Research Article
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Use of chia seed on regular and low-fat crackers, their antioxidant properties, and in-vitro bioaccessibility

Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 3, 302 - 309, 15.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.31015/jaefs.2021.3.7

Abstract

Although having functional properties, fat is known to be adversely effective in case of high consumption. High fat consumption causes health disorders such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases and high blood pressure, insulin balance disorders and cancer. For this reason, it is important to reduce fat consumption and create food formulations rich in bioactive components. In the scope of this study, CS (Chia seed) was replaced with wheat flour 10%, 20%, and 30% (w/w) and the fat amount was decreased in 25%, 50%, 75% (w/w) ratios for formulating low-fat crackers, and the antioxidative potential of the samples was evaluated. Extractable, hydrolysable, bioaccessible phenolic fractions of samples were analyzed in terms of TEACABTS, TEACCUPRAC, TEACDPPH and Total Phenolic Content (TPC) (Folin Ciocalteu’s method). CS replacement was determined to be more effective than a fat reduction on AC and TPC results of samples. By 25, 50 and 100% fat reduction of extractable, hydrolysable and bioaccessible phenolic fractions, TEACABTS values increased respectively as 5.87%, 9.33% and 12.11%. 75% fat reduced-30% CS supplemented sample was 91.0% higher than 100% fat including-30% CS supplemented sample and 143.4% higher than the control sample in terms of TEACABTS for bioaccessible phenolic fractions. The dietary fiber, protein content and fatty acid composition are thought to be effective in the potential of CS. It is proved that CS could be expressed as a convenient pseudo-cereal for functional food formulations.

References

  • Anson, N. M., Selinheimo, E., Havenaar, R., Aura, A.-M., Mattila, I., Lehtinen, P., and Haenen, G. R. M. M. (2009). Bioprocessing of Wheat Bran Improves in vitro Bioaccessibility and Colonic Metabolism of Phenolic Compounds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57(14), 6148–6155. Doi:10.1021/jf900492h
  • Apak, R., Güçlü, K., Demirata, B., Özyürek, M., Çelik, S., Bektaşoğlu, B., and Özyurt, D. (2007a). Comparative Evaluation of Various Total Antioxidant Capacity Assays Applied to Phenolic Compounds with the CUPRAC Assay. Molecules, 12(7), 1496–1547. Doi:10.3390/12071496
  • Apak, R., Güçlü, K., Özyürek, M., and Çelik, S. E. (2007b). Mechanism of antioxidant capacity assays and the CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) assay. Microchimica Acta, 160(4), 413–419. Doi:10.1007/s00604-007-0777-0
  • Arranz, S., Silván, J. M., and Saura-Calixto, F. (2010). Nonextractable polyphenols, usually ignored, are the major part of dietary polyphenols: A study on the Spanish diet. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 54(11), 1646–1658. Doi:10.1002/mnfr.200900580
  • Borneo, R., Aguirre, A., and León, A. E. (2010). Chia (Salvia hispanica L) Gel Can Be Used as Egg or Oil Replacer in Cake Formulations. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 110(6), 946–949. Doi:10.1016/j.jada.2010.03.011
  • Bouayed, J., Deußer, H., Hoffmann, L., and Bohn, T. (2012). Bioaccessible and dialysable polyphenols in selected apple varieties following in vitro digestion vs. their native patterns. Food Chemistry, 131(4), 1466–1472. Doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.10.030
  • Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M. E., and Berset, C. (1995). Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 28(1), 25–30. Doi:10.1016/s0023-6438(95)80008-5
  • Chowdhury, R., Warnakula, S., Kunutsor, S., Crowe, F., Ward, H. A., Johnson, L., and Di Angelantonio, E. (2014). Association of Dietary, Circulating, and Supplement Fatty Acids With Coronary Risk. Annals of Internal Medicine, 160(6), 398. Doi:10.7326/m13-1788
  • Coorey, R., Grant, A., and Jayasena, V. (2012). Effects of Chia Flour Incorporation on the Nutritive Quality and Consumer Acceptance of Chips. Journal of Food Research, 1(4), 85. Doi:10.5539/jfr.v1n4p85
  • Costantini, L., Lukšič, L., Molinari, R., Kreft, I., Bonafaccia, G., Manzi, L., and Merendino, N. (2014). Development of gluten-free bread using tartary buckwheat and chia flour rich in flavonoids and omega-3 fatty acids as ingredients. Food Chemistry, 165, 232–240. Doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.05.095
  • Da Silva, B. P., Anunciação, P. C., Matyelka, J. C. da S., Della Lucia, C. M., Martino, H. S. D., and Pinheiro-Sant’Ana, H. M. (2017). Chemical composition of Brazilian chia seeds grown in different places. Food Chemistry, 221, 1709–1716. Doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.10.115
  • Demin, M., Rabrenović, B., Pezo, L., and Laličić-Petronijević, J. (2020). Influence of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) and extra virgin olive oil addition on nutritional properties of salty crackers. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 14, 378–387
  • Dundar, A. N., Aydin, E., Yildiz, E., and Parlak, O. (2020). Effects of chia seed on chemical properties and quality characteristics of regular and low-fat crackers. Food Science and Technology, ISSN 0101-2061 (Print), ISSN 1678-457X (Online). Doi:10.1590/fst.26120.
  • EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) (2010). Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol. EFSA Journal, 8, 1461. Doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1461
  • Enes, B.N., Moreira, L.P.D., Silva, B.P., Grancieri, M., Lúcio, H.G., Venâncio, V.P., Mertens‐Talcott, S.U., Rosa, C.O.B., and Martino, H.S.D. (2020). Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) effects and their molecular mechanisms on unbalanced diet experimental studies: A systematic review. Journal of Food Science, 85, 226-239. DOİ:10.1111/1750-3841.15003
  • Gökmen, V., Serpen, A., and Fogliano, V. (2009). Direct measurement of the total antioxidant capacity of foods: the “QUENCHER” approach. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 20(6-7), 278–288. Doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2009.03.010
  • Isik, F., and Topkaya, C. (2016) Effects of tomato pomace supplementation on chemical and nutritional properties of crackers. Ital J Food Sci, 28, 525–535. DOİ: 10.14674/1120-1770/ijfs.v510
  • Karabulut, G., and Yemi̇ş, O. (2019). Fenolik Bileşiklerin Bağlı Formları ve Biyoyararlılığı (Bound Forms of Phenolic Compounds and their Bioavailability). Akademik Gıda, 17, 526-537. DOİ: 10.24323/akademik-gida.667270.
  • Laguna, L., Primo-Martín, C., Varela, P., Salvador, A., and Sanz, T. (2014). HPMC and inulin as fat replacers in biscuits: Sensory and instrumental evaluation. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 56(2), 494–501. Doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2013.12.025
  • Lee, S., and Inglett, G. E. (2006). Rheological and physical evaluation of jet-cooked oat bran in low calorie cookies+. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 41(5), 553–559. Doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2005.01105.x
  • Marangoni, A., Goldstein, A., and Seetharaman, K. (2014). Lipids. Bakery Products Science and Technology, 223–241. Doi:10.1002/9781118792001.ch12
  • Martínez-Cruz, O., and Paredes-López, O. (2014). Phytochemical profile and nutraceutical potential of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 1346, 43–48. Doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2014.04.007
  • Mesías, M., Holgado, F., Márquez-Ruiz, G., and Morales, F. J. (2016). Risk/benefit considerations of a new formulation of wheat-based biscuit supplemented with different amounts of chia flour. LWT, 73, 528–535. Doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2016.06.056
  • Nayak, B., Liu, R. H., and Tang, J. (2015). Effect of Processing on Phenolic Antioxidants of Fruits, Vegetables, and Grains—A Review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 55(7), 887–918. Doi:10.1080/10408398.2011.654142
  • Pastoriza, S., Delgado-Andrade, C., Haro, A. and Rufián-Henares, J. A. (2011). A physiologic approach to test the global antioxidant response of foods. The GAR method. Food Chemistry, 129(4), 1926–1932. Doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.06.009
  • Pigni, N. B., Aranibar, C., Mas, A. L., Aguirre, A., Borneo, R., Wunderlin, D., and Baroni, M. V. (2020). Chemical profile and bioaccessibility of polyphenols from wheat pasta supplemented with partially-deoiled chia flour. LWT, 109134. Doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2020.109134
  • Sedej, I., Sakač, M., Mandić, A., Mišan, A., Pestorić, M., Šimurina, O., and Čanadanović-Brunet, J. (2011). Quality assessment of gluten-free crackers based on buckwheat flour. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 44(3), 694–699. Doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2010.11.010 Siri-Tarino, P. W., Chiu, S., Bergeron, N., and Krauss, R. M. (2015). Saturated Fats Versus Polyunsaturated Fats Versus Carbohydrates for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Treatment. Annual Review of Nutrition, 35(1), 517–543. Doi:10.1146/annurev-nutr-071714-034449
  • Taga, M. S., Miller, E. E., and Pratt, D. E. (1984). Chia seeds as a source of natural lipid antioxidants. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 61(5), 928–931. Doi:10.1007/bf02542169
  • Tarancón, P., Salvador, A., and Sanz, T. (2012). Sunflower Oil–Water–Cellulose Ether Emulsions as Trans-Fatty Acid-Free Fat Replacers in Biscuits: Texture and Acceptability Study. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6(9), 2389–2398. Doi:10.1007/s11947-012-0878-6
  • Valdivia-López, M. Á., and Tecante, A. (2015). Chia (Salvia hispanica). Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, 53–75. Doi:10.1016/bs.afnr.2015.06.002
  • Vitali, D., Dragojević, I. V., and Šebečić, B. (2009). Effects of incorporation of integral raw materials and dietary fibre on the selected nutritional and functional properties of biscuits. Food Chemistry, 114(4), 1462–1469. Doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.11.032

Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 3, 302 - 309, 15.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.31015/jaefs.2021.3.7

Abstract

References

  • Anson, N. M., Selinheimo, E., Havenaar, R., Aura, A.-M., Mattila, I., Lehtinen, P., and Haenen, G. R. M. M. (2009). Bioprocessing of Wheat Bran Improves in vitro Bioaccessibility and Colonic Metabolism of Phenolic Compounds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57(14), 6148–6155. Doi:10.1021/jf900492h
  • Apak, R., Güçlü, K., Demirata, B., Özyürek, M., Çelik, S., Bektaşoğlu, B., and Özyurt, D. (2007a). Comparative Evaluation of Various Total Antioxidant Capacity Assays Applied to Phenolic Compounds with the CUPRAC Assay. Molecules, 12(7), 1496–1547. Doi:10.3390/12071496
  • Apak, R., Güçlü, K., Özyürek, M., and Çelik, S. E. (2007b). Mechanism of antioxidant capacity assays and the CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) assay. Microchimica Acta, 160(4), 413–419. Doi:10.1007/s00604-007-0777-0
  • Arranz, S., Silván, J. M., and Saura-Calixto, F. (2010). Nonextractable polyphenols, usually ignored, are the major part of dietary polyphenols: A study on the Spanish diet. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 54(11), 1646–1658. Doi:10.1002/mnfr.200900580
  • Borneo, R., Aguirre, A., and León, A. E. (2010). Chia (Salvia hispanica L) Gel Can Be Used as Egg or Oil Replacer in Cake Formulations. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 110(6), 946–949. Doi:10.1016/j.jada.2010.03.011
  • Bouayed, J., Deußer, H., Hoffmann, L., and Bohn, T. (2012). Bioaccessible and dialysable polyphenols in selected apple varieties following in vitro digestion vs. their native patterns. Food Chemistry, 131(4), 1466–1472. Doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.10.030
  • Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M. E., and Berset, C. (1995). Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 28(1), 25–30. Doi:10.1016/s0023-6438(95)80008-5
  • Chowdhury, R., Warnakula, S., Kunutsor, S., Crowe, F., Ward, H. A., Johnson, L., and Di Angelantonio, E. (2014). Association of Dietary, Circulating, and Supplement Fatty Acids With Coronary Risk. Annals of Internal Medicine, 160(6), 398. Doi:10.7326/m13-1788
  • Coorey, R., Grant, A., and Jayasena, V. (2012). Effects of Chia Flour Incorporation on the Nutritive Quality and Consumer Acceptance of Chips. Journal of Food Research, 1(4), 85. Doi:10.5539/jfr.v1n4p85
  • Costantini, L., Lukšič, L., Molinari, R., Kreft, I., Bonafaccia, G., Manzi, L., and Merendino, N. (2014). Development of gluten-free bread using tartary buckwheat and chia flour rich in flavonoids and omega-3 fatty acids as ingredients. Food Chemistry, 165, 232–240. Doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.05.095
  • Da Silva, B. P., Anunciação, P. C., Matyelka, J. C. da S., Della Lucia, C. M., Martino, H. S. D., and Pinheiro-Sant’Ana, H. M. (2017). Chemical composition of Brazilian chia seeds grown in different places. Food Chemistry, 221, 1709–1716. Doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.10.115
  • Demin, M., Rabrenović, B., Pezo, L., and Laličić-Petronijević, J. (2020). Influence of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) and extra virgin olive oil addition on nutritional properties of salty crackers. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 14, 378–387
  • Dundar, A. N., Aydin, E., Yildiz, E., and Parlak, O. (2020). Effects of chia seed on chemical properties and quality characteristics of regular and low-fat crackers. Food Science and Technology, ISSN 0101-2061 (Print), ISSN 1678-457X (Online). Doi:10.1590/fst.26120.
  • EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) (2010). Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol. EFSA Journal, 8, 1461. Doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1461
  • Enes, B.N., Moreira, L.P.D., Silva, B.P., Grancieri, M., Lúcio, H.G., Venâncio, V.P., Mertens‐Talcott, S.U., Rosa, C.O.B., and Martino, H.S.D. (2020). Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) effects and their molecular mechanisms on unbalanced diet experimental studies: A systematic review. Journal of Food Science, 85, 226-239. DOİ:10.1111/1750-3841.15003
  • Gökmen, V., Serpen, A., and Fogliano, V. (2009). Direct measurement of the total antioxidant capacity of foods: the “QUENCHER” approach. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 20(6-7), 278–288. Doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2009.03.010
  • Isik, F., and Topkaya, C. (2016) Effects of tomato pomace supplementation on chemical and nutritional properties of crackers. Ital J Food Sci, 28, 525–535. DOİ: 10.14674/1120-1770/ijfs.v510
  • Karabulut, G., and Yemi̇ş, O. (2019). Fenolik Bileşiklerin Bağlı Formları ve Biyoyararlılığı (Bound Forms of Phenolic Compounds and their Bioavailability). Akademik Gıda, 17, 526-537. DOİ: 10.24323/akademik-gida.667270.
  • Laguna, L., Primo-Martín, C., Varela, P., Salvador, A., and Sanz, T. (2014). HPMC and inulin as fat replacers in biscuits: Sensory and instrumental evaluation. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 56(2), 494–501. Doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2013.12.025
  • Lee, S., and Inglett, G. E. (2006). Rheological and physical evaluation of jet-cooked oat bran in low calorie cookies+. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 41(5), 553–559. Doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2005.01105.x
  • Marangoni, A., Goldstein, A., and Seetharaman, K. (2014). Lipids. Bakery Products Science and Technology, 223–241. Doi:10.1002/9781118792001.ch12
  • Martínez-Cruz, O., and Paredes-López, O. (2014). Phytochemical profile and nutraceutical potential of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 1346, 43–48. Doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2014.04.007
  • Mesías, M., Holgado, F., Márquez-Ruiz, G., and Morales, F. J. (2016). Risk/benefit considerations of a new formulation of wheat-based biscuit supplemented with different amounts of chia flour. LWT, 73, 528–535. Doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2016.06.056
  • Nayak, B., Liu, R. H., and Tang, J. (2015). Effect of Processing on Phenolic Antioxidants of Fruits, Vegetables, and Grains—A Review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 55(7), 887–918. Doi:10.1080/10408398.2011.654142
  • Pastoriza, S., Delgado-Andrade, C., Haro, A. and Rufián-Henares, J. A. (2011). A physiologic approach to test the global antioxidant response of foods. The GAR method. Food Chemistry, 129(4), 1926–1932. Doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.06.009
  • Pigni, N. B., Aranibar, C., Mas, A. L., Aguirre, A., Borneo, R., Wunderlin, D., and Baroni, M. V. (2020). Chemical profile and bioaccessibility of polyphenols from wheat pasta supplemented with partially-deoiled chia flour. LWT, 109134. Doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2020.109134
  • Sedej, I., Sakač, M., Mandić, A., Mišan, A., Pestorić, M., Šimurina, O., and Čanadanović-Brunet, J. (2011). Quality assessment of gluten-free crackers based on buckwheat flour. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 44(3), 694–699. Doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2010.11.010 Siri-Tarino, P. W., Chiu, S., Bergeron, N., and Krauss, R. M. (2015). Saturated Fats Versus Polyunsaturated Fats Versus Carbohydrates for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Treatment. Annual Review of Nutrition, 35(1), 517–543. Doi:10.1146/annurev-nutr-071714-034449
  • Taga, M. S., Miller, E. E., and Pratt, D. E. (1984). Chia seeds as a source of natural lipid antioxidants. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 61(5), 928–931. Doi:10.1007/bf02542169
  • Tarancón, P., Salvador, A., and Sanz, T. (2012). Sunflower Oil–Water–Cellulose Ether Emulsions as Trans-Fatty Acid-Free Fat Replacers in Biscuits: Texture and Acceptability Study. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6(9), 2389–2398. Doi:10.1007/s11947-012-0878-6
  • Valdivia-López, M. Á., and Tecante, A. (2015). Chia (Salvia hispanica). Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, 53–75. Doi:10.1016/bs.afnr.2015.06.002
  • Vitali, D., Dragojević, I. V., and Šebečić, B. (2009). Effects of incorporation of integral raw materials and dietary fibre on the selected nutritional and functional properties of biscuits. Food Chemistry, 114(4), 1462–1469. Doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.11.032

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Food Science and Technology
Published Date September 2021
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Ayşe Neslihan DÜNDAR (Primary Author)
BURSA TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-2084-7776
Türkiye


Elif YILDIZ
ULUDAĞ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-1356-9012
Türkiye


Özen PARLAK This is me
ULUDAĞ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-2126-094X
Türkiye


Emine AYDIN
DÜZCE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-9635-4791
Türkiye

Publication Date September 15, 2021
Application Date February 12, 2021
Acceptance Date April 28, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 3

Cite

APA Dündar, A. N. , Yıldız, E. , Parlak, Ö. & Aydın, E. (2021). Use of chia seed on regular and low-fat crackers, their antioxidant properties, and in-vitro bioaccessibility . International Journal of Agriculture Environment and Food Sciences , 5 (3) , 302-309 . DOI: 10.31015/jaefs.2021.3.7