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HALK SAĞLIĞI AÇISINDAN ÖNEMLİ GIDA KAYNAKLI VİRAL ETKENLER

Yıl 2022, Cilt 13, Sayı 1, 11 - 25, 30.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.38137/vftd.1056066

Öz

Son yıllarda gıda kaynaklı viral enfeksiyonlar artan bir önem kazanmaktadır. Bu derleme çalışması, gıda kaynaklı virüsler ile ilgili literatür ve bulgular hakkında bir güncelleme sağlamaktadır. Virüsler düşük enfeksiyon dozuna sahip olan stabil ve enfektivite kaybı olmaksızın gıdalarda uzun süre kalabilen zorunlu hücre içi mikroorganizmalardır. Bu nedenle gıdalar viral etkenlerin insanlara bulaşmasında vektör durumundadır. Mide asiditesi, bağırsak enzimleri ile alkali şartlar ve konakçı savunma sistemi gibi olumsuz koşullarda canlılıklarını sürdürebilirler. İnsan norovirüsü (HuNoV), insan rota virüsü (HRV), hepatit A virüsü (HAV), hepatit E virüsü (HEV), insan astrovirüsü (HAstV), Aichi virüsü (AiV), sapovirüs (SaV), insan adenovirüsü HAdV) ve enterovirüs (EV) halk sağlığı açısından gıda kaynaklı en önemli viral etkenler olarak bilinmektedir. Ayrıca, bulaşıcı kuş gribi virüsü (H5N1) ve Nipah virüsü (NiV) hem insan hem de hayvanlarda son yıllarda ciddi hastalık nedeni olarak görülen önemli zoonoz etkenlerdir. Gıda kaynaklı viral enfeksiyonlarda bulaşma esas olarak, fekal-oral yolla olmaktadır. Dışkı ile kontamine sulardan avlanan kabuklu deniz ürünleri başta olmak üzere bazı gıdalar veya su viral etkenlerin potansiyel kaynağını oluşturmaktadır. Diğer taraftan enfekte personel tarafından hazırlanan çiğ veya yeterince pişirilmeden tüketilen ya da pişirildikten sonra kontamine olan gıdalar da önemli bulaşma kaynağıdır. Günümüzde gıda kaynaklı viral etkenlerin tespitinde PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) temelli yöntemler yaygın olarak kullanılmaktadır. Virüslerin kontrolünde gıda maddelerine uygulanan soğutma ve dondurma işlemlerinin haricinde son dönemlerde yüksek basınçlı işleme (HPP: High pressure processing), soğuk plazma (CP: Cold plasma), ultraviyole ışık (UV: Ultraviolet light), ışınlama ve darbeli elektrik alanı (PEF: Pulsed electric field) gibi termal olmayan teknolojik gıda işleme yöntemlerinin kullanımı da önem kazanmaktadır.

Kaynakça

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  • Balada-Llasat, J. M., Rosenthal, N., Hasbun, R., Zimmer, L., Bozzette, S., Duff, S., Chung, J. & Ginocchio, C. C. (2019). Cost of managing meningitis and encephalitis among infants and children in the United States. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 93 (4), 349-354.
  • Banerjee, A., De, P., Manna, B. & Chawla-Sarkar, M. (2017). Molecular characterization of enteric adenovirus genotypes 40 and 41 identified in children with acute gastroenteritis in Kolkata, India during 2013–2014. J Med Virol, 89 (4), 606-614.
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IMPORTANT FOODBORNE VIRAL AGENTS IN TERMS OF PUBLIC HEALTH

Yıl 2022, Cilt 13, Sayı 1, 11 - 25, 30.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.38137/vftd.1056066

Öz

In recent years, foodborne viral infections have acquired increasing importance. This study will provide an update on the literature and findings related to foodborne viruses. Viruses are obligate intracellular microorganisms that have a low infection dose, stable, and can remain in foods for a long time without loss of infectivity. For this reason, foods are vectors for the transmission of viral agents to humans. They can survive in adverse conditions such as stomach acidity, intestinal enzymes, alkaline conditions, and host defense system. Human norovirus (HuNoV), human rotavirus (HRV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis E virus (HEV), human astrovirus (HAstV), Aichi virus (AiV), sapovirus (SaV), human adenovirus HAdV), and enterovirus (EV) are known as the most important viral agents of food origin in terms of public health. In addition, infectious avian influenza virus (H5N1) and Nipah virus (NiV) are important zoonotic agents that have been seen as the cause of serious disease in both humans and animals in recent years. In foodborne viral infections, transmission is mainly by the fecal-oral route. Some foods or water, especially shellfish caught from waters contaminated with feces, are potential sources of viral agents. On the other hand, raw or uncooked food prepared by infected personnel or contaminated after cooking is also an important source of contamination. Nowadays, PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)-based methods are widely used in the detection of food-borne viral agents. Apart from the cooling and freezing processes applied to foodstuffs in the control of viruses. In recent years, non-thermal technological food processing methods such as high pressure processing (HPP: High pressure processing), cold plasma (CP: Cold plasma), ultraviolet light (UV: Ultraviolet light), irradiation, and pulsed electric field (PEF: Pulsed electric field) usage is also gaining importance.

Kaynakça

  • Bachofen, C. (2018). Selected Viruses Detected on and in our Food. Curr Clin Microbiol Rep, 5 (2), 143-153.
  • Baert, L., Mattison, K., Loisy-Hamon, F., Harlow, J., Martyres, A., Lebeau, B., Stals, A., Van Coillie, E., Herman, L. & Uyttendaele, M. (2011). Review: Norovirus prevalence in Belgian, Canadian and French fresh produce: A threat to human health? Int J Food Microbiol, 151 (3), 261-269.
  • Balada-Llasat, J. M., Rosenthal, N., Hasbun, R., Zimmer, L., Bozzette, S., Duff, S., Chung, J. & Ginocchio, C. C. (2019). Cost of managing meningitis and encephalitis among infants and children in the United States. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 93 (4), 349-354.
  • Banerjee, A., De, P., Manna, B. & Chawla-Sarkar, M. (2017). Molecular characterization of enteric adenovirus genotypes 40 and 41 identified in children with acute gastroenteritis in Kolkata, India during 2013–2014. J Med Virol, 89 (4), 606-614.
  • Beigel, J. H., Farrar, J., Han. A. M., Hayden, F. G., Hyer, R., De Jong, M., Lochindarat, S., Nguyen, T. K. T., Nguyen, T. H., Tran, T. H., Nicoll, A., Touch, S. & Yuen, K. Y. (2005). Avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in humans. N Engl J Med, 353 (13), 1374-1385.
  • Bosch, A., Pinto, R. M. & Guix, S. (2016). Foodborne viruses. Curr Opin Food Sci, 2016, 8, 110-119.
  • Bosch, A., Gkogka, E., Le Guyader, F. S., Loisy-Hamon, F., Lee, A., van Lieshout, L., Marthi, B., Myrmel, M., Sansom, A., Schultz, A. C., Winkler, A., Zuber, S. & Phister, T. (2018). Foodborne viruses: Detection, risk assessment, and control options in food processing. Int J Food Microbiol, 285, 110-128.
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Veteriner Hekimlik
Bölüm Derleme
Yazarlar

Ömer ÇAKMAK> (Sorumlu Yazar)
İSTANBUL ESENYURT ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-7898-1764
Türkiye


Ulaş ACARÖZ>
AFYON KOCATEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-1533-4519
Türkiye


Hüseyin GÜN>
İSTANBUL ESENYURT ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-1879-4414
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Nisan 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 13, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Çakmak, Ö. , Acaröz, U. & Gün, H. (2022). HALK SAĞLIĞI AÇISINDAN ÖNEMLİ GIDA KAYNAKLI VİRAL ETKENLER . Veteriner Farmakoloji ve Toksikoloji Derneği Bülteni , 13 (1) , 11-25 . DOI: 10.38137/vftd.1056066