan Echebarria (2020). “A Critical Analysis on the European Union’s Measures to Overcome the Economic Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic”, European Papers, Vol. 5, No 3, p. 1399-1423.
  • French, Julian Lindley (2020). “Covid-19 Europe’s Defence and The Riga Test”, The Riga Conference Policy Brief, Riga.
  • Greer, Scott L. et al. (20 Jul 2020). “How Covid-19 just transformed entire EU health policy”, https://euobserver.com/opinion/148930 (Accessed 1 August 2020).
  • Grimmel, Andreas (2017). “Solidarity in the European Union A Fundamental Value or “Empty Signifier”, Andreas Grimmel and Susanne MyGiang (eds.), Solidarity in the European Union: Fundamental Value in Crisis, Switzerland, Springer, 2017, p.161-174.
  • Habermas, Jürgen (26 April 2013). “Democracy, Solidarity and the European Crisis”, Lecture delivered on 26 April 2013 in Leuven Univ.,https://www.pro-europa.eu/europe/jurgen-habermasdemocracy-solidarity-and-the-european-crisis/ (Accessed 31 December 2020).
  • Habermas, Jürgen (1998). Die postnationale Konstellation- Politische Essays. Translated by Jürgen Habermas. Frankfurt am Main.
  • Herszenhorna, David M. and Sarah Wheaton (7 April 2020). “How Europe failed the coronavirus test”, https://www.politico.eu/article/coronavirus-europe-failed-the-test/ (Accessed 11 October 2020).
  • https://fra.europa.eu/en/eu-charter/title/title-iv-solidarity (Accessed 16 November 2020).
  • Juncker, Jean-Claude (2016). “State of the Union address 2016: Towards a better Europe—a Europe that protects, empowers and defends”, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_SPEECH-16-3043_en.htm. Retrieved 15 Sept 2016 (Accessed 18 November 2020).
  • Kommer, Florian (2018). “The Clash of Solidarities in the European Union”, Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol. 11, No 2, p.175–190.
  • Kotzur, Markus (2017). “Solidarity as a Legal Concept”, Andreas Grimmel and Susanne MyGiang (eds.), Solidarity in the European Union: Fundamental Value in Crisis, Switzerland, Springer, 2017, p. 37-47.
  • Loss, Rafael and Jana Puglierin (26 June 2020). “The truth about European solidarity during corona”,https://ecfr.eu/article/commentary_the_truth_about_european_solidarity_during_corona/ (Accessed 18 November 2020).
  • Massari, Maurizio (10 March 2020). “Italian ambassador to the EU: Italy needs Europe’s help”, Politicio, https://www.politico.eu/article/coronavirus-italy-needs-europe-help/ (Accessed 12 October 2020).
  • McMurtry, Alyssa (05 April 2020). “Coronavirus puts EU’s future to test: Spanish premier Pedro Sanchez says unless Europe responds with unwavering solidarity, EU will fail”, https://www.aa.com.tr/en/europe/coronavirus-puts-eu-s-future-to-test-spanish-premier/1793275 (Accessed 1 December 2020).
  • Michalopoulos, Sarantis (25 March 2020). “Nine member states ask for eurobonds to face coronavirus crisis”, https://www.euractiv.com/section/economy-jobs/news/nine-member-states-askfor-eurobonds-to-face-coronavirus-crisis/ (Accessed 18 November 2020).
  • “More EU solidarity needed to fight coronavirus- von der Leyen” (2 April 2020). Reuters, https://www.reuters.com/article/health-coronavirus-italy-vonderleyen-idUSL8N2BQ0YR (Accessed 3 September 2020).
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Pırıl AKIN OCAK Bu kişi benim (Sorumlu Yazar)
ANKARA UNIVERSITY
0000-0003-0422-3909
Türkiye


Çağrı ERHAN Bu kişi benim
ALTINBAS UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-7446-5535
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 26 Ekim 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 18, Sayı 71

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { uidergisi947511, journal = {Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi}, issn = {1304-7310}, eissn = {1304-7175}, address = {Kadir Has Üniversitesi, Cibali Kampüsü, Beyaz Ev, Oda No: 13, 34083}, publisher = {Uluslararası İlişkiler Konseyi Derneği İktisadi İşletmesi}, year = {2021}, volume = {18}, pages = {21 - 43}, doi = {10.33458/uidergisi.947511}, title = {A Litmus Test for the EU's Longest Year: Solidarity Principle and Challenges by COVID-19 in 2020}, key = {cite}, author = {Akın Ocak, Pırıl and Erhan, Çağrı} }
APA Akın Ocak, P. & Erhan, Ç. (2021). A Litmus Test for the EU's Longest Year: Solidarity Principle and Challenges by COVID-19 in 2020 . Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi , 18 (71) , 21-43 . DOI: 10.33458/uidergisi.947511
MLA Akın Ocak, P. , Erhan, Ç. "A Litmus Test for the EU's Longest Year: Solidarity Principle and Challenges by COVID-19 in 2020" . Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi 18 (2021 ): 21-43 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/uidergisi/issue/66065/947511>
Chicago Akın Ocak, P. , Erhan, Ç. "A Litmus Test for the EU's Longest Year: Solidarity Principle and Challenges by COVID-19 in 2020". Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi 18 (2021 ): 21-43
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - A Litmus Test for the EU's Longest Year: Solidarity Principle and Challenges by COVID-19 in 2020 AU - Pırıl Akın Ocak , Çağrı Erhan Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.33458/uidergisi.947511 DO - 10.33458/uidergisi.947511 T2 - Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 21 EP - 43 VL - 18 IS - 71 SN - 1304-7310-1304-7175 M3 - doi: 10.33458/uidergisi.947511 UR - https://doi.org/10.33458/uidergisi.947511 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi A Litmus Test for the EU's Longest Year: Solidarity Principle and Challenges by COVID-19 in 2020 %A Pırıl Akın Ocak , Çağrı Erhan %T A Litmus Test for the EU's Longest Year: Solidarity Principle and Challenges by COVID-19 in 2020 %D 2021 %J Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi %P 1304-7310-1304-7175 %V 18 %N 71 %R doi: 10.33458/uidergisi.947511 %U 10.33458/uidergisi.947511
ISNAD Akın Ocak, Pırıl , Erhan, Çağrı . "A Litmus Test for the EU's Longest Year: Solidarity Principle and Challenges by COVID-19 in 2020". Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi 18 / 71 (Ekim 2021): 21-43 . https://doi.org/10.33458/uidergisi.947511
AMA Akın Ocak P. , Erhan Ç. A Litmus Test for the EU's Longest Year: Solidarity Principle and Challenges by COVID-19 in 2020. Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi. 2021; 18(71): 21-43.
Vancouver Akın Ocak P. , Erhan Ç. A Litmus Test for the EU's Longest Year: Solidarity Principle and Challenges by COVID-19 in 2020. Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi. 2021; 18(71): 21-43.
IEEE P. Akın Ocak ve Ç. Erhan , "A Litmus Test for the EU's Longest Year: Solidarity Principle and Challenges by COVID-19 in 2020", Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi, c. 18, sayı. 71, ss. 21-43, Eki. 2021, doi:10.33458/uidergisi.947511