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Alternatif Protein Kaynaklarından Yapay Et Üretimi Kavramına Eleştirel Bir Bakış

Year 2020, Volume 2, Issue 2, 85 - 100, 18.12.2020

Abstract

Dünya nüfus artış hızı; sağlıklı ve sürdürülebilir gıdaya erişim açısından en önemli sorunlardan birisi olarak görülmektedir. Özellikle beslenme amaçlı hayvan yetiştiriciliği ve hayvansal kaynaklı gıdalara artan talep de beraberinde, bazı çevresel problemlerin ortaya çıkmasına yol açmıştır. Gıda-çevre ve sağlık üçgeni yaklaşımı; çevresel sorunların %15-30'undan sorumlu tuttuğu gıda sektörünü, alternatif kaynak arayışlarına yönlendirmiştir. Bunların başında ise sürdürülebilir kalkınma hedefleri ve Paris Antlaşması ilkeleri doğrultusunda gıda zinciri sistemine olumlu etkileri olacağı varsayılan alternatif protein kaynakları gelmektedir. Alternatif et, kültürlenmiş et, yapay et, temiz et, in vitro et gibi farklı terimlerle ifade edilen yapay et üretimi de bahsedilen alternatif arayışlara örnek olarak gündeme gelmektedir. Yapay etin tarihsel gelişimi, avantaj ve dezavantajları ile sürdürülebilir üretimi, çevresel etkileri, insan sağlığı ve beslenmesi yanında gıda güvenliği boyutları, sürecin teknik ve sosyokültürel yönlerine işaret etmektedir. Yine bu tür gıdalarla ilgili tüketici görüşleri, tercih edilebilirlik, kazanç ve çıkar ilişkileri, maliyet ve ekonomik boyutlarının değerlendirilmesi, gıda endüstrisine olası etkileri ve farklı inanışlar açısından önemi gibi pek çok konudaki soru işaretleri de aydınlatılmayı beklemektedir. Ayrıca, (1) “alternatif protein kaynakları ve ete alternatif yaklaşımlar gerçekten sorunun çözümü olabilir mi?” ve (2) “sürdürülebilir çevre ve gıda sistemleri için önerilen bu çözüm önerisinin sahipleri kimlerdir?” yanıt bekleyen diğer sorular arasındadır. İkinci bir GDO olgusu olarak da adlandırılabilecek alternatif protein kaynakları veya alternatif et üretimi konusunun önümüzdeki yıllarda gündemi daha da meşgul edeceğini ifade etmek kehanet olmayacaktır. Ayrıca, laboratuvar ortamında üretilecek yapay et için hücre kültürünün alındığı hayvansal kaynak ve bu hücrelerin çoğaltılması sırasında kullanılan besi ortamının menşei, bazı inançlı tüketicileri yapay et konusunda ciddi endişelere sevk etmektedir. Sonuç olarak bu çalışmada, alternatif protein kaynaklarından yapay et üretimi veya kavramının eleştirel bir bakış açısı ile değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmıştır.   

References

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A Critical Evaluation of Artificial Meat Production Phenomenon Among Alternative Protein Sources

Year 2020, Volume 2, Issue 2, 85 - 100, 18.12.2020

Abstract

The current population increase in the world is considered as a severe issue to reach for healthy and sustainable food. The animals raised for food on factory farms as well as increasing demand for foods of animal origin have led to the occurrence of some environmental problems. The food, environment and health triangle has forwarded the food industry, and held accountable for 15-30% of the environmental problems, to search for alternative sources. Among them, the alternative protein sources are among the top solutions, supposedly having positive impacts on the food chain system, in accordance with sustainable growth and the Paris Climate Agreement. The production of artificial meat, also so called alternative meat, test tube meat, lab grown or cultured meat, clean meat, in vitro meat is offered as a solution within the mentioned alternative sources. The chronological development of artificial meat, including its advantages, disadvantages, sustainable production, and environmental impacts as well as human health and food safety perspectives, points out the technical and sociocultural dimensions of the assessment. Furthermore, a broad range of questions, such as consumer perceptions, preferability, profit and benefit relationships, assessment of cost and economic aspects, impacts on food industry, and perception by different beliefs are still waiting for to be unlocked. In addition, two important critics are also in front of the society involved in this phenomenon; (1) can alternative protein sources and artificial meat become solution to the problem? and (2) who are the actual beneficiaries offering these solutions to sustainable environment and food systems? It is obviously seen that the alternative protein sources or artificial meat, also so called a different GMO-wise phenomenon, will continue to dominate the agenda of the consumers increasingly. Additionally, the animal source that the cell culture is taken for the artificial meat production and origin of the nutrient media used to develop these cells have led some consumers to have serious concerns about the artificial meat. Overall, we aimed to make a critical evaluation of the artificial meat production phenomenon among the alternative protein sources.

References

  • Alvaro, C. (2019). Lab Grown Meat and Veganism: A Virtue Oriented Perspective. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 32: 127–141.
  • Akar, M. (2020). Kültürlenmiş et (Test tube meat) ile ilgili bir soruya verilen cevap. Özel görüşme, TC. Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı, Helal Ürün Fetva Komisyonu, Çankaya/Ankara.
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  • Bonnet, C., Bouamra-Mechemache, Z., Réquillart, V., & Treich, N. (2020). Viewpoint: Regulating meat consumption to improve health, the environment and animal welfare. Food Policy, 97, 101847. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2020.101847
  • Bosire, C.K., Krol, M.S., Mekonnena, M.M., Ogutu, J.O., Leeuw, J.D., Lannerstad, M. ve Hoekstra, A.Y. (2016). Meat and milk production scenarios and the associated land footprint in Kenya. Agricultural Systems, 145: 64–75.
  • Bhat, Z.F., Morton, J.D., Mason, S.L., Bekhit, A.E.A. ve Bhat, H.F. (2019). Technological, Regulatory, and Ethical Aspects of In Vitro Meat: A Future Slaughter‐Free Harvest. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 18 (4): 1192-1208. DOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.12473
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  • Laestadius, L. ve Caldwell, M.A. (2015). Is the future of meat palatable? Perceptions of in vitro meat as evidenced by online news comments. Public Health Nutrition, 18 (13): 2457–2467. DOI: 10.1017/S1368980015000622.
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  • Micha, R., Penalvo, J. L., Cudhea, F., Imamura, F., Rehm, C. D. ve Mozaffarian, D. (2017). Association between dietary factors and mortality from heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association, 317: 912–924.
  • Nestlé Health Science. (2020). Proteinin Sağlıklı Yaşlanmadaki Rolü. (https://www.nestlehealthscience.com.tr/saglik-yonetimi/yaslanma/proteinin-onemi) Erişim Tarihi: 09 Kasım 2020.
  • NewScientist. (2020). Accelerating the cultured meat revolution. (https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24032080-400-accelerating-the-cultured-meat-revolution/) Erişim Tarihi: 10 Kasım 2020.
  • NTV. (2020). Hayvan öldürülmeden üretilen etin satışı onaylandı. (https://www.ntv.com.tr/amp/dunya/hayvan-oldurulmeden-uretilen-et-satisa-cikiyor,rKfsAqY1MkSVuhBDPpWOPw?__twitter_impression=true) Erişim Tarihi: 02 Aralık 2020.
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  • Post, M.J., Levenberg, S., Kaplan, D.L., Genovese, N., Fu, J., Bryant, C. J., Negowetti, N., Verzijden, K., Moutsatsou, P. (2020). Scientific, sustainability and regulatory challenges of cultured meat. Nature Food, 1: 403–415. DOI: 10.1038/s43016-020-0112-z
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  • Ritchie, H. ve Roser, M. (2019). Meat and Dairy Production. (https://ourworldindata.org/meat-production) Erişim Tarihi: 01 Kasım 2019.
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Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Food Science and Technology
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Hasan YETİM>
İSTANBUL SABAHATTİN ZAİM ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-5388-5856
Türkiye


İsmail Hakkı TEKİNER> (Primary Author)
İSTANBUL SABAHATTİN ZAİM ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-7248-2446
Türkiye

Publication Date December 18, 2020
Acceptance Date December 18, 2020
Published in Issue Year 2020, Volume 2, Issue 2

Cite

APA Yetim, H. & Tekiner, İ. H. (2020). Alternatif Protein Kaynaklarından Yapay Et Üretimi Kavramına Eleştirel Bir Bakış . Helal ve Etik Araştırmalar Dergisi , 2 (2) , 85-100 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/head/issue/58407/832170

Dizinler ve Platformlar / Indexes and Platforms

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