Year 2018, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 842 - 855 2018-12-21

Türkçe ve İngilizceyi Anadili Olarak Kullanan Yazarların Doktora ve Yüksek Lisans Tezlerindeki Alıntı Yapma Uygulamalarının Karşılaştırılması
A Comparison of Turkish and English L1 Writers’ Citation Practices in Doctoral and Master’s Theses

Fatma Şeyma DOĞAN [1] , Oktay YAĞIZ [2] , Işıl Günseli KAÇAR [3]

74 129

TÜRKÇE VE İNGİLİZCEYİ ANADİLİ OLARAK KULLANAN YAZARLARIN DOKTORA VE YÜKSEK LİSANS TEZLERİNDEKİ ALINTI YAPMA UYGULAMALARININ KARŞILAŞTIRILMASI

 

Öz

Alıntı yapma, yazarların fikir ve iddialarına gerekçe sağlamak ve onların akademik sahada fikirlerinin orijinalliğini göstermek açısından akademik yazmanın önemli bileşenlerinden biridir. Bu çalışma, İngilizce eğitimi alanındaki anadili Türkçe ve İngilizce olan yazarların yüksek lisans ve doktora tezlerindeki alıntı yapma uygulamalarını araştırmaktadır. Bu çalışmada derlemi içeren nitel yöntem uygulanmıştır. Anadili Türkçe olan yazarlar tarafından yazılmış 10 yüksek lisans ve 7 doktora tezi ile anadili İngilizce olan yazarlar tarafından yazılmış 10 yüksek lisans ve 7 doktora tezi, toplamda 34 lisansüstü tez araştırmanın derlemi için seçilmiştir. İlgili alan yazın temel alınarak derlemdeki 34 lisansüstü tezi içerik analizi yöntemiyle analiz etmek için bir yönerge oluşturulmuştur. Anadili Türkçe ve İngilizce olan yazarların alıntı yapma eğilimleri, akademik yazım normları ve kurallarıyla paralellik göstermesine rağmen, anadili Türkçe olan yazarlar, anadili İngilizce olan yazarlara göre kendi düşüncelerini ifade etmede daha fazla problem yaşamaktadır. Bu durum; öğretim eksikliği, kültürel faktörler, alıntı yapma normları ve kuralları ile ilgili farkındalık eksikliği ve dil geçmişlerini içeren dört etkenden kaynaklanıyor olabilir.

 

Anahtar Kelimeler: Alıntı yapma, akademik yazma, Türk yazarlar

A COMPARISON OF TURKISH AND ENGLISH L1 WRITERS’ CITATION PRACTICES IN DOCTORAL AND MASTER’S THESES

Abstract

Citation is one of the important components of academic writing in the aspects of providing justification for writers’ arguments and demonstrating the novelty of the writers’ position in the academia. This study investigates the citation practices of Turkish and English L1 writers in M.A. and PhD theses. This corpus-based study employed a qualitative approach. A corpus of 34 theses, 17 Turkish L1 writers’ theses consisting of 10 M.A. and 7 PhD theses and 17 English L1 writers’ theses including 10 M.A. theses and 7 PhD theses were selected. Based on the relevant literature, a rubric was prepared to analyse the 34 theses in the corpus by means of employing qualitative content analysis. Even though Turkish and English L1 writers’ citing tendencies appear to be parallel with writing norms and conventions in the field of ELT, Turkish L1 writers have more challenges regarding integrating citations with their own voices and positions more than English L1 writers, which may stem from four factors comprising of lack of instruction, insufficient awareness of citation norms and conventions, cultural factors and linguistic background.

 

Key Words: Citation practices, academic writing, Turkish writers

 

  • References Azlan, N.M.N.I (2013).Citation typologies and rhetorical functions of citations in master dissertations. Journal of Creative Practices in Language Learning and Teaching, 1(2), 61-74. Retrieved from https://kedah.uitm.edu.my/CPLT/images/stories/v1n2/Article5.pdf.
  • Bloch, J., & Chi, L. (1995). A comparison of the use of citations in Chinese and English academic discourse, In D. Belcher, & G. Braine (Eds.), Academic writing in a second language: Essays on research and pedagogy. Norwood, NJ: Ablex,
  • Blumenthal, L.F. (2014). Self-efficacy in low-level English language learners. (Unpublished MA thesis). Portland State University, Portland.
  • Çiftçi, F.S. (2011). Supporting self-efficacy and learner autonomy in relation to academic success in EFL classrooms (A case study). (Unpublished MA thesis). Gaziantep University, Gaziantep.
  • Coffin, C. (2009). Incorporating and evaluating voices in a film studies thesis. Writing & Pedagogy, 1,163–193. http://doi.org/10.1558/wap.v1i2.163.
  • Davidse, K., & Vandelanotte, L. (2011). Tense use in direct and indirect speech in English. Journal of Pragmatics, 43, 236–250. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.07.022
  • Dong, Y.R. (1996). Learning how to use citations for knowledge transformation: Non-native doctoral students’ dissertation writing in science. Research in the Teaching of English, 30(4), 428-457. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40171551
  • ElMalik, A. T., & Nesi, H. (2008). Publishing research in a second language: the case of Sudanese contributors to international medical journals. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 7, 87–96. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2008.02.007
  • Harwood, N. (2004). Citation analysis: a multidisciplinary perspective on academic literacy. In M. Baynham, A. Deignan, & G. White (eds.), Applied linguistics at the interface. London: Equinox, pp.79-89.
  • Harwood, N. (2009). An interview-based study of the functions of citations in academic writing across two disciplines. Journal of Pragmatics, 41, 497-518. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2008.06.001
  • Harwood, N. (2010). Research-based materials to demystify academic citation for postgraduates. In N. Harwood (Ed.), English language teaching materials: Theory and practice (pp. 301–321). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Hirvela, A. (2017). Argumentation & second language writing: Are we missing the boat?. Journal of Second Language Writing, 36, 69-74. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2017.05.002
  • Hu, G. & Wang, G. (2014). Disciplinary and ethnolinguistic influences on citation in research articles. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 14, 14-28. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2013.11.001
  • Hunston, S. (1993). Evaluation and ideology in scientific writing. In M. Ghadessy, (Ed.), Register analysis: Theory and practice. (pp 57-73). London: Pinter.
  • Hyland, K. (1990). A genre description of the argumentative essay. RELC Journal, 21 (1), 66-78. http://doi.org/10.1177/003368829002100105
  • Hyland, K. (1999). Academic attribution: citation and the construction of disciplinary knowledge. Applied Linguistics, 20, 341–367. http://doi.org/10.1093/applin/20.3.341
  • Hyland, K. (2000). Disciplinary discourses: Social interactions in academic writing. London: Longman.
  • Hyland, K. (2002). Activity and evaluation: reporting practices in academic writing. In J. Flowerdew (Ed.), Academic discourse (115–130). London: Longman.
  • Hyland, K. & Milton, J. (1999). Assertions in students' academic essays: A comparison of English NS and NNS student writers. In R. Berry, B. Asker, K. Hyland, & M. Lam (Eds.), Language analysis, description, and pedagogy (pp. 147-161). Hong Kong: Language Centre, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
  • Işık-Taş E. E. (2008). A corpus-based analysis of genre-specific discourse of research: The research article and the PhD thesis in ELT. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Middle East Technical University, Ankara.
  • Jalilifar, R.D. (2012). Academic attribution: citation analysis in master’s theses and research articles in applied linguistics. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 22, 23-41.http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1473-4192.2011.00291.x
  • Jalilifar, A. & Dabbi,R. (2012). Citation in applied linguistics: Analysis of introduction sections of Iranian master’s theses. Linguistik Online, 57 (7), 91-104. http://dx.doi.org/10.13092/lo.57.252
  • Jogthong, C. (2001). Research article introductions in Thai: Genre analysis of academic writing. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Morgantown, West Virginia, Department of Educational Theory and Practice.
  • Jomaa, N.J., & Bidin, S.J. (2017). Perspective of EFL doctoral students on challenges of citations in academic writing. Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction (MJLI), 14 (2), 177-209.Retrieved from http://mjli.uum.edu.my/images/vol14no2dec17/177-209cm.pdf
  • Kafes, H. (2017). Citation practices among novice and expert academic writers. Education and Science, 42:441-462. doi: 10.15390/EB.2017.6317.
  • Kan, M.O. (2016). Atıf çözümlemesi: Türkçe eğitimi alanındaki lisansüstü tezlerin giriş bölümlerine atıf kullanımları. Kastamonu Eğtim Dergisi, 24(3), 1289-1300. Retrieved from http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/210059
  • Lee, J.J., Hitchcock, C. & Casal, J.E. (2018). Citation practices of L2 university students in first year writing: Form, function and stance. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 33,1-11. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2018.01.001
  • Mansourizadeh, K. & Ahmad, U.K. (2011). Citation practices among non-native expert and novice scientific writers. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 10, 152-161. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2011.03.004
  • Mohan, B.A. & Lo, W.A.Y. (1985). Academic writing and Chinese students: Transfer and developmental factors. TESOL Quarterly, 19(3), 515-534. doi:10.2307/3586276
  • Monreal, C.S. & Salom, L.G. (2011). A cross-language study on citation practices in PhD theses. International Journal of English Studies, 11(2), 53-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.6018/ijes/2011/2/149641
  • Myers, G. (1990). Writing biology: Texts in the social construction of scientific knowledge. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
  • Okamura, A. (2008). Use of citation forms in academic texts by writers in L1 and L2 context. The Economic Journal of Takasaki City University of Economics, 51(1), 29-44. Retrieved from http://www1.tcue.ac.jp/home1/k-gakkai/ronsyuu/ronsyuukeisai/51_1/okamura.pdf
  • Pecorari, D. (2008). Academic writing and plagiarism: A linguistic analysis. London: Continuum.
  • Pennycook, A. (1996). Borrowing others’ words: Text, ownership, memory and plagiarism. TESOL Quarterly, 30(2), 201-230. doi:10.2307/3588141
  • Petrić, B. (2005). Contrastive rhetoric in the writing classroom: A case study. English for Specific Purposes, 24, 213-228. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2004.09.001
  • Petric´, B. (2006). Citation practices in student academic writing. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Budapest, Hungary: Eo¨tvo¨s Lora´nd University.
  • Petric, B. (2007). Rhetorical functions of citations in high- and low-rated master’s theses. Journal or English for Academic Purposes, 6, 238-253. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2007.09.002
  • Rabab’ah, G. & Al-Marshadi,A. (2013). Integrative vs. non-integrative citations among native and non-native English writers. International Education Studies, 6(7), 78-87. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ies.v6n7p78
  • Statsky, W. P. (2009). Introduction to par legalism: Perspectives, problems and skills. US: Library of Congress.
  • Swales, J. M. (1986). Citation analysis and discourse analysis. Applied Linguistics, 7, 39-56. http://doi.org/10.1093/applin/7.1.39
  • Swales, J.M. (1990). Genre analysis. English in academic and research settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Swales, J.M. (2014). Variation in citational practice in a corpus of student biology papers: From parenthetical plonking to intertextual storytelling. Written Communication, 31(1), 118-141. http://doi.org/10.1177/0741088313515166
  • Swales, J. M. & Feak, C. B. (2004). Academic writing for graduate students: Essential tasks and skills (2nd ed.). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
  • Szypszak, C. (2011). Understanding law for public administration. Sudburry, Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
  • Thompson P. (2000). Citation practices in PhD theses. In L. Burnard and T. McEnery (Eds.), Rethinking language pedagogy from a corpus perspective. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
  • Thompson, P. (2001). A pedagogically-motivated corpus-based examination of PhD theses: Macrostructure, citation practices and uses of modal verbs. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Reading.
  • Thompson, P. & Tribble, C. (2001). Looking at citations: Using corpora in English for academic purposes. Language Learning and Technology, 5(3), 91–105. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.615.1887&rep=rep1&type=pdf.
  • Thompson G. & Ye. Y. (1991). Evaluation in the reporting verbs used in academic papers. Applied Linguistics, 12(4), 365-382. http://doi.org/10.1093/applin/12.4.365
  • Thompson G. & Ye. Y. (1991). Evaluation in the reporting verbs used in academic papers. Applied Linguistics, 12(4), 365-382. http://doi.org/10.1093/applin/12.4.365
  • Tilfarlioğlu, F. T., & Ciftci, F. S. (2011). Supporting self-efficacy and learner autonomy in relation to academic success in EFL classrooms (A Case Study). Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 1(10), 1284-1294. http://dx.doi.org/10.4304/tpls.1.10.1284-1294
  • White, H., D. (2004). Citation analysis and discourse analysis revisited. Applied Linguistics, 25 (1), 89-116. http://doi.org/10.1093/applin/25.1.89
  • Yağız, O., Ötügen, R., Kaya, F & Aydın, B. (2014). A literature review analysis of the Turkish scholars’ research articles in ELT and applied linguistics. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 158, 389-393 http://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.12.105
Primary Language en
Subjects Social
Journal Section In This Issue
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-2904-802X
Author: Fatma Şeyma DOĞAN (Primary Author)
Institution: HARRAN UNIVERSITY
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0001-7076-7774
Author: Oktay YAĞIZ
Institution: ATATÜRK FACULTY OF EDUCATION
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0003-3043-5040
Author: Işıl Günseli KAÇAR
Institution: MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date: December 21, 2018

Bibtex @research article { erziefd451443, journal = {Erzincan Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi}, issn = {2148-7758}, eissn = {2148-7510}, address = {Erzincan University}, year = {2018}, volume = {20}, pages = {842 - 855}, doi = {10.17556/erziefd.451443}, title = {A Comparison of Turkish and English L1 Writers’ Citation Practices in Doctoral and Master’s Theses}, key = {cite}, author = {DOĞAN, Fatma Şeyma and YAĞIZ, Oktay and KAÇAR, Işıl Günseli} }
APA DOĞAN, F , YAĞIZ, O , KAÇAR, I . (2018). A Comparison of Turkish and English L1 Writers’ Citation Practices in Doctoral and Master’s Theses. Erzincan Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 20 (3), 842-855. DOI: 10.17556/erziefd.451443
MLA DOĞAN, F , YAĞIZ, O , KAÇAR, I . "A Comparison of Turkish and English L1 Writers’ Citation Practices in Doctoral and Master’s Theses". Erzincan Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi 20 (2018): 842-855 <http://dergipark.org.tr/erziefd/issue/41098/451443>
Chicago DOĞAN, F , YAĞIZ, O , KAÇAR, I . "A Comparison of Turkish and English L1 Writers’ Citation Practices in Doctoral and Master’s Theses". Erzincan Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi 20 (2018): 842-855
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - A Comparison of Turkish and English L1 Writers’ Citation Practices in Doctoral and Master’s Theses AU - Fatma Şeyma DOĞAN , Oktay YAĞIZ , Işıl Günseli KAÇAR Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - doi: 10.17556/erziefd.451443 DO - 10.17556/erziefd.451443 T2 - Erzincan Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 842 EP - 855 VL - 20 IS - 3 SN - 2148-7758-2148-7510 M3 - doi: 10.17556/erziefd.451443 UR - https://doi.org/10.17556/erziefd.451443 Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Erzincan University Journal of Education Faculty A Comparison of Turkish and English L1 Writers’ Citation Practices in Doctoral and Master’s Theses %A Fatma Şeyma DOĞAN , Oktay YAĞIZ , Işıl Günseli KAÇAR %T A Comparison of Turkish and English L1 Writers’ Citation Practices in Doctoral and Master’s Theses %D 2018 %J Erzincan Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi %P 2148-7758-2148-7510 %V 20 %N 3 %R doi: 10.17556/erziefd.451443 %U 10.17556/erziefd.451443
ISNAD DOĞAN, Fatma Şeyma , YAĞIZ, Oktay , KAÇAR, Işıl Günseli . "A Comparison of Turkish and English L1 Writers’ Citation Practices in Doctoral and Master’s Theses". Erzincan Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi 20 / 3 (December 2018): 842-855. https://doi.org/10.17556/erziefd.451443
AMA DOĞAN F , YAĞIZ O , KAÇAR I . A Comparison of Turkish and English L1 Writers’ Citation Practices in Doctoral and Master’s Theses. Erzincan Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi. 2018; 20(3): 842-855.
Vancouver DOĞAN F , YAĞIZ O , KAÇAR I . A Comparison of Turkish and English L1 Writers’ Citation Practices in Doctoral and Master’s Theses. Erzincan Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi. 2018; 20(3): 855-842.