Research Article
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Effects of fermentation conditions using Lactobacillus plantarum on antioxidant properties and bitterness of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) juice

Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 3, 435 - 441, 23.09.2022
https://doi.org/10.31015/jaefs.2022.3.13

Abstract

The bitter gourd is bringing health benefits to human; however bitterness of the fruit limits its therapeutic effects. Fermentation processes have been reported to be able to reduce the bitterness of the bitter gourd. In this study, effects of fermentation factors including time (0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72h), temperature (20, 25, 30, 35 and 40℃) and inoculum volume (v/w) (0, 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) of Lactobacillus plantarum on pH, total soluble solids (TSS), total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant capacity (AC) and bitterness evaluation of the bitter gourd juice were studied. In general, TPC and AC values of the fermented samples increased significantly (p < 0.05) compared to those of the control ones. In the first experiment, the TPC value of 24h-fermented sample reached a peak, meanwhile the highest AC value obtained after 72h fermentation. In the second experiment, the highest TPC and AC values were recorded at 40℃. For the last experiment, with 20% inoculum volume, the highest TPC and AC values were recorded. The fermentation with 10% of L. plantarum for 24 h, at 30℃ resulted in a higher total phenolic content. Changing fermentation conditions significantly changed bitterness of the juice. Through sensory evaluation test, significant differences (p<0.05) in the bitterness among unfermented and fermented samples were recorded. Most of the panelists recognized there was reduction in bitterness of fermented sample compared to the control one.

References

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  • Acosta-Estrada, B. A., Gutiérrez-Uribe, J. A., & Serna-Saldívar, S. O. (2014). Bound phenolics in foods, a review. Food Chemistry, 152, 46-55. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.11.093
  • Aliani, M., & Eskin, M. N. (2017). Bitterness: perception, chemistry and food processing. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Bhagavan, N. V. (2002). Medical Biochemistry. Academic Press. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012095440-7/50011-1
  • Barthelmebs, L., Divies, C., & Cavin, J. F. (2000). Knockout of the p-coumarate decarboxylase gene from Lactobacillus plantarum reveals the existence of two other inducible enzymatic activities involved in phenolic acid metabolism. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66(8), 3368-3375. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.66.8.3368-3375.2000
  • Curiel, J. A., Pinto, D., Marzani, B., Filannino, P., Farris, G. A., Gobbetti, M., & Rizzello, C. G. (2015). Lactic acid fermentation as a tool to enhance the antioxidant properties of Myrtus communis berries. Microbial Cell Factories, 14(1), 67. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12934-015-0250-4
  • Deshaware, S., Gupta, S., Singhal, R., & Variyar, P. S. (2019). Influence of different pasteurization techniques on antidiabetic, antioxidant and sensory quality of debittered bitter gourd juice during storage. Food chemistry, 285, 156-162. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.01.140
  • Johns, T. (1990). With bitter herbs they shall eat it: chemical ecology and the origins of human diet and medicine. University of Arizona Press.
  • Gao, H., Wen, J. J., Hu, J. L., Nie, Q. X., Chen, H. H., Nie, S. P., & Xie, M. Y. (2019). Momordica charantia juice with Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation: Chemical composition, antioxidant properties and aroma profile. Food Bioscience. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbio.2019.03.007
  • Gregson, R. A. M., & Baker, A. F. H. (1973). Sourness and bitterness: confusions over sequences of taste judgements. Br. J. Psychol, 64(1), 71-76. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1973.tb01328.x
  • Harinantenaina, L., Tanaka, M., Takaoka, S., Oda, M., Mogami, O., Uchida, M., & Asakawa, Y. (2006). Momordica charantia constituents and antidiabetic screening of the isolated major compounds. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 54(7), 1017-1021. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.54.1017
  • Hur, S. J., Lee, S. Y., Kim, Y. C., Choi, I., & Kim, G. B. (2014). Effect of fermentation on the antioxidant activity in plant-based foods. Food Chemistry, 160, 346-356. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.03.112
  • Huynh, N. K., & Nguyen, H. V. (2017). Effects of juice processing on oxalate contents in carambola juice products. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 72(3), 236-242. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-017-0615-4
  • Kubola, J., & Siriamornpun, S. (2008). Phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) leaf, stem and fruit fraction extracts in vitro. Food Chemistry, 110(4), 881-890. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.02.076
  • Kwaw, E., Ma, Y., Tchabo, W., Apaliya, M. T., Xiao, L., & Wu, M. (2017). Effect of lactic acid fermentation on the phytochemical, volatile profile and sensory attributes of mulberry juice. Journal of Food & Nutrition Research, 56(4).
  • Lim, Y. Y., Lim, T. T., & Tee, J. J. (2007). Antioxidant properties of several tropical fruits: A comparative study. Food Chemistry, 103(3), 1003-1008. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.08.038
  • López de Felipe, F., Curiel, J. A., & Muñoz, R. (2010). Improvement of the fermentation performance of Lactobacillus plantarum by the flavanol catechin is uncoupled from its degradation. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 109(2), 687-697. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2010.04696.x
  • Matejčeková, Z., Liptáková, D., Spodniaková, S., & Valík, Ľ. (2016). Characterization of the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum in milk in dependence on temperature. Acta Chimica Slovaca, 9(2), 104-108. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1515/acs-2016-0018
  • Mazlan, F. A., Annuar, M. S. M., & Sharifuddin, Y. (2015). Biotransformation of Momordica charantia fresh juice by Lactobacillus plantarum BET003 and its putative anti-diabetic potential. PeerJ, 3, e1376. Doi: https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1376
  • Meiselman, H. L., & Dzendolet, E. (1967). Variability in gustatory quality identification. Perception & Psychophysics, 2(11), 496-498. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03210253
  • Muñoz, R., de las Rivas, B., de Felipe, F. L., Reverón, I., Santamaría, L., Esteban-Torres, M., & Landete, J. M. (2017). Biotransformation of phenolics by Lactobacillus plantarum in fermented foods. In Fermented foods in health and disease prevention (pp. 63-83). Academic Press. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-802309-9.00004-2
  • Nguyen, T.T.T., Nguyen, H.V.H. Effects of fermentation conditions using Lactobacillus plantarum on the charantin, stigmasterol glucoside and β-sitosterol glucoside contents of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) Juice. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 75, 656–658 (2020). Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-020-00860-w
  • Nirupama, K. V., Nesalin, J. A. J., & Mani, T. T. (2018). Extraction, isolation and characterization of charantin from momordica charantia fruit linn. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research, 5(12), 370-374.
  • Nisa, K., Rosyida, V. T., Nurhayati, S., Indrianingsih, A. W., Darsih, C., & Apriyana, W. (2019). Total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of rice bran fermented with lactic acid bacteria. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 251, No. 1, p. 012020). IOP Publishing. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/251/1/012020
  • Okabe, H., Y. Miyahara, and T. Yamauchi. (1982). Studies on the constituents of Mormordica charantia L. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 30, 3977-3986. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.30.3977
  • Olaniyi, L. O., & Mehhizadeh, S. (2013). Effect of traditional fermentation as a pretreatment to decrease the antinutritional properties of rambutan seed (Nephelium lappaceum L.). In International Conference on Food and Agricultural Sciences IPCBEE (Vol. 55).
  • Ordoudi, S. A., & Tsimidou, M. Z. (2006). Crocin Bleaching Assay (CBA) in structure− radical scavenging activity studies of selected phenolic compounds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54(25), 9347-9356. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf062115d
  • Rashima, R. S., Maizura, M., Kang, W. M., Fazilah, A., & Tan, L. X. (2017). Influence of sodium chloride treatment and polysaccharides as debittering agent on the physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacity and sensory characteristics of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) juice. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 54(1), 228-235. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-016-2454-y
  • Rodriguez, H., Landete, J. M., Curiel, J. A., de Las Rivas, B., Mancheño, J. M., & Muñoz, R. (2008). Characterization of the p-coumaric acid decarboxylase from Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748T. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(9), 3068-3072. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf703779s
  • Sabokbar, N., & Khodaiyan, F. (2016). Total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of pomegranate juice and whey based novel beverage fermented by kefir grains. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 53(1), 739-747. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-2029-3 Selvakumar, G., Shathirapathiy, G., Jainraj, R., & Paul, P. Y. (2017). Immediate effect of bitter gourd, ash gourd, Knol-khol juices on blood sugar levels of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study. Journal of traditional and complementary medicine, 7(4), 526-531. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcme.2017.01.009
  • Shahidi, F., & Yeo, J. (2016). Insoluble-bound phenolics in food. Molecules, 21(9), 1216. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21091216
  • Sharma, V., & Mishra, H. N. (2013). Fermentation of vegetable juice mixture by probiotic lactic acid bacteria. Nutrafoods, 12(1), 17-22. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13749-012-0050-y
  • Singh, G., Verma, A. K., & Kumar, V. (2016). Catalytic properties, functional attributes and industrial applications of β-glucosidases. 3 Biotech, 6(1), 3. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-015-0328-z
  • Sutanto, H., Himawan, E., & Kusumocahyo, S. P. (2015). Ultrasound assisted extraction of bitter gourd fruit (Momordica charantia) and vacuum evaporation to concentrate the extract. Procedia Chemistry, 16, 251-257. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proche.2015.12.048
  • Tan, S., Stathopoulos, C., Parks, S., & Roach, P. (2014). An optimised aqueous extract of phenolic compounds from bitter melon with high antioxidant capacity. Antioxidants, 3(4), 814-829. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox3040814
  • Thakur, A., & Joshi, V. K. (2017). Preparation of probiotic apple juice by lactic acid fermentation. International Journal of Food and Fermentation Technology, 7(1), 67-85. Doi: https://doi.org/10.5958/2277-9396.2017.00007.1
  • Wardani, S. K., Cahyanto, M. N., Rahayu, E. S., & Utami, T. (2017). The effect of inoculum size and incubation temperature on cell growth, acid production and curd formation during milk fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum Dad 13. International Food Research Journal, 24(3).
  • Yan, J. K., Yu, Y. B., Wang, C., Cai, W. D., Wu, L. X., Yang, Y., & Zhang, H. N. (2021). Production, physicochemical characteristics, and in vitro biological activities of polysaccharides obtained from fresh bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) via room temperature extraction techniques. Food Chemistry, 337, 127798. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127798

Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 3, 435 - 441, 23.09.2022
https://doi.org/10.31015/jaefs.2022.3.13

Abstract

References

  • Absher, M. (1973). Hemocytometer counting. In Tissue Culture (pp. 395-397). Academic Press. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-427150-0.50098-X
  • Acosta-Estrada, B. A., Gutiérrez-Uribe, J. A., & Serna-Saldívar, S. O. (2014). Bound phenolics in foods, a review. Food Chemistry, 152, 46-55. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.11.093
  • Aliani, M., & Eskin, M. N. (2017). Bitterness: perception, chemistry and food processing. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Bhagavan, N. V. (2002). Medical Biochemistry. Academic Press. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012095440-7/50011-1
  • Barthelmebs, L., Divies, C., & Cavin, J. F. (2000). Knockout of the p-coumarate decarboxylase gene from Lactobacillus plantarum reveals the existence of two other inducible enzymatic activities involved in phenolic acid metabolism. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66(8), 3368-3375. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.66.8.3368-3375.2000
  • Curiel, J. A., Pinto, D., Marzani, B., Filannino, P., Farris, G. A., Gobbetti, M., & Rizzello, C. G. (2015). Lactic acid fermentation as a tool to enhance the antioxidant properties of Myrtus communis berries. Microbial Cell Factories, 14(1), 67. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12934-015-0250-4
  • Deshaware, S., Gupta, S., Singhal, R., & Variyar, P. S. (2019). Influence of different pasteurization techniques on antidiabetic, antioxidant and sensory quality of debittered bitter gourd juice during storage. Food chemistry, 285, 156-162. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.01.140
  • Johns, T. (1990). With bitter herbs they shall eat it: chemical ecology and the origins of human diet and medicine. University of Arizona Press.
  • Gao, H., Wen, J. J., Hu, J. L., Nie, Q. X., Chen, H. H., Nie, S. P., & Xie, M. Y. (2019). Momordica charantia juice with Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation: Chemical composition, antioxidant properties and aroma profile. Food Bioscience. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbio.2019.03.007
  • Gregson, R. A. M., & Baker, A. F. H. (1973). Sourness and bitterness: confusions over sequences of taste judgements. Br. J. Psychol, 64(1), 71-76. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1973.tb01328.x
  • Harinantenaina, L., Tanaka, M., Takaoka, S., Oda, M., Mogami, O., Uchida, M., & Asakawa, Y. (2006). Momordica charantia constituents and antidiabetic screening of the isolated major compounds. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 54(7), 1017-1021. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.54.1017
  • Hur, S. J., Lee, S. Y., Kim, Y. C., Choi, I., & Kim, G. B. (2014). Effect of fermentation on the antioxidant activity in plant-based foods. Food Chemistry, 160, 346-356. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.03.112
  • Huynh, N. K., & Nguyen, H. V. (2017). Effects of juice processing on oxalate contents in carambola juice products. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 72(3), 236-242. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-017-0615-4
  • Kubola, J., & Siriamornpun, S. (2008). Phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) leaf, stem and fruit fraction extracts in vitro. Food Chemistry, 110(4), 881-890. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.02.076
  • Kwaw, E., Ma, Y., Tchabo, W., Apaliya, M. T., Xiao, L., & Wu, M. (2017). Effect of lactic acid fermentation on the phytochemical, volatile profile and sensory attributes of mulberry juice. Journal of Food & Nutrition Research, 56(4).
  • Lim, Y. Y., Lim, T. T., & Tee, J. J. (2007). Antioxidant properties of several tropical fruits: A comparative study. Food Chemistry, 103(3), 1003-1008. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.08.038
  • López de Felipe, F., Curiel, J. A., & Muñoz, R. (2010). Improvement of the fermentation performance of Lactobacillus plantarum by the flavanol catechin is uncoupled from its degradation. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 109(2), 687-697. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2010.04696.x
  • Matejčeková, Z., Liptáková, D., Spodniaková, S., & Valík, Ľ. (2016). Characterization of the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum in milk in dependence on temperature. Acta Chimica Slovaca, 9(2), 104-108. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1515/acs-2016-0018
  • Mazlan, F. A., Annuar, M. S. M., & Sharifuddin, Y. (2015). Biotransformation of Momordica charantia fresh juice by Lactobacillus plantarum BET003 and its putative anti-diabetic potential. PeerJ, 3, e1376. Doi: https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1376
  • Meiselman, H. L., & Dzendolet, E. (1967). Variability in gustatory quality identification. Perception & Psychophysics, 2(11), 496-498. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03210253
  • Muñoz, R., de las Rivas, B., de Felipe, F. L., Reverón, I., Santamaría, L., Esteban-Torres, M., & Landete, J. M. (2017). Biotransformation of phenolics by Lactobacillus plantarum in fermented foods. In Fermented foods in health and disease prevention (pp. 63-83). Academic Press. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-802309-9.00004-2
  • Nguyen, T.T.T., Nguyen, H.V.H. Effects of fermentation conditions using Lactobacillus plantarum on the charantin, stigmasterol glucoside and β-sitosterol glucoside contents of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) Juice. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 75, 656–658 (2020). Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-020-00860-w
  • Nirupama, K. V., Nesalin, J. A. J., & Mani, T. T. (2018). Extraction, isolation and characterization of charantin from momordica charantia fruit linn. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research, 5(12), 370-374.
  • Nisa, K., Rosyida, V. T., Nurhayati, S., Indrianingsih, A. W., Darsih, C., & Apriyana, W. (2019). Total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of rice bran fermented with lactic acid bacteria. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 251, No. 1, p. 012020). IOP Publishing. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/251/1/012020
  • Okabe, H., Y. Miyahara, and T. Yamauchi. (1982). Studies on the constituents of Mormordica charantia L. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 30, 3977-3986. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.30.3977
  • Olaniyi, L. O., & Mehhizadeh, S. (2013). Effect of traditional fermentation as a pretreatment to decrease the antinutritional properties of rambutan seed (Nephelium lappaceum L.). In International Conference on Food and Agricultural Sciences IPCBEE (Vol. 55).
  • Ordoudi, S. A., & Tsimidou, M. Z. (2006). Crocin Bleaching Assay (CBA) in structure− radical scavenging activity studies of selected phenolic compounds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54(25), 9347-9356. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf062115d
  • Rashima, R. S., Maizura, M., Kang, W. M., Fazilah, A., & Tan, L. X. (2017). Influence of sodium chloride treatment and polysaccharides as debittering agent on the physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacity and sensory characteristics of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) juice. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 54(1), 228-235. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-016-2454-y
  • Rodriguez, H., Landete, J. M., Curiel, J. A., de Las Rivas, B., Mancheño, J. M., & Muñoz, R. (2008). Characterization of the p-coumaric acid decarboxylase from Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748T. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(9), 3068-3072. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf703779s
  • Sabokbar, N., & Khodaiyan, F. (2016). Total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of pomegranate juice and whey based novel beverage fermented by kefir grains. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 53(1), 739-747. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-2029-3 Selvakumar, G., Shathirapathiy, G., Jainraj, R., & Paul, P. Y. (2017). Immediate effect of bitter gourd, ash gourd, Knol-khol juices on blood sugar levels of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study. Journal of traditional and complementary medicine, 7(4), 526-531. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcme.2017.01.009
  • Shahidi, F., & Yeo, J. (2016). Insoluble-bound phenolics in food. Molecules, 21(9), 1216. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21091216
  • Sharma, V., & Mishra, H. N. (2013). Fermentation of vegetable juice mixture by probiotic lactic acid bacteria. Nutrafoods, 12(1), 17-22. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13749-012-0050-y
  • Singh, G., Verma, A. K., & Kumar, V. (2016). Catalytic properties, functional attributes and industrial applications of β-glucosidases. 3 Biotech, 6(1), 3. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-015-0328-z
  • Sutanto, H., Himawan, E., & Kusumocahyo, S. P. (2015). Ultrasound assisted extraction of bitter gourd fruit (Momordica charantia) and vacuum evaporation to concentrate the extract. Procedia Chemistry, 16, 251-257. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proche.2015.12.048
  • Tan, S., Stathopoulos, C., Parks, S., & Roach, P. (2014). An optimised aqueous extract of phenolic compounds from bitter melon with high antioxidant capacity. Antioxidants, 3(4), 814-829. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox3040814
  • Thakur, A., & Joshi, V. K. (2017). Preparation of probiotic apple juice by lactic acid fermentation. International Journal of Food and Fermentation Technology, 7(1), 67-85. Doi: https://doi.org/10.5958/2277-9396.2017.00007.1
  • Wardani, S. K., Cahyanto, M. N., Rahayu, E. S., & Utami, T. (2017). The effect of inoculum size and incubation temperature on cell growth, acid production and curd formation during milk fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum Dad 13. International Food Research Journal, 24(3).
  • Yan, J. K., Yu, Y. B., Wang, C., Cai, W. D., Wu, L. X., Yang, Y., & Zhang, H. N. (2021). Production, physicochemical characteristics, and in vitro biological activities of polysaccharides obtained from fresh bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) via room temperature extraction techniques. Food Chemistry, 337, 127798. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127798

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Food Science and Technology
Published Date September 2022
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Trang NGUYEN This is me
International University, Vietnam National University
0000-0003-0070-3892
Vietnam


Ha NGUYEN> (Primary Author)
International University, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam
0000-0002-4023-5184
Vietnam

Publication Date September 23, 2022
Application Date June 1, 2022
Acceptance Date August 9, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 3

Cite

APA Nguyen, T. & Nguyen, H. (2022). Effects of fermentation conditions using Lactobacillus plantarum on antioxidant properties and bitterness of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) juice . International Journal of Agriculture Environment and Food Sciences , 6 (3) , 435-441 . DOI: 10.31015/jaefs.2022.3.13


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