Year 2020, Volume 9 , Issue 1, Pages 46 - 65 2020-05-24

T.C. İnkılap Tarihi ve Atatürkçülük Öğretiminde Duyuşsal ve Bilişsel Öğrenme Etkinliklerinin Tarihsel Empatiye Yansımalarının İncelenmesi
Investigation of the Reflections of Affective and Cognitive Learning Activities on Historical Empathy in T.R. Revolution History and Kemalism Teaching

Sezgin ELBAY [1]


T.C. İnkılap Tarihi ve Atatürkçülük öğretiminde, duyuşsal ve bilişsel öğrenme etkinliklerinin, tarihsel empatiye yönelik yansımaları tam olarak ortaya çıkarılamamıştır. Bu durum etkinliklerin potansiyel etkilerinin bilinmemesine neden olabilir. Buna rağmen öğrenme-öğretme sürecinde bu etkinlikler işe koşulmaktadır. Bu bağlamda araştırmanın amacı, T.C. İnkılap Tarihi ve Atatürkçülük öğretiminde, duyuşsal ve bilişsel öğrenme etkinliklerinin, tarihsel empatiye yansımalarını incelemektir. Araştırma, nitel araştırmanın durum çalışma yaklaşımına dayalı olarak yapılmıştır. Veriler, 2018/2019 eğitim-öğretim yılının, 1.dönemi boyunca toplanmıştır. Bu amaçla ilk olarak, derste kullanılacak duyuşsal ve bilişsel öğrenme etkinlikleri belirlenmiş, ardından araştırmacı gözetiminde, bu etkinliklerle ders işlenmiştir. Sakarya kentinin kırsal bir bölgesindeki bir ortaokulda öğrenim gören 22 öğrenci, ölçüt durum örneklemesine uygun olarak seçilmiştir. Bu bağlamda, derste kullanılacak duyuşsal ve bilişsel öğrenme etkinlikleriyle daha önce karşılaşmayan öğrenciler, araştırmaya dâhil edilmiştir. Veri toplama araçları olarak; alan notları, grup tartışma değerlendirme formu ve tarihsel anlatı formları işe koşulmuştur. Ardından veriler, tümevarımsal olarak analiz edilmiştir. Bu analiz sonucunda; duyuşsal öğrenme etkinliklerinin, sevginin betimlenmesi ve savaş kurgusu; bilişsel öğrenme etkinliklerinin ise, bağlamın tarihselliği bakımından yansımalarının olduğu belirlenmiştir. Buna ek olarak bilişsel öğrenme etkinliklerinin, tarih öğretimi açısından daha yararlı sonuçlar doğurduğu söylenebilir.

The reflections of affective and cognitive learning activities on historical empathy have not been fully revealed in the T.R. Revolution History and Kemalism teaching. This may cause the potential effects of activities to be unknown. However, in the process of learning and teaching, these activities are employed. In this context, the aim of the research is to examine the reflections of affective and cognitive learning activities on historical empathy. The research was conducted based on the case study approach to qualitative research. Data were collected during the first semester of the 2018/2019 academic year. For this purpose, affective and cognitive learning activities to be used in the course were determined, and then the course was conducted with these activities under the supervision of the researcher. Twenty-two students from a secondary school in a rural area of Sakarya were selected according to the criteria case sampling. In this context, the students who had not previously encountered the affective and cognitive learning activities to be used in the course were included in the research. As data collection tools; field notes, group discussion evaluation form and historical narrative forms were used. Then, the data was analyzed as an inductive. As a result of this analysis, it was determined that affective learning activities, the depiction of love and the fiction of war, and cognitive learning activities, in terms of the historicity of the context, had repercussions. In addition, it can be said that cognitive learning activities have more beneficial results for history teaching. 

  • Referans1 Aldridge, D. (2013). The logical priority of the question: R.G. Collingwood, philosophical hermeneutics, and enquiry-based learning. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 47(1), 71-85. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9752.2012.00873.x.
  • Referans2 Ashby, R., & Lee, P. (1987). Children’s concepts of empathy and understanding in history. In C. Portal (Ed), The History Curriculum for Teachers. New York: Falmer Press.
  • Referans3 Barton, K., & Levstik, L. (2004). Teaching history for the common good. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Referans4 Barton, K., & Levstik, L. (2011). Doing history: İnvestigating with children in elementary and middle school/4th ed. p. cm. Taylor & Francis. LB1582.U6L49 2011 372.89'044-dc22.
  • Referans5 Bogdan, R. C., & Biklen, S. K. (2007). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theory and methods. 5th edition, Allyn & Bacon, Boston.
  • Referans6 Brenneman, E. M. (2001). Empathizing with the many voices of the past: Two teacher help their student connect with United States History. Social Education, (65)1, p. 51-54.
  • Referans7 Brooks, S. (2008) Displaying historical empathy: what impact can a writing Assignment have?, Social Studies Research and Practice, 3(2), 130–146.
  • Referans8 Brooks, S. (2011). Historical empathy as perspective recognition and care in one secondary social studies classroom. Theory and Research in Social Education, 39, 166- 202.
  • Referans9 Bryant, D., & Clark, P. (2006). Historical empathy and Canada: “A people’s history”. Canadian Journal of Education, 29(4), 1039-1063.
  • Referans10 Collins, G. S. (2004). What Aspects Of Historical Empathy Do Gifted Eight Grade Social Studies Students Display?. Athens, Georgia, Unpublished Doctoral Thesis.
  • Referans11 Creswell, J. (2007). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches (2nd ed.). USA: SAGE Publications.
  • Referans12 Davison, M. (2012). Teaching historical empathy and the 1915 Gallipoli campaign. In history matters: Teaching and learning history in New Zealand secondary school in the 21st century (M. Harcourt & M. Sheehan ed.) (pp. 11-31). Wellington, NZ: New Zealand Council for Educational Research (NZCER) Press.
  • Referans13 De Leur, Boxtel C. V., & Wilschut A. (2017). ‘I saw angry people and broken statues’: Historical empathy in secondary history education. British Journal of Educational Studies, (65)3, 331-352.
  • Referans14 Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2011). The sage handbook of qualitative research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Referans15 Dillenburg, M. (2017). Understanding Historical Empathy in the Classroom. Boston University, Unpublished Doctoral Thesis. IRB Protocol Number: 3622E.
  • Referans16 Doppen, F. H. (2000). Teaching and learning multiple perspectives: The atomic bomb. The Social Studies, (91), 159-69.
  • Referans17 Dulberg, N. (2002). Engaging in history: Empathy and perspective-taking in children's historical thinking." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. San Francisco, CA.
  • Referans18 Endacott, J. L. (2010). Reconsidering affective engagement in historical empathy, Theory and Research in Social Education, 38(1).
  • Referans19 Endacott, J. L. (2014) Negotiating the process of historical empathy, Theory & Research in Social Education, 42(1), 4-34, doi: 10.1080/00933104.2013.826158
  • Referans20 Endacott, J. L., & Brooks, S. (2013). An updated theoretical and practical model of historical empathy. Social Studies Research and Practice, 8(1), 41-58.
  • Referans21 Foster, S. (2001). Historical empathy in theory and practice: Some final thoughts. In O. Davis, E. A. Yeager, & S. J. Foster (Eds.) Historical empathy and perspective taking in the Social Studies (pp. 167-182). New York, NY: Rowman and Littlefield.
  • Referans22 Foster, S. J., & Yeager, E. A. (1998). The role of empathy in the development of historical understanding. International Journal of Social Education, 13(1), 1-7.
  • Referans23 Grant, S. G. (2001). It’s just the facts, or is it? The relationship between teachers' practices and students' understandings of history. Theory and Research in Social Education, (29), 65-108.
  • Referans24 Harris, B. K. (2016). Teacher strategies for developing historical empathy. Walden University, Unpublished Doctoral Thesis.
  • Referans25 Kobayashi, C., & Mathieu, M. (2011). Gadamer and Collingwood on temporal distance and understanding. History and Theory, 50(4), 81-103. doi:10.1111/j.1468 2303.2011.00605.x.
  • Referans26 Kosti, K., Κοndoyianni A., & Tsiaras A. (2015). Fostering historical empathy through drama‐ineducation: A pilot study on secondary school students in Greece. Drama Research, (6)1.
  • Referans27 Lee, P., & Ashby, R. (2001). Empathy, perspective taking, and rational understanding. In O. Davis, E. Yeager, & S. Foster (Eds.), Historical Empathy and Perspective Taking in the Social Studies. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
  • Referans28 Maxwell, J.A. (2005). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach (2nd ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  • Referans29 Merriam, S.B. (2009). Qualitative research. A guide to design and implementation, (2nd e.d.) San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • Referans30 Metzger, S. A. (2012). The borders of historical empathy: Students encounter the Holocaust through film. Journal of Social Studies Research, 36(4), 387–410.
  • Referans31 Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: A sourcebook of new method (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Referans32 Ragland, R. (2014). Preparing secondary history teachers: Implementing authentic instructional strategies during pre-service experiences. Social Studies and Research Practice, 9(2), 48-67.
  • Referans33 Savenije, G. M., & De Bruijn, P. (2017) Historical empathy in a museum: Uniting contextualisation and emotional engagement, International Journal of Heritage Studies, (23)9, 832-845, doi: 10.1080/13527258.2017.1339108
  • Referans34 Seidel, J., & Kelle, U. (1995). Different functions of coding in the analysis of textual data. In U. Kelle (Ed.), Computer-aided qualitative data analysis: Theory, methods, and practice (pp. 52-61). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  • Referans35 Shemilt, D. (1984). Beauty and the philosopher: Empathy in history and classroom. In A. Dickinson, P. Lee, & P. Rogers (Eds.), Learning History (pp. 39-84). London: Heinemann Educational Books Ltd.
  • Referans36 Silverman, D. (1993). Interpreting qualitative data: Methods for analyzing talk, text, and interaction. London & Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
  • Referans37 Stake, R. E. (1995). The art of case study research, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California.
  • Referans38 VanSledright, B. A. (2001). From empathetic regard to self-understanding: Im/positionality, empathy, and historical contextualization. In O. L. Davis, Jr., E. A. Yeager, & S. J. Foster (Eds.), Historical empathy and perspective taking in the social studies (pp. 51-68). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Referans39 Wineburg, S. (2001). Historical thinking and other unnatural acts: Charting the future of teaching the past. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
  • Referans40 Yeager, E. A., Foster, S. J., Maley, S. D., Anderson, T., & Morris, J. W., III. (1998). Why people in the past acted as they did: An exploratory study in historical empathy. International Journal of Social Education, 13(1), 8-24.
  • Referans41 Yıldırım, A., ve Şimşek, H. (2016). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri (10. b.). Ankara: Anı Yayınları.
  • Referans42 Yılmaz, K. ve Koca, F. (2012). Tarihsel empati üzerine nitel bir araştırma: Tarih öğretmenlerinin algı, görüş ve deneyimlerinin incelenmesi. Gaziantep Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 11(3):855-879.
  • Referans43 Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Primary Language tr
Subjects Social
Journal Section Research & Theoretical Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-0601-8063
Author: Sezgin ELBAY (Primary Author)
Country: Turkey


Dates

Application Date : November 2, 2019
Acceptance Date : March 8, 2020
Publication Date : May 24, 2020

APA Elbay, S . (2020). T.C. İnkılap Tarihi ve Atatürkçülük Öğretiminde Duyuşsal ve Bilişsel Öğrenme Etkinliklerinin Tarihsel Empatiye Yansımalarının İncelenmesi. Turkish History Education Journal , 9 (1) , 46-65 . DOI: 10.17497/tuhed.641817