Araştırma Makalesi
PDF Mendeley EndNote BibTex Kaynak Göster

The Franco-German Rivalry in the Post-Brexit European Union

Yıl 2021, Cilt 18, Sayı 71, 129 - 149, 26.10.2021
https://doi.org/10.33458/uidergisi.947537

Öz

A significant foundation of European stability after World War II has been the balance of power between the United Kingdom (UK), France, and Germany. The UK’s accession to the European Communities (EC) in 1973 had carried that ‘balance’ into the EC’s institutional framework. In this regard, the UK’s withdrawal from EU structures may lead to an important political and financial vacuum at the center of the Union. In the wake of Brexit, indications of anxiety and concerns about power imbalances have emerged around the question of which country or counties will steer the Union. There exit fresh post-Brexit assessments that indicate that the UK’s departure from the EU may catalyze the differences between Germany and France. This paper will discuss three essential scenarios for the EU’s political and economic future direction, namely, French leadership, German leadership, and a Franco-German partnership, for the post-Brexit period.

Kaynakça

  • Ahmari, Sohrab (2020). “Two losses for trans-Atlantic twits: Brexit finally happens, impeachment collapses”, New York Post, 30 January, https://nypost.com/2020/01/30/two-losses-for-transatlantic-twits-brexitfinally-happens-impeachment-collapses/ (Accessed 12 May 2020).
  • Baczynska, Gabriela (2020). “Missing you already - how Brexit tilts EU political alliances”, Reuters, 20 January, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu-dynamics/missing-you-already-how-brexit-tilts-eupolitical-alliances-idUSKBN1ZR1BM (Accessed 14 May 2020).
  • Balfour, Rosa (2020). “The European Union after Brexit: reform or shrivel”, Encompass, https://encompasseurope.com/comment/the-european-union-after-brexit-reform-or-shrivel, (Accessed 12 May 2020).
  • Balmer, Crispian (2010). “Economic governance divides France and Germany”, Reuters, 19 May, https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-france-germany-governance-analysis/economic-governance-divides-franceand-germany-idUKTRE64I5X620100519 (Accessed 8 October 2020).
  • Bechev, Dimitar (2019). “Did Macron kill the EU enlargement dream?”, Al Jazeera, 23 October, https://www.aljazeera.com/opinions/2019/10/23/did-macron-kill-the-eu-enlargement-dream (Accessed 14 December 2020).
  • Billon-Galland, Alice and Quencez, Martin (2017). “Can France and Germany Make PESCO Work as a Process Toward EU Defence?”, The German Marshall Fund of the United States, p. 2.
  • Boffey, Daniel (2020). “EU summit collapses as leaders struggle to fill € 75 bn Brexit hole”, The Guardian, 21 February, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/feb/21/eu-leaders-at-odds-over-filling-brexitshortfall (Accessed 18 May 2020).
  • Bosotti, Aurora (2019). “Brexit to Shatter Franco-German alliance as sparks fly between Merkel and Macron”, Express, 27 November, https://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/1209811/Brexit-news-UK-common-EUbudget-Germany-France-Angela-Merkel-Emmanuel-Macron-latest (Accessed 14 May 2020).
  • Bosotti, Aurora (2019). “EU on the Brink? Brexit to worsen ‘Critical Tension’ between France and Germany”, Express, 10 May, https://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/1124897/Brexit-news-France-Germanyeurozone-UK-EU-withdrawal-Theresa-May-deal-latest (Accessed 23 May 2020).
  • Brattberg, Erik, Brudzińska, Kinga and Bernardo Pires De Lima (25 March 2020). “Contending European Views on a New Post-Brexit Balance”, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, https://carnegieendowment.org/2020/03/25/contending-european-views-on-new-post-brexit-balance-pub-81354 (Accessed 14 May 2020).
  • Brexit: Common Security and Defence Policy Missions and Operations (2018). United Kingdom Parliament, London. https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201719/ldselect/ldeucom/132/132.pdf (Accessed 11 March 2020).
  • Brexit: Impact Across Policy Areas (2016). United Kingdom Parliament, London. https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/research-briefings/cbp-7213/ Accessed (21 December 2020).
  • “Brexit brief: How others see it” (2016). Economist, 30 April, https://www.economist.com/britain/2016/04/30/how-others-see-it (Accessed 21 February 2021).
  • “Brexit: the impact on the UK and the EU” (2015). Global Counsel, https://brexit.hypotheses.org/files/2017/01/Global-Counsel_Impact_of_Brexit.pdf (Accessed 08 December 2020).
  • Brozowski, Alexandra (15 February 2020). “In Munich, Macron presents EU reform as answer to ‘weakening West’”, EURACTIV, https://www.euractiv.com/section/future-eu/news/in-munich-macron-presentseu-reform-as-answer-to-weakening-west/ (Accessed 15 December 2020).
  • Bulmer, Simon (2018). “Germany and the European Union: Post-Brexit Hegemon”, Insight Turkey, Vol. 20, No.3, p. 11-28.
  • Bulmer, Simon and Paterson, William E. (2013). “Germany as the EU’s reluctant hegemon? Of economic strength and political constraints”, Journal of European Public Policy, Vol. 20, No. 10, p. 1387-1405.
  • Bulmer, Simon and Paterson, William E. (2019). German Power and the European Union: Europe’s reluctant hegemon?. London, Red Globe Press, p.118.
  • Chazan, Guy, Barker, Alex and Mallet, Victor (2019). “Brexit pressures expose cracks in Franco-German relationship”, Financial Times, 11 April, https://www.ft.com/content/78f8f660-5c45-11e9-9dde7aedca0a081a (Accessed 14 May 2020).
  • Chrisafis, Angelique (2019). “Macron criticized by US and Germany over NATO ‘brain death’ claims”, The Guardian, 7 November, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/nov/07/macron-warns-of-natobrain-death-as-us-turns-its-back-on-allies (Accessed 12 December 2020).
  • Cole, Alistair and Drake, Helen (2000). “The Europeanization of the French polity: continuity, change and adaptation”, Journal of European Public Policy, Vol. 7, No. 1, p. 26- 43.
  • Cole, Alistair (2001). Franco-German relations. New York, Routledge, pp. 115, 116.
  • Common Foreign and Security Policy, EUR-Lex, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=LEGISSUM:a19000&from=DE (Accessed 21 February 2021).
  • Common Security and Defence Policy Missions, United Kingdm Parliament, London. https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201516/ldselect/ldeucom/97/9714.htm#_idTextAnchor149 (Accessed 12 December 2020).
  • Connolly, Kate (2017). “German election: Merkel wins fourth term but far-right Afd surges to third”, The Guardian, 24 September, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/sep/24/angela-merkel-fourthterm-far-right-afd-third-german-election (Accessed 12 December 2020).
  • DCI-the EU’s financing instrument for development cooperation (2014-20). EUR-Lex, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/ legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=LEGISSUM:110102_1 (Accessed 03 October 2020).
  • Discours Du Président De La République Emmanuel Macron À La Conférence des Ambassadeurs Et Des Ambassadrices De 2019 (2019). Présidence de la République, Paris. https://www.elysee.fr/emmanuelmacron/2019/08/27/discours-du-president-de-la-republique-a-la-conference-des-ambassadeurs-1 (Accessed 21 February 2021).
  • “Emmanuel Macron warns Europe: NATO is becoming brain-dead” (2019). The Economist, 7 November, https://www.economist.com/europe/2019/11/07/emmanuel-macron-warns-europe-nato-isbecoming-brain-dead (Accessed 23 December 2020).
  • Erlanger, Steven (2019). “Macron Steps Into a Leadership Vacuum in Europe, and on Some Toes”, The New York Times, 1 November, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/11/01/world/europe/macron-france-eu.html, (Accessed 20 February 2021).
  • Erlanger, Steven (2019). “Merkel and Macron Publicly Clash Over NATO”, The New York Times”, 23 November, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/11/23/world/europe/nato-france-germany.html (Accessed 12 December 2020).
  • Erlanger, Steven (2020). “A Texas-Size Defeat for the EU: Brexit is Here”, The New York Times, 29 January, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/29/world/europe/brexit-brussels-eu.html (Accessed 24 May 2020).
  • Europe in the World: Towards a More Effective EU Foreign and Security Strategy (2016). Appendix 5, Table 2, House of Lords European Union Committee, United Kingdom Parliament, London. pp. 81–84.
  • “For the EU’s economy, Brexit is like the EU28 becoming the EU10” (2019). Facts4EU, https://facts4eu.org/ news/2019_apr_eu28_to_eu10 (Accessed 02 October 2020).
  • Funabashi, Yoichi (2020). “The post-Brexit ‘German Question’”, The Japan Times, 10 February, https:// www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2020/02/10/commentary/world-commentary/post-brexit-germanquestion/#.Xu-vdy2xvBJ (Accessed 12 May 2020).
  • “Germany Current Account Balance”, CEIC, https://www.ceicdata.com/en/indicator/germany/currentaccount-balance--of-nominal-gdp#:~:text=Germany’s%20Current%20Account%20surplus%20accounted,surplus%20in%20the%20previous%20quarter (Accessed 11 May 2020).
  • “Germany Population”, Worldometer, https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/germany-population/ (Accessed 12 May 2020).
  • Gowan, Richard (2018). “Separation anxiety: European influence at the UN after Brexit, European Council on Foreign Relations, 8 May, https://ecfr.eu/publication/separation_anxiety_european_influence_at_the_un_after_brexit/ (Accessed 22 December 2020).
  • Gurzu, Anca (2019). “France and Germany split over Nord Stream 2 pipeline”, Politico, 7 February, https://www. politico.eu/article/france-and-germany-split-over-nord-stream-2-pipeline-russian-gas-regulation/.
  • Henley, Jon (2016). “Would Brexit trigger a domino effect in Europe?”, The Guardian, 10 June, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jun/10/brexit-domino-effect-europe-eu-referendum-uk (Accessed 14 April 2020).
  • Henley, Jon (2020). “Can Merkel and Macron get Franco-German relations back on track?”, The Guardian, 2 January, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jan/02/can-merkel-and-macron-get-francogerman-relations-back-on-track (Accessed 18 December 2020).
  • James, Harold (2012). Making the European Monetary Union: The Role of the Committee of Central Bank Governors and the Origins of the European Central Bank, Cambridge MA, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
  • Kauffmann, Sylvie (2019). “Macron Puts Germany on Trial”, The New York Times, 7 May, https://www.nytimes. com/2019/05/07/opinion/macron-puts-germany-on-trial.html (Accessed 6 October 2020).
  • Keohane, Daniel (2017). “Macron’s European Defence Doctrine”, Carnegie Europe, https://carnegieeurope.eu/ strategiceurope/73246 (Accessed 6 October 2020).
  • Kroll, Daniela Annette and Leuffen, Dirk (2016). “Ties that bind, can also strangle: the Brexit threat and the hardships of reforming the EU”, Journal of European Public Policy, Vol. 23, No. 9, p.1311-1320.
  • Krotz, Ulrich and Schild, Joachim (2018). “Back to the future? Franco-German bilateralism in Europe’s postBrexit union”, Journal of European Public Policy, Vol. 25, No. 8, p. 1174-1193.
  • Kugiel, Patryk (2017). “End of European Soft Power? Implications for EU Foreign Policy”, The Polish Quarterly of International Affairs, Vol. 1, p. 59-72.
  • Ladrech, Robert (2001). “Europeanization and French social democracy”, Journal of Southern Europe and the Balkans, Vol. 3, No. 1, p. 37-47.
  • Lees, Charles (2018). “The ‘Alterative for Germany’: The rise of right-wing populism at the heart of Europe”, Politics, Vol. 38, No 3, p. 295-310.
  • “Macron admits to Franco-German splits on key issues” (2019). Euractiv, 26 April, https://www.euractiv.com/section/politics/news/macron-admits-to-franco-german-splits-on-key-issues/ (Accessed 12 May 2020).
  • Mahony, Honor (2003). “EU governments to tackle defence issues” EU Observer, 16 October, https://euobserver.com/news/13052 (Accessed 29 September 2020).
  • Majone, Giandomenico (2012). “Rethinking European Integration after the Debt Crisis”, UCL European Institute, https://www.ucl.ac.uk/drupal/site_european-institute/sites/european-institute/files/working- paperdebt-crisis.pdf (Accessed 04 October 2020).
  • Marcussen, Martin and Rocher, Klaus (2000). “The social construction of ‘Europe’: lifecycles of nation-state identities in France, Germany and Great Britain”, Bo Sträth (ed.), Europe and the other and Europe as the other, Brussels, Peter Lang, p. 325-359.
  • Mitchell, Ian and Anderson, Michael (28 October 2016). “Beyond Brexit: How will EU Overseas Development Assistance Be Affected?”, Center for Global Development, https://www.cgdev.org/blog/beyondbrexithow-will-eu-overseas-development-assistance-be-affected (Accessed 14 April 2020).
  • One Currency for One Europe: The road to the Euro (2007). European Commission, Bruxelles. https://ec.europa. eu/economy_finance/publications/pages/publication6730_en.pdf (Accessed 21 February 2021).
  • Pornschlegel, Sophie (13 January 2020) “Rebooting Franco-German cooperation”, European Policy Centre, https://www.epc.eu/en/Publications/Rebooting-Franco-German-cooperation~2e0540 (Accessed 11 October 2020).
  • Possible impacts of Brexit on EU development and humanitarian policies (2017). European Parliament, Bruxelles. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2017/578042/EXPO_STU(2017) 578042_EN.pdf (Accessed 04 October 2020).
  • President Macron interviewed by Le Grand Continent (2020). Ministère De L’Europe et des Affaires Étrangères, Paris. https://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/french-foreign-policy/news/article/president-macron-inter viewed-by-le-grand-continent-12-nov-2020 (Accessed 12 December 2020).
  • Puglierin, Jana and Franke, Ulrike Esther (2020). “The big engine that might: How France and Germany can build a geopolitical Europe”, European Council on Foreign Relations, 14 July, https://www.ecfr.eu/ publications/summary/the_big_engine_that_might_how_france_and_germany_can_build_a_ geopolitical_e (Accessed 23 October 2020).
  • Rutten, Maartje (2001). “From St.Malo to Nice- European defence: core documents”, Institute for Security Studies, https://www.iss.europa.eu/sites/default/files/EUISSFiles/cp047e.pdf , p. 8 (Accessed 29 September 2020).
  • Sanders, Lewis (2018). “How France’s Emmanuel Macron wants to reform the EU”, Deutsche Welle, 16 March, https://www.dw.com/en/how-frances-emmanuel-macron-wants-to-reform-the-eu/a-43002078 (Accessed 9 October 2020).
  • Santopinto, Federico and Price, Megan (2013). “Conclusion”, Federico Santopinto and Megan Price (eds.). National Visions of EU Defence Policy: Common Denominators and Misunderstandings. Brussels, CEPS, p. 149.
  • Sauerbrey, Anna (2016). “After Brexit Can Germany Lead Europe Alone?”, The New York Times, 4 July, https:// www.nytimes.com/2016/07/05/opinion/after-brexit-can-germany-lead-europe-alone.html (Accessed 16 May 2020).
  • Schimmelfenning, Frank (2014). “EU enlargement and differentiated integration: discrimination or equal treatment?”, Journal of European Public Policy, Vol. 21, No. 5, p. 681-698.
  • Second Keynote Speech by German Federal Minister of Defence (2020). Federal Ministry of Defence, Berlin. https://www.bmvg.de/en/news/second-keynote-speech-german-minister-of-defence-akk-4503976 (Accessed 21 February 2021).
  • Special European Council (Art. 50) (10 April 2019). Council of the European Union, Bruxelles. https://www. consilium.europa.eu/en/meetings/european-council/2019/04/10/ (Accessed 21 February 2021).
  • Speech by M. Emmanuel Macron, President of the Republic, on receiving the Charlemagne Prize (2018). Présidence De La République, Paris. https://www.elysee.fr/emmanuel-macron/2018/05/10/speech-by-memmanuel-macron-president-of-the-republic-on-receiving-the-charlemagne-prize-1.en (Accessed 21 February 2021).
  • Suess, Juliana (2019). “Policy Brief: The UK’s Policy Towards Africa post-Brexit”, Policy Center for the New South, https://www.policycenter.ma/sites/default/files/PCNS-PB1719.pdf (Accessed 11 May 2020).
  • Tardy, Thierry (2018) “Does European Defence Really Matter? Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Common Security and Defence Policy”, European Security, Vol. 27, No. 2, p. 119–137.
  • Tekin, Beyza C. (2008). “France and European Integration: An Uneasy Relationship”, Istanbul Ticaret Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, Vol. 7, No. 13, p.131-146.
  • The EEC and Britain’s late entry. The National Archives, https://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/cabinetpapers/ themes/eec-britains-late-entry.htm (Accessed 23 December 2020).
  • The Franco-German relationship in the European Union (2015). European Parliament, Bruxelles. https:// www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2015/568359/EPRS_BRI(2015)568359_EN.pdf (Accessed 11 October 2020).
  • The New European Consensus on Development: Our World, Our Dignity, Our Future (2017). European Commission, Bruxelles. https://ec.europa.eu/international-partnerships/system/files/european-consensus-ondevelopment-final-20170626_en.pdf (Accessed 4 October 2020).
  • The Treaty of Rome (1957). European Parliament, Bruxelles. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/aboutparliament/en/in-the-past/the-parliament-and-the-treaties/treaty-of-rome (Accessed 18 December 2020).
  • Treaty on European Union (2016). EUR-Lex, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex%3A 12016M002 (Accessed 02 October 2020).
  • UK Mission to the United Nations (New York). GOV.UK, https://www.gov.uk/world/uk-mission-to-the-unitednations-new-york (Accessed 21 February 2021).
  • UK-France Defence Cooperation Treaty Announced (2 November 2010). GOV.UK, London. https://www.gov. uk/government/news/uk-france-defence-co-operation-treaty-announced--2 (Accessed 12 December 2020).
  • “UK-EU Future Relationship: defence and security cooperation” (2020). Institute for Government, https://www. instituteforgovernment.org.uk/explainers/future-relationship-defence-security-cooperation (Accessed 11 March 2020).
  • Van Dorpe, Simon (2020). “EU’s Franco-German axis will stutter without Brits, says Vestager”, Politico, 31 January, https://www.politico.eu/article/eus-franco-german-axis-will-stutter-without-the-brits-saysvestager/ (Accessed 23 May 2020).
  • Walt, Stephen M. (2020). “Europe’s Post-Brexit Future is Looking Scary”, Foreign Policy, 6 February, https:// foreignpolicy.com/2020/02/06/europes-post-brexit-future-is-looking-scary/ (Accessed 18 April 2020).
  • Zalan, Eszter (2016). “Germany reluctant to lead Europe in case of Brexit”, EUObserver, 23 June, https:// euobserver.com/political/133946 (Accessed 18 May 2020).

Brexit Sonrası Avrupa Birliğinde Alman-Fransız Rekabeti

Yıl 2021, Cilt 18, Sayı 71, 129 - 149, 26.10.2021
https://doi.org/10.33458/uidergisi.947537

Öz

İkinci Dünya Savaşı’ndan sonra Avrupa’nın istikrarının temellerinden birini Birleşik Krallık’ın, Fransa ve Almanya arasındaki güç dengesi oluşturmaktaydı. Birleşik Krallık’ın 1973’te Avrupa Toplulukları’na (AT) katılması, söz konusu dengeyi, AT’nin kurumsal çerçevesi içine taşımıştı. Bu bağlamda, Britanya’nın Birlikten ayrılması Avrupa Birliği’nin (AB) merkezinde siyasi ve finansal anlamda büyük boşluklar oluşmasına yol açabilir. Brexit gerçekleşirken, Birliğe hangi ülkenin / ülkelerin yön vereceği sorusu etrafında bir gerilimin ve güç dengesizliği endişesinin işaretleri ortaya çıkmaktadır. Britanya’nın AB’den ayrılmasının, Almanya ve Fransa arasındaki farkları açığa çıkaracağı şeklinde yorumlar yapılmaktadır. Brexit sonrası dönemde AB’nin geleceğine ilişkin; Fransız liderliği, Alman liderliği ve Fransız-Alman ortaklığı şeklinde ifade edilebilecek üç ana senaryonun öne çıkabileceği tartışılmaktadır.

Kaynakça

  • Ahmari, Sohrab (2020). “Two losses for trans-Atlantic twits: Brexit finally happens, impeachment collapses”, New York Post, 30 January, https://nypost.com/2020/01/30/two-losses-for-transatlantic-twits-brexitfinally-happens-impeachment-collapses/ (Accessed 12 May 2020).
  • Baczynska, Gabriela (2020). “Missing you already - how Brexit tilts EU political alliances”, Reuters, 20 January, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu-dynamics/missing-you-already-how-brexit-tilts-eupolitical-alliances-idUSKBN1ZR1BM (Accessed 14 May 2020).
  • Balfour, Rosa (2020). “The European Union after Brexit: reform or shrivel”, Encompass, https://encompasseurope.com/comment/the-european-union-after-brexit-reform-or-shrivel, (Accessed 12 May 2020).
  • Balmer, Crispian (2010). “Economic governance divides France and Germany”, Reuters, 19 May, https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-france-germany-governance-analysis/economic-governance-divides-franceand-germany-idUKTRE64I5X620100519 (Accessed 8 October 2020).
  • Bechev, Dimitar (2019). “Did Macron kill the EU enlargement dream?”, Al Jazeera, 23 October, https://www.aljazeera.com/opinions/2019/10/23/did-macron-kill-the-eu-enlargement-dream (Accessed 14 December 2020).
  • Billon-Galland, Alice and Quencez, Martin (2017). “Can France and Germany Make PESCO Work as a Process Toward EU Defence?”, The German Marshall Fund of the United States, p. 2.
  • Boffey, Daniel (2020). “EU summit collapses as leaders struggle to fill € 75 bn Brexit hole”, The Guardian, 21 February, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/feb/21/eu-leaders-at-odds-over-filling-brexitshortfall (Accessed 18 May 2020).
  • Bosotti, Aurora (2019). “Brexit to Shatter Franco-German alliance as sparks fly between Merkel and Macron”, Express, 27 November, https://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/1209811/Brexit-news-UK-common-EUbudget-Germany-France-Angela-Merkel-Emmanuel-Macron-latest (Accessed 14 May 2020).
  • Bosotti, Aurora (2019). “EU on the Brink? Brexit to worsen ‘Critical Tension’ between France and Germany”, Express, 10 May, https://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/1124897/Brexit-news-France-Germanyeurozone-UK-EU-withdrawal-Theresa-May-deal-latest (Accessed 23 May 2020).
  • Brattberg, Erik, Brudzińska, Kinga and Bernardo Pires De Lima (25 March 2020). “Contending European Views on a New Post-Brexit Balance”, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, https://carnegieendowment.org/2020/03/25/contending-european-views-on-new-post-brexit-balance-pub-81354 (Accessed 14 May 2020).
  • Brexit: Common Security and Defence Policy Missions and Operations (2018). United Kingdom Parliament, London. https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201719/ldselect/ldeucom/132/132.pdf (Accessed 11 March 2020).
  • Brexit: Impact Across Policy Areas (2016). United Kingdom Parliament, London. https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/research-briefings/cbp-7213/ Accessed (21 December 2020).
  • “Brexit brief: How others see it” (2016). Economist, 30 April, https://www.economist.com/britain/2016/04/30/how-others-see-it (Accessed 21 February 2021).
  • “Brexit: the impact on the UK and the EU” (2015). Global Counsel, https://brexit.hypotheses.org/files/2017/01/Global-Counsel_Impact_of_Brexit.pdf (Accessed 08 December 2020).
  • Brozowski, Alexandra (15 February 2020). “In Munich, Macron presents EU reform as answer to ‘weakening West’”, EURACTIV, https://www.euractiv.com/section/future-eu/news/in-munich-macron-presentseu-reform-as-answer-to-weakening-west/ (Accessed 15 December 2020).
  • Bulmer, Simon (2018). “Germany and the European Union: Post-Brexit Hegemon”, Insight Turkey, Vol. 20, No.3, p. 11-28.
  • Bulmer, Simon and Paterson, William E. (2013). “Germany as the EU’s reluctant hegemon? Of economic strength and political constraints”, Journal of European Public Policy, Vol. 20, No. 10, p. 1387-1405.
  • Bulmer, Simon and Paterson, William E. (2019). German Power and the European Union: Europe’s reluctant hegemon?. London, Red Globe Press, p.118.
  • Chazan, Guy, Barker, Alex and Mallet, Victor (2019). “Brexit pressures expose cracks in Franco-German relationship”, Financial Times, 11 April, https://www.ft.com/content/78f8f660-5c45-11e9-9dde7aedca0a081a (Accessed 14 May 2020).
  • Chrisafis, Angelique (2019). “Macron criticized by US and Germany over NATO ‘brain death’ claims”, The Guardian, 7 November, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/nov/07/macron-warns-of-natobrain-death-as-us-turns-its-back-on-allies (Accessed 12 December 2020).
  • Cole, Alistair and Drake, Helen (2000). “The Europeanization of the French polity: continuity, change and adaptation”, Journal of European Public Policy, Vol. 7, No. 1, p. 26- 43.
  • Cole, Alistair (2001). Franco-German relations. New York, Routledge, pp. 115, 116.
  • Common Foreign and Security Policy, EUR-Lex, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=LEGISSUM:a19000&from=DE (Accessed 21 February 2021).
  • Common Security and Defence Policy Missions, United Kingdm Parliament, London. https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201516/ldselect/ldeucom/97/9714.htm#_idTextAnchor149 (Accessed 12 December 2020).
  • Connolly, Kate (2017). “German election: Merkel wins fourth term but far-right Afd surges to third”, The Guardian, 24 September, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/sep/24/angela-merkel-fourthterm-far-right-afd-third-german-election (Accessed 12 December 2020).
  • DCI-the EU’s financing instrument for development cooperation (2014-20). EUR-Lex, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/ legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=LEGISSUM:110102_1 (Accessed 03 October 2020).
  • Discours Du Président De La République Emmanuel Macron À La Conférence des Ambassadeurs Et Des Ambassadrices De 2019 (2019). Présidence de la République, Paris. https://www.elysee.fr/emmanuelmacron/2019/08/27/discours-du-president-de-la-republique-a-la-conference-des-ambassadeurs-1 (Accessed 21 February 2021).
  • “Emmanuel Macron warns Europe: NATO is becoming brain-dead” (2019). The Economist, 7 November, https://www.economist.com/europe/2019/11/07/emmanuel-macron-warns-europe-nato-isbecoming-brain-dead (Accessed 23 December 2020).
  • Erlanger, Steven (2019). “Macron Steps Into a Leadership Vacuum in Europe, and on Some Toes”, The New York Times, 1 November, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/11/01/world/europe/macron-france-eu.html, (Accessed 20 February 2021).
  • Erlanger, Steven (2019). “Merkel and Macron Publicly Clash Over NATO”, The New York Times”, 23 November, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/11/23/world/europe/nato-france-germany.html (Accessed 12 December 2020).
  • Erlanger, Steven (2020). “A Texas-Size Defeat for the EU: Brexit is Here”, The New York Times, 29 January, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/29/world/europe/brexit-brussels-eu.html (Accessed 24 May 2020).
  • Europe in the World: Towards a More Effective EU Foreign and Security Strategy (2016). Appendix 5, Table 2, House of Lords European Union Committee, United Kingdom Parliament, London. pp. 81–84.
  • “For the EU’s economy, Brexit is like the EU28 becoming the EU10” (2019). Facts4EU, https://facts4eu.org/ news/2019_apr_eu28_to_eu10 (Accessed 02 October 2020).
  • Funabashi, Yoichi (2020). “The post-Brexit ‘German Question’”, The Japan Times, 10 February, https:// www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2020/02/10/commentary/world-commentary/post-brexit-germanquestion/#.Xu-vdy2xvBJ (Accessed 12 May 2020).
  • “Germany Current Account Balance”, CEIC, https://www.ceicdata.com/en/indicator/germany/currentaccount-balance--of-nominal-gdp#:~:text=Germany’s%20Current%20Account%20surplus%20accounted,surplus%20in%20the%20previous%20quarter (Accessed 11 May 2020).
  • “Germany Population”, Worldometer, https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/germany-population/ (Accessed 12 May 2020).
  • Gowan, Richard (2018). “Separation anxiety: European influence at the UN after Brexit, European Council on Foreign Relations, 8 May, https://ecfr.eu/publication/separation_anxiety_european_influence_at_the_un_after_brexit/ (Accessed 22 December 2020).
  • Gurzu, Anca (2019). “France and Germany split over Nord Stream 2 pipeline”, Politico, 7 February, https://www. politico.eu/article/france-and-germany-split-over-nord-stream-2-pipeline-russian-gas-regulation/.
  • Henley, Jon (2016). “Would Brexit trigger a domino effect in Europe?”, The Guardian, 10 June, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jun/10/brexit-domino-effect-europe-eu-referendum-uk (Accessed 14 April 2020).
  • Henley, Jon (2020). “Can Merkel and Macron get Franco-German relations back on track?”, The Guardian, 2 January, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jan/02/can-merkel-and-macron-get-francogerman-relations-back-on-track (Accessed 18 December 2020).
  • James, Harold (2012). Making the European Monetary Union: The Role of the Committee of Central Bank Governors and the Origins of the European Central Bank, Cambridge MA, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
  • Kauffmann, Sylvie (2019). “Macron Puts Germany on Trial”, The New York Times, 7 May, https://www.nytimes. com/2019/05/07/opinion/macron-puts-germany-on-trial.html (Accessed 6 October 2020).
  • Keohane, Daniel (2017). “Macron’s European Defence Doctrine”, Carnegie Europe, https://carnegieeurope.eu/ strategiceurope/73246 (Accessed 6 October 2020).
  • Kroll, Daniela Annette and Leuffen, Dirk (2016). “Ties that bind, can also strangle: the Brexit threat and the hardships of reforming the EU”, Journal of European Public Policy, Vol. 23, No. 9, p.1311-1320.
  • Krotz, Ulrich and Schild, Joachim (2018). “Back to the future? Franco-German bilateralism in Europe’s postBrexit union”, Journal of European Public Policy, Vol. 25, No. 8, p. 1174-1193.
  • Kugiel, Patryk (2017). “End of European Soft Power? Implications for EU Foreign Policy”, The Polish Quarterly of International Affairs, Vol. 1, p. 59-72.
  • Ladrech, Robert (2001). “Europeanization and French social democracy”, Journal of Southern Europe and the Balkans, Vol. 3, No. 1, p. 37-47.
  • Lees, Charles (2018). “The ‘Alterative for Germany’: The rise of right-wing populism at the heart of Europe”, Politics, Vol. 38, No 3, p. 295-310.
  • “Macron admits to Franco-German splits on key issues” (2019). Euractiv, 26 April, https://www.euractiv.com/section/politics/news/macron-admits-to-franco-german-splits-on-key-issues/ (Accessed 12 May 2020).
  • Mahony, Honor (2003). “EU governments to tackle defence issues” EU Observer, 16 October, https://euobserver.com/news/13052 (Accessed 29 September 2020).
  • Majone, Giandomenico (2012). “Rethinking European Integration after the Debt Crisis”, UCL European Institute, https://www.ucl.ac.uk/drupal/site_european-institute/sites/european-institute/files/working- paperdebt-crisis.pdf (Accessed 04 October 2020).
  • Marcussen, Martin and Rocher, Klaus (2000). “The social construction of ‘Europe’: lifecycles of nation-state identities in France, Germany and Great Britain”, Bo Sträth (ed.), Europe and the other and Europe as the other, Brussels, Peter Lang, p. 325-359.
  • Mitchell, Ian and Anderson, Michael (28 October 2016). “Beyond Brexit: How will EU Overseas Development Assistance Be Affected?”, Center for Global Development, https://www.cgdev.org/blog/beyondbrexithow-will-eu-overseas-development-assistance-be-affected (Accessed 14 April 2020).
  • One Currency for One Europe: The road to the Euro (2007). European Commission, Bruxelles. https://ec.europa. eu/economy_finance/publications/pages/publication6730_en.pdf (Accessed 21 February 2021).
  • Pornschlegel, Sophie (13 January 2020) “Rebooting Franco-German cooperation”, European Policy Centre, https://www.epc.eu/en/Publications/Rebooting-Franco-German-cooperation~2e0540 (Accessed 11 October 2020).
  • Possible impacts of Brexit on EU development and humanitarian policies (2017). European Parliament, Bruxelles. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2017/578042/EXPO_STU(2017) 578042_EN.pdf (Accessed 04 October 2020).
  • President Macron interviewed by Le Grand Continent (2020). Ministère De L’Europe et des Affaires Étrangères, Paris. https://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/french-foreign-policy/news/article/president-macron-inter viewed-by-le-grand-continent-12-nov-2020 (Accessed 12 December 2020).
  • Puglierin, Jana and Franke, Ulrike Esther (2020). “The big engine that might: How France and Germany can build a geopolitical Europe”, European Council on Foreign Relations, 14 July, https://www.ecfr.eu/ publications/summary/the_big_engine_that_might_how_france_and_germany_can_build_a_ geopolitical_e (Accessed 23 October 2020).
  • Rutten, Maartje (2001). “From St.Malo to Nice- European defence: core documents”, Institute for Security Studies, https://www.iss.europa.eu/sites/default/files/EUISSFiles/cp047e.pdf , p. 8 (Accessed 29 September 2020).
  • Sanders, Lewis (2018). “How France’s Emmanuel Macron wants to reform the EU”, Deutsche Welle, 16 March, https://www.dw.com/en/how-frances-emmanuel-macron-wants-to-reform-the-eu/a-43002078 (Accessed 9 October 2020).
  • Santopinto, Federico and Price, Megan (2013). “Conclusion”, Federico Santopinto and Megan Price (eds.). National Visions of EU Defence Policy: Common Denominators and Misunderstandings. Brussels, CEPS, p. 149.
  • Sauerbrey, Anna (2016). “After Brexit Can Germany Lead Europe Alone?”, The New York Times, 4 July, https:// www.nytimes.com/2016/07/05/opinion/after-brexit-can-germany-lead-europe-alone.html (Accessed 16 May 2020).
  • Schimmelfenning, Frank (2014). “EU enlargement and differentiated integration: discrimination or equal treatment?”, Journal of European Public Policy, Vol. 21, No. 5, p. 681-698.
  • Second Keynote Speech by German Federal Minister of Defence (2020). Federal Ministry of Defence, Berlin. https://www.bmvg.de/en/news/second-keynote-speech-german-minister-of-defence-akk-4503976 (Accessed 21 February 2021).
  • Special European Council (Art. 50) (10 April 2019). Council of the European Union, Bruxelles. https://www. consilium.europa.eu/en/meetings/european-council/2019/04/10/ (Accessed 21 February 2021).
  • Speech by M. Emmanuel Macron, President of the Republic, on receiving the Charlemagne Prize (2018). Présidence De La République, Paris. https://www.elysee.fr/emmanuel-macron/2018/05/10/speech-by-memmanuel-macron-president-of-the-republic-on-receiving-the-charlemagne-prize-1.en (Accessed 21 February 2021).
  • Suess, Juliana (2019). “Policy Brief: The UK’s Policy Towards Africa post-Brexit”, Policy Center for the New South, https://www.policycenter.ma/sites/default/files/PCNS-PB1719.pdf (Accessed 11 May 2020).
  • Tardy, Thierry (2018) “Does European Defence Really Matter? Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Common Security and Defence Policy”, European Security, Vol. 27, No. 2, p. 119–137.
  • Tekin, Beyza C. (2008). “France and European Integration: An Uneasy Relationship”, Istanbul Ticaret Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, Vol. 7, No. 13, p.131-146.
  • The EEC and Britain’s late entry. The National Archives, https://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/cabinetpapers/ themes/eec-britains-late-entry.htm (Accessed 23 December 2020).
  • The Franco-German relationship in the European Union (2015). European Parliament, Bruxelles. https:// www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2015/568359/EPRS_BRI(2015)568359_EN.pdf (Accessed 11 October 2020).
  • The New European Consensus on Development: Our World, Our Dignity, Our Future (2017). European Commission, Bruxelles. https://ec.europa.eu/international-partnerships/system/files/european-consensus-ondevelopment-final-20170626_en.pdf (Accessed 4 October 2020).
  • The Treaty of Rome (1957). European Parliament, Bruxelles. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/aboutparliament/en/in-the-past/the-parliament-and-the-treaties/treaty-of-rome (Accessed 18 December 2020).
  • Treaty on European Union (2016). EUR-Lex, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex%3A 12016M002 (Accessed 02 October 2020).
  • UK Mission to the United Nations (New York). GOV.UK, https://www.gov.uk/world/uk-mission-to-the-unitednations-new-york (Accessed 21 February 2021).
  • UK-France Defence Cooperation Treaty Announced (2 November 2010). GOV.UK, London. https://www.gov. uk/government/news/uk-france-defence-co-operation-treaty-announced--2 (Accessed 12 December 2020).
  • “UK-EU Future Relationship: defence and security cooperation” (2020). Institute for Government, https://www. instituteforgovernment.org.uk/explainers/future-relationship-defence-security-cooperation (Accessed 11 March 2020).
  • Van Dorpe, Simon (2020). “EU’s Franco-German axis will stutter without Brits, says Vestager”, Politico, 31 January, https://www.politico.eu/article/eus-franco-german-axis-will-stutter-without-the-brits-saysvestager/ (Accessed 23 May 2020).
  • Walt, Stephen M. (2020). “Europe’s Post-Brexit Future is Looking Scary”, Foreign Policy, 6 February, https:// foreignpolicy.com/2020/02/06/europes-post-brexit-future-is-looking-scary/ (Accessed 18 April 2020).
  • Zalan, Eszter (2016). “Germany reluctant to lead Europe in case of Brexit”, EUObserver, 23 June, https:// euobserver.com/political/133946 (Accessed 18 May 2020).

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Çağatay ÖZDEMİR Bu kişi benim
ALTINBAS UNIVERSITY
0000-0001-9477-9761
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 26 Ekim 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 18, Sayı 71

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { uidergisi947537, journal = {Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi}, issn = {1304-7310}, eissn = {1304-7175}, address = {Kadir Has Üniversitesi, Cibali Kampüsü, Beyaz Ev, Oda No: 13, 34083}, publisher = {Uluslararası İlişkiler Konseyi Derneği İktisadi İşletmesi}, year = {2021}, volume = {18}, number = {71}, pages = {129 - 149}, doi = {10.33458/uidergisi.947537}, title = {The Franco-German Rivalry in the Post-Brexit European Union}, key = {cite}, author = {Özdemir, Çağatay} }
APA Özdemir, Ç. (2021). The Franco-German Rivalry in the Post-Brexit European Union . Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi , 18 (71) , 129-149 . DOI: 10.33458/uidergisi.947537
MLA Özdemir, Ç. "The Franco-German Rivalry in the Post-Brexit European Union" . Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi 18 (2021 ): 129-149 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/uidergisi/issue/66065/947537>
Chicago Özdemir, Ç. "The Franco-German Rivalry in the Post-Brexit European Union". Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi 18 (2021 ): 129-149
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The Franco-German Rivalry in the Post-Brexit European Union AU - Çağatay Özdemir Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.33458/uidergisi.947537 DO - 10.33458/uidergisi.947537 T2 - Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 129 EP - 149 VL - 18 IS - 71 SN - 1304-7310-1304-7175 M3 - doi: 10.33458/uidergisi.947537 UR - https://doi.org/10.33458/uidergisi.947537 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi The Franco-German Rivalry in the Post-Brexit European Union %A Çağatay Özdemir %T The Franco-German Rivalry in the Post-Brexit European Union %D 2021 %J Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi %P 1304-7310-1304-7175 %V 18 %N 71 %R doi: 10.33458/uidergisi.947537 %U 10.33458/uidergisi.947537
ISNAD Özdemir, Çağatay . "The Franco-German Rivalry in the Post-Brexit European Union". Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi 18 / 71 (Ekim 2021): 129-149 . https://doi.org/10.33458/uidergisi.947537
AMA Özdemir Ç. The Franco-German Rivalry in the Post-Brexit European Union. Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi. 2021; 18(71): 129-149.
Vancouver Özdemir Ç. The Franco-German Rivalry in the Post-Brexit European Union. Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi. 2021; 18(71): 129-149.
IEEE Ç. Özdemir , "The Franco-German Rivalry in the Post-Brexit European Union", Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi, c. 18, sayı. 71, ss. 129-149, Eki. 2021, doi:10.33458/uidergisi.947537