Year 2019, Volume 44, Issue 3, Pages 491 - 497 2019-05-15

THE LEVEL OF 3-MCPD FATTY ACID ESTERS IN VEGETABLE OILS AND MARGARINES COLLECTED FROM TURKISH MARKET
TÜRK PİYASASINDAN TOPLANAN BİTKİSEL YAĞLAR VE MARGARİNLERDE 3-MCPD YAĞ ASİDİ ESTERLERİNİN DÜZEYİ

Derya Deniz Şirinyıldız [1] , Ecem Aydın [2] , Yeliz Öztürk [3] , Tuğçe Avcı [4] , Aslı Yıldırım [5] , Aslı Yorulmaz [6]

38 80

The aim of the present research was to investigate the content of 3-MCPD esters in vegetable oils (hazelnut, sunflower, rapeseed and corn oil) and margarines sold out in Turkish local markets. A series of 27 margarines and vegetable edible oil collected from markets were analyzed in the study according to DGF C VI 18 (10) method. Among vegetable oils, corn oil presented highest amount of 3-MCPD esters (2.49 mg/kg) followed by rapeseed oil (0.95 mg/kg), sunflower oil (0.79 mg/kg) and hazelnut oil (0.45 mg/kg), respectively. Highest amount of 3-MCPD esters was detected for margarines (4.54 mg/kg) among analyzed samples. The results demonstrate that 3-MCPD esters can occur at different levels in various vegetable oils and margarines available on Turkish markets.

Çalışmanın amacı Türkiye piyasasında satışa sunulan bitkisel yağlar (fındık yağı, ayçiçek yağı, kanola yağı ve mısır yağı) ve margarinlerde 3-MCPD ester içeriklerinin belirlenmesidir. Çalışmada marketlerden alınan toplam 27 adet margarin ve bitkisel yağ DGF C VI 18 (10) metoduna göre analiz edilmiştir. Bitkisel yağlar arasında en yüksek 3-MCPD ester miktarı (2.49 mg/kg) mısır yağında tespit edilmiş olup, bunu sırasıyla kanola yağı (0.95 mg/kg), ayçiçek yağı (0.79 mg/kg) ve fındık yağı (0.45 mg/kg) izlemiştir. Analiz edilen örnekler arasında en yüksek 3-MCPD ester miktarı margarinlerde (4.54 mg/kg) saptanmıştır. Çalışma sonuçları Türkiye piyasasında yer alan çeşitli bitkisel yağlar ve margarinlerde farklı miktarlarda 3-MCPD esterlerinin bulunabileceğini göstermektedir.

  • Abraham, K., Appel, K. E., Berger-Preiss, E., Apel, E., Gerling, S., Mielke, H., Creutzenberg, O., Lampen, A. (2013). Relative oral bioavailability of 3-MCPD from 3-MCPD fatty acid esters in rats. Archives of Toxicology, 87(4): 649-659, doi:10.1007/s00204-012-0970-8.
  • Appel, K. E., Abraham, K., Berger-Preiss, E., Hansen, T., Apel, E., Schuchardt, S., Vogt, C., Bakhiya, N., Lampen, A. (2013). Relative oral bioavailability of glycidol from glycidyl fatty acid esters in rats. Archives of Toxicology, 87(9): 1649–1659, doi:10.1007/s00204-013-1061-1.
  • Bakhiya, N., Abraham, K., Gürtler, R., Appel, K. E., Lampen, A. (2011). Toxicological assessment of 3‐chloropropane‐1, 2‐diol and glycidol fatty acid esters in food. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 55(4): 509-521, doi:10.1002/mnfr.201000550.
  • Becalski, A., Feng, S., Lau, B. P., & Zhao, T. (2015). A pilot survey of 2-and 3-monochloropropanediol and glycidol fatty acid esters in foods on the Canadian market 2011–2013. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 37, 58-66, doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2014.09.002.
  • Beljaars, P. R., Houwen-Claassen, A. A. (1994). Determination of polymerized triglycerides in frying fats and oils by gel permeation chromatography: interlaboratory study. Journal of AOAC International, 77(3): 667-671.
  • Bockisch M. 1993. Nahrungsfette und-öle, Handbuch der Lebensmitteltechnologie. Eugen Ulmer GmbH & Co, Stuttgart Hohenheim.
  • Breitling-Utzmann, C. M., Hrenn, H., Haase, N. U., Unbehend, G. M. (2005). Influence of dough ingredients on 3-chloropropane-1, 2-diol (3-MCPD) formation in toast. Food Additives and Contaminants, 22(2): 97-103, doi:10.1080/02652030500037936.
  • Calta, P., Velíšek, J., Doležal, M., Hasnip, S., Crews, C., Réblová, Z. (2004). Formation of 3-chloropropane-1, 2-diol in systems simulating processed foods. European Food Research and Technology, 218(6): 501-506, doi:10.1016/j.fct.2008.07.003.
  • Chung, C., Chan, S. W., Chung, B. T., Xiao, Y., Ho, Y. Y. (2013). Occurrence of bound 3-monochloropropan-1, 2-diol content in commonly consumed foods in Hong Kong analysed by enzymatic hydrolysis and GC-MS detection. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 30(7): 1248-1254, doi:10.1080/19440049.2013.800996.
  • Craft, B. D., Nagy, K., Seefelder, W., Dubois, M., Destaillats, F. (2012). Glycidyl esters in refined palm (Elaeis guineensis) oil and related fractions. Part II: practical recommendations for effective mitigation. Food Chemistry, 132(1): 73-79, doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.10.034.
  • Crews C. 2012. Fatty acid esters of chloropropanols and glycidol in foods – analysis and exposure. 1–29.
  • Crews, C., Brereton, P., Davies, A. (2001). The effects of domestic cooking on the levels of 3-monochloropropanediol in foods. Food Additives & Contaminants, 18(4): 271-280, doi:10.1080/02652030120064.
  • Davidek, J., Velíšek, J., Kubelka, V., Janíček, G., Šimicová, Z. (1980). Glycerol chlorohydrins and their esters as products of the hydrolysis of tripalmitin, tristearin and triolein with hydrochloric acid, Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und Forschung, 171(1): 14-17. doi:10.1007/BF01044410.
  • Destaillats, F., Angers, P. (2005). On the mechanisms of cyclic and bicyclic fatty acid monomer formation in heated edible oils. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 107(10): 767-772, doi:10.1002/ejlt.200501159.
  • Destaillats, F., Craft, B. D., Dubois, M., Nagy, K. (2012). Glycidyl esters in refined palm (Elaeis guineensis) oil and related fractions. Part I: Formation mechanism. Food Chemistry, 131(4): 1391-1398, doi:10.1016/J.FOODCHEM.2011.10.006.
  • Deutsche Gesellschaft für Fettwissenschaft (DGF). 2010. DGF-Standard method C-VI 18 (10) Fatty-acid-bound 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and 2,3-epoxi-propane-1-ol (glycidol) Determination in oils and fats by GC/MS.
  • Dijkstra AJ, Segers JC. 2007. Production and refining of oils and fats. In The Lipid Handbook with CD-ROM, Third Edition (pp. 150-269). CRC Press.
  • Doležal, M., Chaloupská, M., Divinová, V., Svejkovská, B., Velišek, J. (2005). Occurrence of 3-chloropropane-1, 2-diol and its esters in coffee. European Food Research and Technology, 221(3-4): 221-225, doi:10.1007/s00217-004-1118-8.
  • Ermacora, A., Hrncirik, K. (2013). A novel method for simultaneous monitoring of 2‐MCPD, 3‐MCPD and glycidyl esters in oils and fats. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 90(1): 1-8, doi:10.1007/s11746-012-2132-9.
  • Franke, K., Strijowski, U., Fleck, G., Pudel, F. (2009). Influence of chemical refining process and oil type on bound 3-chloro-1, 2-propanediol contents in palm oil and rapeseed oil. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 42(10): 1751-1754, doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2009.05.021.
  • Haines, T. D., Adlaf, K. J., Pierceall, R. M., Lee, I., Venkitasubramanian, P., Collison, M. W. (2011). Direct determination of MCPD fatty acid esters and glycidyl fatty acid esters in vegetable oils by LC–TOFMS. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 88(1): 1-14, doi:10.1007/s11746-010-1732-5.
  • Hamlet, C. G., Sadd, P. A., Crews, C., Velíšek, J., Baxter, D. E. (2002). Occurrence of 3-chloro-propane-1, 2-diol (3-MCPD) and related compounds in foods: a review. Food Additives & Contaminants, 19(7): 619-631, doi:10.1080/0265203021013239.
  • Hamlet, C. G., Sadd, P. A. (2004). Chloropropanols and their esters in cereal products. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 22(1): 259.
  • Hrncirik, K., van Duijn, G. (2011). An initial study on the formation of 3‐MCPD esters during oil refining. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 113(3): 374-379, doi:10.1002/ejlt.201000317.
  • Jędrkiewicz, R., Głowacz, A., Gromadzka, J., Namieśnik, J. (2016). Determination of 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD esters in edible oils, fish oils and lipid fractions of margarines available on Polish market. Food Control, 59: 487-492, doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.05.039.
  • Karl, H., Merkle, S., Kuhlmann, J., Fritsche, J. (2016). Development of analytical methods for the determination of free and ester bound 2‐, 3‐MCPD, and esterified glycidol in fishery products. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 118(3): 406-417, doi:10.1002/ejlt.201400573.
  • Kuhlmann, J. (2011). Determination of bound 2, 3‐epoxy‐1‐propanol (glycidol) and bound monochloropropanediol (MCPD) in refined oils. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 113(3): 335-344, 335–344. doi:10.1002/ejlt.201000313.
  • Lee, B. Q., Khor, S. M. (2015). 3‐Chloropropane‐1, 2‐diol (3‐MCPD) in soy sauce: A review on the formation, reduction, and detection of this potential carcinogen. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 14(1): 48-66, doi:10.1111/1541-4337.12120.
  • MacMahon, S., Begley, T. H., Diachenko, G. W. (2013). Occurrence of 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters in edible oils in the United States. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 30(12): 2081-2092, 2081–2092. doi:10.1080/19440049.2013.840805.
  • Raczyk, M., Bonte, A., Matthäus, B., Rudzińska, M. (2018). Impact of Added Phytosteryl/Phytostanyl Fatty Acid Esters on Chemical Parameters of Margarines upon Heating and Pan‐Frying. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 120(2): 1700281, doi:10.1002/ejlt.201700281.
  • Razak, R. A. A., Kuntom, A., Siew, W. L., Ibrahim, N. A., Ramli, M. R., Hussein, R., Nesaretnam, K. (2012). Detection and monitoring of 3-monochloropropane-1, 2-diol (3-MCPD) esters in cooking oils. Food Control, 25(1): 355-360, doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2011.10.058.
  • Schilter, B., Scholz, G., Seefelder, W. (2011). Fatty acid esters of chloropropanols and related compounds in food: Toxicological aspects. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 113(3): 309-313, doi:10.1002/ejlt.201000311.
  • Velíšek, J., Davidek, J., Hajšlová, J., Kubelka, V., Janíček, G., Mánková, B. (1978). Chlorohydrins in protein hydrolysatesChlorhydrinein Eiweißhydrolysaten. Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und Forschung, 167(4): 241-244, doi:10.1007/BF01135595.
  • Weißhaar, R. (2008). Determination of total 3‐chloropropane‐1, 2‐diol (3‐MCPD) in edible oils by cleavage of MCPD esters with sodium methoxide. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 110(2): 183-186, doi:10.1002/ejlt.200700197.
  • Weißhaar, R., Perz, R. (2010). Fatty acid esters of glycidol in refined fats and oils. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 112(2): 158-165, doi: 10.1002/ejlt.200900137.
  • Weißhaar, R. (2011). Fatty acid esters of 3‐MCPD: Overview of occurrence and exposure estimates. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 113(3): 304-308, doi:10.1002/ejlt.200900137.
  • Wöhrlin, F., Fry, H., Lahrssen-Wiederholt, M., Preiß-Weigert, A. (2015). Occurrence of fatty acid esters of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD and glycidol in infant formula. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 32(11): 1810-1822, doi:10.1080/19440049.2015.1071497.
  • Zelinková, Z., Svejkovská, B., Velíšek, J., Doležal, M. (2006). Fatty acid esters of 3-chloropropane-1, 2-diol in edible oils. Food Additives and Contaminants, 23(12): 1290-1298, doi:10.1080/02652030600887628.
Primary Language en
Subjects Science
Published Date 2019
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Author: Derya Deniz Şirinyıldız
Institution: AYDIN ADNAN MENDERES ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Author: Ecem Aydın
Institution: AYDIN ADNAN MENDERES ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Author: Yeliz Öztürk
Institution: AYDIN ADNAN MENDERES ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Author: Tuğçe Avcı
Institution: AYDIN ADNAN MENDERES ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Author: Aslı Yıldırım
Institution: AYDIN ADNAN MENDERES ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Author: Aslı Yorulmaz (Primary Author)
Institution: AYDIN ADNAN MENDERES ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date: May 15, 2019

Bibtex @research article { gida525396, journal = {GIDA}, issn = {1300-3070}, eissn = {1309-6273}, address = {Gıda Teknolojisi Derneği}, year = {2019}, volume = {44}, pages = {491 - 497}, doi = {10.15237/gida.GD19039}, title = {THE LEVEL OF 3-MCPD FATTY ACID ESTERS IN VEGETABLE OILS AND MARGARINES COLLECTED FROM TURKISH MARKET}, key = {cite}, author = {Deniz Şirinyıldız, Derya and Aydın, Ecem and Öztürk, Yeliz and Avcı, Tuğçe and Yıldırım, Aslı and Yorulmaz, Aslı} }
APA Deniz Şirinyıldız, D , Aydın, E , Öztürk, Y , Avcı, T , Yıldırım, A , Yorulmaz, A . (2019). THE LEVEL OF 3-MCPD FATTY ACID ESTERS IN VEGETABLE OILS AND MARGARINES COLLECTED FROM TURKISH MARKET. GIDA, 44 (3), 491-497. DOI: 10.15237/gida.GD19039
MLA Deniz Şirinyıldız, D , Aydın, E , Öztürk, Y , Avcı, T , Yıldırım, A , Yorulmaz, A . "THE LEVEL OF 3-MCPD FATTY ACID ESTERS IN VEGETABLE OILS AND MARGARINES COLLECTED FROM TURKISH MARKET". GIDA 44 (2019): 491-497 <http://dergipark.org.tr/gida/issue/44377/525396>
Chicago Deniz Şirinyıldız, D , Aydın, E , Öztürk, Y , Avcı, T , Yıldırım, A , Yorulmaz, A . "THE LEVEL OF 3-MCPD FATTY ACID ESTERS IN VEGETABLE OILS AND MARGARINES COLLECTED FROM TURKISH MARKET". GIDA 44 (2019): 491-497
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - THE LEVEL OF 3-MCPD FATTY ACID ESTERS IN VEGETABLE OILS AND MARGARINES COLLECTED FROM TURKISH MARKET AU - Derya Deniz Şirinyıldız , Ecem Aydın , Yeliz Öztürk , Tuğçe Avcı , Aslı Yıldırım , Aslı Yorulmaz Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.15237/gida.GD19039 DO - 10.15237/gida.GD19039 T2 - GIDA JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 491 EP - 497 VL - 44 IS - 3 SN - 1300-3070-1309-6273 M3 - doi: 10.15237/gida.GD19039 UR - https://doi.org/10.15237/gida.GD19039 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 THE JOURNAL OF FOOD THE LEVEL OF 3-MCPD FATTY ACID ESTERS IN VEGETABLE OILS AND MARGARINES COLLECTED FROM TURKISH MARKET %A Derya Deniz Şirinyıldız , Ecem Aydın , Yeliz Öztürk , Tuğçe Avcı , Aslı Yıldırım , Aslı Yorulmaz %T THE LEVEL OF 3-MCPD FATTY ACID ESTERS IN VEGETABLE OILS AND MARGARINES COLLECTED FROM TURKISH MARKET %D 2019 %J GIDA %P 1300-3070-1309-6273 %V 44 %N 3 %R doi: 10.15237/gida.GD19039 %U 10.15237/gida.GD19039
ISNAD Deniz Şirinyıldız, Derya , Aydın, Ecem , Öztürk, Yeliz , Avcı, Tuğçe , Yıldırım, Aslı , Yorulmaz, Aslı . "THE LEVEL OF 3-MCPD FATTY ACID ESTERS IN VEGETABLE OILS AND MARGARINES COLLECTED FROM TURKISH MARKET". GIDA 44 / 3 (May 2019): 491-497. https://doi.org/10.15237/gida.GD19039
AMA Deniz Şirinyıldız D , Aydın E , Öztürk Y , Avcı T , Yıldırım A , Yorulmaz A . THE LEVEL OF 3-MCPD FATTY ACID ESTERS IN VEGETABLE OILS AND MARGARINES COLLECTED FROM TURKISH MARKET. GIDA. 2019; 44(3): 491-497.
Vancouver Deniz Şirinyıldız D , Aydın E , Öztürk Y , Avcı T , Yıldırım A , Yorulmaz A . THE LEVEL OF 3-MCPD FATTY ACID ESTERS IN VEGETABLE OILS AND MARGARINES COLLECTED FROM TURKISH MARKET. GIDA. 2019; 44(3): 497-491.