Volume: 5 Issue: 1, 7/1/22

Year: 2022

The purpose of the journal is to publish original articles, such as original, theoretical or research articles, review reports, case studies. The purpose of ABE is to create a clear and continuous platform for academics, researchers and practitioners to share their academic work.

ABE is a peer-reviewed, academic and international electronic journal and the language is English and Turkish. The journal includes articles, which cover any topic within the broad area of economics, accounting, business, entrepreneurship, labor economics, finance, marketing, tourism management, public administration, environmental and ecological management, disaster management, planning (relation with administrative, managerial and environmental processes).

Title Page

The title (cover) page must contain the following information:

  •       The title of the manuscript
  •       The name and academic titles of the author(s)
  •       Institutional affiliation(s) of the author(s)
  •       Full contact information of author(s) (address, phone, e-mail etc…)

The title of the manuscript should be written in bold (first letters in capital letters) and in the centre of the page. Also name and contact information (address, phone numbers, e-mail etc..) of author(s) should be written in the centre of the page.

When the authors include more than one researcher, a person responsible for correspondence with the Editorial Board of the Journal should be indicated. If corresponding author is not indicated, the Editorial Board will contact with the author who submitted the manuscript to the Journal.

First Page

The first page of the text should begin with the title only, without the author's name. Manuscript should include an abstract in Turkish and in English. The abstracts should concisely present the aim or the purpose of the study, the methodology, the results, and the conclusion remarks. The length of each abstract should be minimum 150 words and maximum 250 words.

After the abstract provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using British English spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

Body for the Manuscript

You must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Preferred format for the text and tables of your manuscript is Word document (.doc). Figures may be provided in .tiff, .jpg or .eps format.

The manuscript file includes the parts of the study. No author’s details should be present within this file. A manuscript submitted to the Journal should include the following parts:

  •        Title
  •       Abstract, keywords
  •        Introduction
  •        Main text
  •        Conclusions
  •        Footnotes and Endnotes (if there is any
  •        References
  •        Appendices (if there is any).

Manuscripts submitted to ABE should be written in Microsoft Word format with Palatino Linotype 11 font size and single-spaced. Page layout should be A4 format and margins should be 4 cm at the top, 3cm at the bottom, right and left. Page numbers should be located on the right bottom side of the paper. The manuscripts which are not suitable for the conditions related to the formatting are returned back to the author(s) without sending to the referees.

The text should start with the Introduction section at the second page. Paragraph spacing before and after a single paragraph (6 nk) should be given. The first line of the paragraph is to be shifted by 1 cm from the left margin. Headings and sub-headings of the manuscript should be numbered as 1., 1.1., 1.1.1. in hierarchical numbers. The headings should be partitioned not more than 3 levels. The sub-heading after level 3 should be written italic and bold. The headings should be numbered beginning from the Introduction, without the exception of References. All heading should be written bold. Before a heading (12 nk), and after a heading (6 nk) should be given (See: ABE Template)

The total length of any manuscript submitted for publication should not exceed 7,000 words including appendices and references. The average length of an article is approximately 2000-6000 words However, longer papers can be taken into evaluation process, if Editor and/or Editorial Board approve. (Exemption may be made for studies based on qualitative data).

Figures and Tables

Tables and figures should be numbered consecutively, as Table 1, Table 2, Figure 1, and Tables and figures should be placed where they are most appropriate in the text. The titles of the tables and figures should be placed at the heading of the table or figures, and references belonging to table or figure should be under them. The figures and tables with their names should be centred in the text. In the tables and figures, the font size may be 9 pt. at least. Figures and tables should be separated from the text by one-line interval. Complex and long tables or data can be put at the end of the study as appendixes.

Mathematical Notations and Equations

Mathematical equations in the text should be centred. Equations should be numbered consecutively and equation numbers should appear in parentheses at the right margin. Between an equation and text there should be an interval of (6 nk). Mathematical analysis and statistical data should be placed in appendices where possible.


Citations in the text should be made using the link method according to the APA 6.0 (American Psychological Association) citation style. In-text citations, the author’s last name, date of the publication, the number of the quoted pages (if there is a specific quote from a source used) should be mentioned. If the name of the referred author is given within the text, then only the publication date should be written. If there are two authors the surnames of both should be given. When there are 3-5 authors in the cited source, surnames of all authors should be listed in text for the first citations. Afterwards, only the surname of the first author followed by “et al.” should be written. When there are six or more authors, only the surname of the first author followed by “et al.” should be written for the first and subsequent citations. If there are more than two authors the surname of the first author only should be given, followed by “et al”. When an author has published more than one cited document in the same year, these are distinguished by adding lower case letters (a, b, c, etc.) after the year and within the parentheses. For multiple references, the citations should be ordered chronologically and separated them with semicolons.

Footnotes and Endnotes

Explanations in the main text should be given at the end of the article before references section, and they should be written in order.


The list of references should be presented in alphabetical order at the end of the manuscript. If the author referred to more than one publication from the same source, the oldest publication should be listed first. If the author referred to more than one publication from the same source published in the same year, the publications should be numbered using the letters a, b, c…, as citation in the text. If one author’s several publications, some with one some with two or more authors, are referred to, the publications with one author should be written first. Page numbers of articles published in the journals and chapters in the edited books should be written. (See: end of the page for Examples of Reference Formats”)


Supplementary material should be collected in Appendix and placed after the Reference sections. If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as Appendix A, Appendix B etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on.

Examples of Reference Formats





Boks & Books Chapter /Kitap ve Kitap Bölümü




One author

(Borton, 1970, p. 7) / (Borton, 1970, 7) / (Borton, 1970: 7) / Borton (1970)


Borton, H. (1970). Japan’s modern century. New York: The Ronald Press Company.






Two author

(Latimer and/& Lehman, 2013, p. 8) / (Latimer and/& Lehman, 2013, 8) / (Latimer and/& Lehman, 2013: 8) / Latimer and/& Lehman (2013)


Latimer, H. L. and/& Lehman, C. (2013). An analysis of the linkages between high school allowance high school market palace work and academic success in higher education. Melbourne, Australia: Palgrave Macmillan.






Three or more authors

(Seeley et al., 2011, p. 12) / (Seeley et al., 2011, 12) / (Seeley et al., 2011: 12)



Seeley, J. E., Kariya, T, Settersten, R. and Maier T. (2011). Market and network theories of the transition from high school to work: Their application to industrialized societies. New York, NY: McGraw- Hill.




Several works by the same author in different years


 Leonidou, J. (2010). Effects of economic policies. London, United Kingdom: Cassell.

Leonidou, J. (2016). Exporting barriers. London, United Kingdom: Cassell.



Chapter in edited book / An article or chapter in e-book / Complier-Reviser- Translator



(Brinkman, 2007, p. 182) / (Brinkman, 2007, 182) / (Brinkman, 2007: 182) / Brinkman (2007)


(Pennings ve Van Renselaar, 1976, s. 15) / (Pennings ve Van Renselaar, 1976, 15) / (Pennings ve Van Renselaar, 1976: 15) / Pennings ve Van Renselaar (1976)

Brinkman, O. (2007). The role of international social security standarts from a goverment’s point of view. F. Pennings (Ed.). In international social security standarts: Current views and interpretation matters  (pp. 117-23). Oxford: Intersentia Yayıncılık.  


Pennings, R. ve Van Renselaar, H. (1976). Bugünkü Avrupa ekonomisindeki durgunluktan önceki ve sonraki Türk işçi göçünün evrimi. Ü. Oksay (Çev.). Göç ve gelişme: Uluslararası işgücü göçünün Boğazlıyan ilçesi üzerindeki etkilerine ilişkin bir araştırma  içinde (s. 5-27). Ankara: Ajans-Türk Matbaacılık Sanayi.



e-Book- Online Book / An article or chapter in e-book



(Grenstein, 2004, s. 56) /

Grenstein, D. and/& David, S. (2004). Helping children: Support for children who do not hear well. Retrieved from htpp://www.Hosperian.org/publications_dowloas_deaf.php (22.08.2017).


No date publication

(Heinz, n.d) / (Heinz, n.d., p. 23)



Heinz (n. d). Industry 4.0. Melbourne, Australia: Palgrave Macmillan.




Journal, Newspaper & Newsletter Article




Journal article



(Lee, 2007, p. 95) / (Lee, 2007, 95) /(Lee, 2007: 95) / Lee (2007)

Lee, K. (2007). Online collaborative case study learning. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 37(2), 825-100.




Journal or magazine article with no volume or issue number / Journal article in press


Whychick and Thompson (2005) foreshadow that scam will still be enticing…


Influence of music in running performance (Lee and/& Kimmerly, in press)….



Whychick J. and/& Thompson, L. (2015, November 24). Fallen for a scam lately? Australia Today, 54-60.




Lee, S. and/& Kimmerly D. (in press). Influence of music on maximal self-paced running performance and passive post exercise recovery rate. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness.


Journal article retrieves from a database-with DOI


 Johns, E. and/& Mevhort, D. (2009). Test sequence priming in memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 35, 1162-1144. DOI: 10.1037/a0016372.


Kowalewski, O. (2008). Poland’s pension system: an overview. SSRN Electronic Journal, DOI:10.2139/ssrn.1565827. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228251194_Poland's_Pension_System_An_Overview (22.05.2018).



Newspaper article with an author / Newspaper article retrieved from a database



The Notion Bill of Rights may be inappropriate in the Australian context (Waterford, 2007).

Waterford, J. (2007, May 30). Bill of Rights gets in wrong. The Canberra Times, p. 11.


Wells, P. (2009, July 28). Our universities can be smarter. Maclean’s, 122(29/30). Retrieved from: http://www2.macleans.ca





Newspaper article without an author / Article in an online newsletter



……. (“Internet pioneer”, 2007) is said to….


…….., Lundquist (2012) ……



Internet pioneer to oversee network redesign. (2007, May 28). The Canberra Times, p. 15.


Lundquist, C. (2012, February). Recapping ICCB: New Zealand hosts historic congress for conservation biology. Society for Conservation Biology Newsletter, 20(1). Retrieved from http://www.conservationbiology.org/Publications/Newsletter/Archives/2012-2-February/news2.cfm







Brochure, corporate author,

 publisher is same as author, Photo, Archive documents, letter,



……. TransACT brochure (TransACT, n.d.)…..


(Allport, G. W., 1930-1967, Allport’tan E. G. Boring’e, 1 Mart 1939) / (Allport, G. W., 1930-1967, E. G. Boring’ten Allport’a, 26 Aralık 1937)

Family Counselling Centre. (2003). Dealing with a delinquent student [Brochure]. Calgary, Canada: Author.


TransACT. (n. d.). Guide to equipment and services [Brochure]. Canberra, Australia: Author.






Encyclopedia Articles


Brislin, R. W. (1984). Cross-cultural psychology. In R. J. Corsini (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 319-327). New York, NY: Wiley.      


Davidson, T. (2002). Common cold. In J. L. Longe (Ed.), The Gale encyclopedia of medicine (2nd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 869−872). Detroit, MI: Gale Group.



Technical and Research Report



Hershey Foods Corporation. (2001, March 15). 2001 Annual Report. Retrieved from: http://www.hersheysannualreport.com/2000/index.htm





Book Reviews



Hammarfelt, B. (2015). Review of beyond bibliometrics: Harnessing multidimensional indicators of scholarly impact [B. Cronin ve C. R. Sugimoto tarafından yayına hazırlanan Beyond bibliometrics: Harnessing multidimensional indicators of scholarly impact başlıklı kitabın değerlendirmesi]. Journal of Documentation, 71, 416 - 418. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JD-09-2014-0132






Audio or video podcast








“Fake Love” (BTS, 2018, song 9)


Luksic, N., & Howell, T. (Producers). (2017, July 10). The open mind: Are ‘unconscious’ patients more conscious that we think? [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/radio/ideas/the -open-mind-are-unconscious-patients-more-conscious-than-we-think-1.3564615


Akan, T. (Yönetmen). (2011). Köy enstitüleri/Bir meçhul öğretmen [DVD]. Tedarik edilebileceği adres: http://www.dr.com.tr/


Radyo ODTÜ (Yapımcı). (2015, 13 Nisan). Modern sabahlar [Podcast]. Erişim adresi: http://www.radyoodtu.com.tr/


Shore, D. (Senarist), Jackson, M. (Senarist) ve Bookstaver, S. (Yönetmen). (2012). Runaways [Televizyon dizisi bölümü]. D. Shore (Baş yapımcı), House M.D. içinde. New York, NY: Fox Broadcasting.


BTS (2018). Love Yourself. Love Yourself Answer [CD] inside. South Korea: Big Hit Entertainment


Russel, F. (t.y.). S. Pind tarafından gerçekleştirilen röportaj [ses kaydı]. Interview with Frank Russel (Kaset No. 123), Jewish Museum London, Londra.





TED Talk, author known /  YouTube or video weblog,         author unknown


Anholt, S. (2014, June 23). Which country does the most good for the world? Retrieved from www.ted .com/talks/simon_anholt_which_country_does_the_most_good_for_the_world


Severe Avoidance. (2012, September 25). The official Grumpy Cat [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=INscMGmhmX4



Blog post


Webber, S. (2007, July 11). Survey of plagiarism penalties [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://information-literacy.blogspot.com/2007/07/this-was-published-last-month-tennant -p.html






or seminar

papers in



–print / Conference or seminar papers in







In a paper about conservation of photographs (Edge, 1996), the proposition that...




Tester (2008) points to the value of using geothermal sources for

power and energy.

Edge, M. (1996). Lifetime prediction: Fact or fancy? In M. S. Koch, T. Padfield, J. S. Johnsen, & U. B. Kejser (Eds.), Proceedings of the Conference on Research Techniques in Photographic Conservation (pp. 97-100). Copenhagen, Denmark: Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts.


Tester, J. W. (2008). The future of geothermal energy as a major global energy supplier. In H. Gurgenci & A. R. Budd (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sir Mark Oliphant International Frontiers of Science and Technology Australian Geothermal Energy Conference, Canberra, Australia: Geoscience Australia. Retrieved from: http://www.ga.gov.au/image_cache/ GA11825.pdf




department as author/ Government


–with identifying

number/ Government

report -online / Government




Recently released statistics from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS)

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2007). Australian social trends (Cat. no. 4102.0). Canberra, Australia: ABS.


Alberta Social Services and Community Health. (2005). Breaking the pattern: Understanding wife abuse. Edmonton, Canada: Author

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. (2011). Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975−2007, featuring trends in brain cancer: Questions and answers. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.gov/newscenter/qa/2011/ReportNation2011QandA.


Standards Australia. (1996). Australian Standard AS 4390: Records Management. Sydney, Australia: Author.




Legislation / Resmi

According to s. 8.1 of the Anti-Discrimination Act 1977 (NSW), it is unlawful for an employer to discriminate against a person on the ground of race.



Anti-Discrimination Act 1977 (NSW) s. 8.1 (Australia).









Thesis or Dissertation


Duddle, M. (2009). Intraprofessional relations in nursing: A case study (Unpublished doctoral thesis), University of Sydney, Australia.


Lacey, D. (2011). The role of humiliation in collective political violence (Master’s thesis, University of Sydney, Australia). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2123/7128


Van Brunt, D. (1997). Networked consumer health information systems (Yayınlanmamış Doktora tezi). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses veri tabanından erişildi. (UMI No. 9943436)




Sources/ Kaynaklar: https://www.tk.org.tr/APA/apa_2.pdf

https://libguides.library.usyd.edu.au/ld.php?content_id=22193083                              http://www.mtroyal.ca/library/files/citation/apa.pdf



Hakemli makaleler, bilimsel yöntemin uygulanmasını, yansızlığı sağlayan çalışmalardır. Bilimsel üretimin gerçekleştirilmesinde yayın sürecinin tüm bileşenlerinin; yayıncı, editörler, yazarlar, hakemler ve okuyucuların etik ilkelere uymaları gerekir. Bu kapsamda Spormetre Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Dergisi’nin yayın etiği ile açık erişim politikası da, Yayın Etiği Komitesi’nin (Committee on Publication Ethics, COPE) açık erişimde yayınladığı kılavuzlar ve politikalar doğrultusunda (Örneğin “Yayın Etiği Komitesi (COPE) Davranış Kuralları ve Dergi Editörleri İçin En İyi Uygulama Kılavuzları; “Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors” ve “COPE Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors”) yayın sürecinin tüm bileşenlerinin etik ilkelere uymasını gerektirmektedir.

Makalelerde kullanılan verilerin manipüle edilmesi, çarpıtılması ve uydurma verilerin kullanılması gibi durumlar tespit edilirse, makale yazarının çalıştığı kuruma bu durum resmi yollardan bildirilecek ve makale reddedilecektir. Dergimiz, editörya ve/veya hakemler tarafından verilen dönütlere göre yazarlardan analiz sonuçlarına ilişkin çıktı dosyalarını isteme hakkına sahiptir.

GSI Journals Serie B: Advancements in Business and Economics dergisine makale gönderim/yayın işlemleriyle ilgili herhangi bir ücret talep edilmemektedir.