Yıl 2019, Cilt 5 , Sayı 1, Sayfalar 85 - 102 2019-10-23

FİRMA VE YÖNETİCİ ÖZELLİKLERİNE GÖRE İHRACAT PERFORMANS DÜZEYLERİNİN İNCELENMESİ: İSTANBUL İLİ İHRACATÇI FİRMALAR ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA

Mehmet SAĞLAM [1]


Uluslararası pazarda başarılı olmayı amaçlayan firmaların, sahip oldukları yetkinlik, bilgi birikimi ve tecrübelerini rekabet avantajı sağlama açısından kullanmaları önemlidir. Bilgi çağına geçişle birlikte firmalar için önemi artan entelektüel sermaye boyutlarından yapısal sermaye, insan sermayesi ve müşteri sermayesinin başarıya ulaşmada payı büyük olacaktır.

 

Yapısal sermaye açısından firma özelliklerinin, insan sermayesi açısından yönetici özelliklerinin ele alındığı bu çalışmada ihracat performansının firma ve yönetici özelliklerine göre farklılığı incelenmiştir. Kolayda örneklem yöntemiyle ulaşılabilen İstanbul’daki 249 ihracatçı firma yöneticisi çalışmanın örneklemini oluşturmaktadır. Veri analizinde SPSS 21 kullanılmıştır. Verilerin normal dağılıma uyması sonucu farklılık testleri için Anova ve t testlerine yer verilmiştir. Analiz sonucunda ihracat performans düzeylerinin firma büyüklüğü, deneyimi ve faaliyet gösterilen sektör ile yönetici eğitim durumu, yönetici kademesi ve yönetici deneyimine göre farklılaştığı belirlenmiştir. 

firma özellikleri, yönetici özellikleri, ihracat performansı
  • AABY, N.E. and SLATER, S.F. (1989), “Management Influences on Export Performance: A Review of the Empirical Literature 1978-88,” International Marketing Review, 6 (4), 7-26.
  • BAMIATZI, V., ÇAVUŞGİL, S., and JABBOUR, L. (2014). “Does business group affiliation help firms achieve superior performance during industrial downturns? An empirical examination”. International Business Review, 23(1), 195–211.
  • BARKER, A.T., and KAYNAK, E. (1992). “An empirical investigation of the difference between initiating and continuing exporters”. European Journal of Marketing, 19(2), 53-72.
  • BIÇAKÇIOĞLU, N. (2014). “The Interrelation Between Internal And External Factors, Adaptation Strategies And Export Performance In International Marketing: An Application On Clothing Industry”, Dokuz Eylül University Graduate School Of Social Sciences, Master’s Thesis, İzmir.
  • BÜYÜKÖZTÜRK, Ş. (2007). “Sosyal Bilimler İçin Veri Analizi El Kitabı”, Ankara, Pegem A Yayıncılık.
  • CALOF, J. (1994),”The Relationship Between Firm Size and Export Behavior Revisited,” Journal of International Business Studies, 25(2), 367-387.
  • CAN, E. (2012). “Uluslararası İşletmecilik”, 4. Baskı. İstanbul: Beta Basım Yayım Dağıtım A.Ş.
  • CHETTY, S.K. and HAMILTON, R.T. (1993), “Firm-Level Determinants of Export Performances: A Meta-Analysis”, International Marketing Review, 10 (3) 26-34.
  • ÇAVUŞGİL, T. S., and NEVIN, J, R. (1981), “Internal Determinants of Export Marketing Behavior. An Empirical Investigation," Journal o f Marketing Research, 18,114-119.
  • ÇAVUŞGİL, S. T, and ZOU, S. (1994). “Marketing Strategy–Performance Relationship: An Investigation of the Emprical Link in Export Market Ventures”, Journal of Marketing, 58,1-21.
  • DHANARAJ, C. and BEAMISH, P. W. (2003).”A Resource – Based Approach to the Study of Export Performance”, Journal of Small Business Management, 41(3), 242-261.
  • DIAMANTOPOULOS, A., and KAKKOS, N. (2007). “Managerial Assessments of Export Performance: Conceptual Framework and Empirical Illustration”, Journal of International Marketing, 15(3),1–31.
  • DURMUŞ, B., YURTKORU, E. S. ve Çinko, M. (2013). “Sosyal Bilimlerde SPSS’le Veri Analizi”, Beta Yayıncılık, 5. Baskı. İstanbul.
  • FIELD, A. (2009). “Discovering Statistics Using SPSS, Sage Publications”, London, 2009, 3rd Edition.
  • HABIB, M., and VICTOR, B. (1991), "Strategy, Structure, and Performance of US Manufacturing and Service MNCs: A Comparative Analysis,” Strategic Management Journal, 12, 589-606.
  • HAIR, J. F., BLACK, W. C., BABIN, B. J., ANDERSON, R. E. and TATHAM, R. L. (2009). “Multivariate Data Analysis”.7th Edition, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
  • HOLZMULLER, H, H. and HELMUT, K. (1990),“The Decision-Maker and Export Activity: A Cross-National Comparison of the Foreign Orientation of Austrian Managers”Management International Review, 30, 217-230.
  • JOHNSON, R A., and WICHERN, D. W., (2002), “Applied Multivariate Statistical Analysis”, Prentice-HallInc., New Jersey.
  • KALAYCI, Ş. (2005). “SPSS Uygulamalı Çok Değişkenli İstatistik Teknikleri”. Ankara: Asil Yayın Dağıtım.
  • KATSIKEAS, C.S., PIERCY, N.F. and IOANNIDIS, C. (1996): “Determinants of export performance in a European context”, European Journal of Marketing, 30(6), 6-35.
  • KAYNAK, E., and KUAN, W, K. (1993). “Government strategy, structure, and performance in the context of export activity: An empirical study of Taiwanese manufacturing firms”. Journal of Business Research, 27, 33-49.
  • KOH, A, C. (1991), "Relationship Among Organizational Characteristics, Marketing Strategy and Export Performance", International Marketing Review, 8(3), 46-60.
  • LAGES, L. F., and MELEWAR, T. C. (1999). “Determinants of Export Performance and Moderating Effects of Marketing Programme Adaptation: A Review, Conceptual Framework and Research Hypotheses”, Warwick Business School Research Papers, 317, 1 – 31.LEONIDOU, L. (2000). “Barriers To Export Management: An Organizational and Internationalization Analysis”, Journal of International Management, 6, 121–148.
  • LEONIDOU, L.C., KATSIKEAS, C. S. and SAMIEE (2002). “Marketing Strategy Determinants of Export Performance: a Meta-Analysis”, Journal of Business Research, 55(1),51-67.
  • LEONIDOU, L., KAMINARIDES, J. S. and HADJIMARCOU, J. (2004). An Analysis of U.S Small and Medium-Sized Manufacturers International Business Relationships, Thunderbird International Business Review, 46(5), 545-573.
  • LOANE, S., BELL, J., and MCNAUGHTON, R. (2007). “A cross-national study on the impact of management teams on the rapid internationalization of small firms”. Journal of World Business, 42(4), 489-504.
  • McKILLUP, S. (2012). “Statistics explained: An introductory guide for life scientists (Second edition)”. United States: Cambridge University Press.
  • MERTLER, C. A., and VANNATTA, R. A. (2005). “Advanced and multivariate statistical methods: Practical application and interpretation (third edition)”. United States: Pyrczak Publishing.
  • MILLER, D., and DROGE, C. (1986), “Psychological and Traditional Determinants of Structure," Administrative Science Quarterly, 31. 539-560.
  • NGANSATHIL, W. (2001). “Market Orientation and Business Performance: Empirical Evidence from Thailand”, Dissertation Thesis, The University of Melbourne.
  • NGUYEN, H, T, T. (2000). “The determinants of export marketing activities of small-and medium-sized manufacturing firms in Germany”. Unpublished DIBA dissertation, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale.
  • OGUNMOKUN, G. and NG, S. (2004), “Factors Influencing Export Performance in International Marketing: A Study of Australian Firms”, International Journal of Management, 21(2), 172-184.
  • ÖZCAN, M. (2000). “Uluslararası Pazarlama”, İstanbul, Türkmen Kitabevi, 1.Baskı.
  • PALMER, D., FRIEDLAND, R., JENNINGS, D., and POWERS, M. (1987), "The Economics and Politics of Structure: The Multidivisional Form and the Large US Corporation,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 32, 25-48.
  • PLOYHART, R. E., NYBERG, A. J., REILLY, G., and MALTARICH, M. A. (2014). “Human capital is dead; long live human capital resources!”, Journal of Management, 40(2), 371-398.
  • PORTER, M, E. (1990), “The Competitive Advantage of Nations”. New York: The Free Press.
  • SCHWALBACH, J. (1992),”Plant Size, Scale Economies and International Trade,”in Export Activity and Strategic Trade Policy, Horst Krager and Klaus F. Zimmemnann, eds.,. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 79-102.
  • SELEKLER, G. N., and YILDIRIM, Ö. Ö. (2008). “The impact of board characteristics on the internationalization of business group affiliates”. Boğaziçi Journal, 22(1), 53-71.
  • SHAPIRO, S. S., and WILK, M. B. (1965). “An analysis of variance test for normality (Complete samples)”. Biometrika, 52(3/4), 591-611.
  • SINGH, D. A. (2009). “Export performance of emerging market firms”. International Business Review, 18(4), 321-330.
  • SOUSA, C. M.P. (2004), “Export Performance Measurement: An Evaluation of the Empirical Research in the Literature”. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 9.
  • SOUSA, C.M., MARTINEZ, F.J. and COELHO, F. (2008). “The Determinants Of Export Performance: A Review Of The Research in The Literature between 1998 and 2005”, International Journal of Management Reviews, 10(4), 343–374.
  • TAVŞANCIL, E. (2005). “Tutumların Ölçülmesi ve SPSS İle Veri Analizi”. Ankara:Nobel Basımevi.
  • TEK, Ö. B. (1999). “Pazarlama İlkeleri: Global Yönetimsel Yaklaşım, Türkiye Uygulamaları”. 8. Basım. İstanbul: Beta Yayınları.
  • URSIC, M, L., and CZINKOTA, M, R. (1984),”An Experience Curve Explanation of Export Expansion,”Journal of Business Research, 12,159-168.
  • YILDIRIM, M. H. (2007). “Yurtdışına Yatırım Yapan Türk İşletmelerinde Örgüt Yapısı ve Karşılaşılan Sorunlar: İmalat Sektöründe Bir Araştırma”, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Ankara Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İşletme A.B.D.
  • ZOU, S., and STAN, S. (1998), “The Determinants of Export Performance: A Review of the Empirical Literature between 1987 and 1997”, International Marketing Review, 15(5), 333- 356.
  • ZOU, S., TAYLOR, C. and OSLAND, G. (1998). “The EXPERF Scale: A Cross-National Generalized Export Performance Measure”. Journal of International Marketing. 8(3): 17-38.
Birincil Dil tr
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Orcid: 0000-0002-1909-4284
Yazar: Mehmet SAĞLAM (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: İSTANBUL TİCARET ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İŞLETME FAKÜLTESİ, İŞLETME BÖLÜMÜ
Ülke: Turkey


Tarihler

Yayımlanma Tarihi : 23 Ekim 2019

APA Sağlam, M . (2019). FİRMA VE YÖNETİCİ ÖZELLİKLERİNE GÖRE İHRACAT PERFORMANS DÜZEYLERİNİN İNCELENMESİ: İSTANBUL İLİ İHRACATÇI FİRMALAR ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA . Yildiz Social Science Review , 5 (1) , 85-102 . DOI: 10.51803/yssr.507155