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Supervision in Counselor Education: Exploration of Current Status and Standards in Turkey

Yıl 2019, Cilt 9, Sayı 2, 271 - 290, 31.12.2019
https://doi.org/10.17984/adyuebd.592894

Öz

Supervision is one of the main elements of counseling and counselor education, and counselor education programs require counselor trainees to complete practicum and internship under supervision as a practical part of counselor education curriculum in the United States. However, supervision is a fairly new concept in Turkey. This paper explains the foundation of supervision along with its international and national standards. Then, the paper addresses the role of the supervisee and the supervisor as well as providing a brief explanation of supervision models that are commonly being used. The current state of clinical supervision and growing supervision literature in Turkey are being explored by providing a discussion and a review of supervision related studies in Turkey from 2010 to 2019. Further, the lack of national standards for supervision and limitations of supervision are discussed. In the end, recommendations for counselor educators, policymakers, and future researchers are presented.

Kaynakça

  • Aladağ, M. (2014). Critical incidents in individual counseling practicum supervision across different levels of counselor education. Ege Education Journal, 15(2), 428-475.
  • Aladağ M., & Kemer, G. (2016) Clinical supervision: An emerging counseling specialty in Turkey. The Clinical Supervisor, 35(2), 175-191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07325223.2016.1223775
  • American Counseling Association (2014). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.
  • American Psychological Association (2010). Ethical principles of psychologist and code of conduct. Washington, DC: Author.
  • Association for Counselor Education and Supervision. (1993). Ethical guidelines for counseling supervisors. Retrieved from http://files.acesonline.net/doc/ethical_guidelines.htm
  • Atik, G., Çelik, E.G., Güç, E., & Tutal, N. (2016). Opinions of counseling students about the use of metaphor in the structured peer group supervision process. Ege Education Journal, 17(2), 597 – 619.
  • Bakalım, O., Şanal-Karahan, F., & Şensoy, G. (2018). The effect of group supervision on the psychological counseling self-efficacy levels of psychological counseling candidates. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry, 9(4), 412-428.
  • Beck, J. S., Sarnat, J. E., & Barenstein, V. (2008). Psychotherapy-based approaches to supervision. In C. A. Falender & E. P. Shafranske (Eds.), Casebook for clinical supervision: A competency-based approach (pp. 57-96). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Bernard, J. M., & Goodyear, R. K. (2014). Fundamentals of clinical supervision (5th ed.). Essex, UK: Pearson Education Limited.
  • Bilican, I., & Soygut, G. (2015). Professional development processes of trainee and experienced psychotherapists in Turkey. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 26(4), 249-60.
  • Borders, L. D., & Leddick, G. R. (1987). Handbook of counseling supervision. Alexandria, VA: Association for Counselor Education and Supervision.
  • Büyükgöze-Kavas, A. (2011). An evaluation regarding individual and group counseling practicums. Turkish Education Sciences Journal, 9, 411–432.
  • Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (2016). 2016 CACREP standards. Alexandria, VA: Author.
  • Council of Higher Education (CoHE). (2018). Guidance and Psychological Counseling Undergraduate Program. Retrieved from http://www.yok.gov.tr/documents/10279/41805112/Rehberlik_ve_Psikolojik_Danismanlik_Lisans_Programi.pdf
  • Coursol, D. (2004). Cybersupervision: Conducting supervision on the information superhighway. In G. R. Waltz & C.Kirkman (Eds.), Cyberbytes: Highlighting compelling issues of technology in counseling (pp. 83-85). Greensboro, NC: CAPS Publications.
  • Çekici, F., Avcı, R., & Çolakkadıoğlu, O. (2017). A postmodern approach to psychological counseling: Reflecting team technique. International Periodical for the Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic, 12(28), 175-192.
  • Daşçı, E., & Yalçın, İ. (2018). A review on supervision models for group counseling and group leaders. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance, 8(49), 19-43.
  • EPDAD (2016). Guidance and psychological counseling undergraduate education standards. Retrieved from https://epdad.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/RPD-LES-241216.pdf
  • EPDAD (n.d.). Accredited programs. Retrieved from https://epdad.org/akredite-edilen-programlar/
  • Erkan Atik, Arıcı, F., & Ergene, T. (2014). Supervision models and assessments of the models. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal, 5(42), 305-317.
  • Erkan Atik, Z., & Yıldırım, İ. (2017). Validity and reliability of Turkish form of the Evaluation Process within Supervision Inventory. Ege Education Journal, 18, 146-173.
  • Eryılmaz, A., & Mutlu, T. (2017). Developing the four-stage supervision model for counselor trainees. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 17, 597–629. http://dx.doi.org/10.12738/estp.2017.2.2253
  • Eryılmaz, A., & Mutlu, T. (2018). Counselor trainees’ opinions related to the developmentalcomprehensive supervision model. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences,17(65), 123-141.
  • Gök, A. C. (2015). Parallel process in psychotherapy supervision: A case study. AYNA Clinical Psychology Journal, 2(2), 39-50.
  • Hart, G. M. (1994). Strategies and methods of effective supervision. ED372341 ERIC Digest, ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Student Services, Greensboro, NC. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED372341.pdf
  • İlhan, T., Sarıkaya, Y., & Yöntem, M. K. (2018). The development of supervisor roles scale. Abant İzzet Baysal University Journal of Faculty of Education, 18(4), 2103-2122.
  • Kanz, J. E. (2001). Clinical-Supervision.com: Issues in the provision of online supervision. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 32(4), 415-420.
  • Kerl, S. B., Garcia, J. L., McCullough, C. S., & Maxwell, M. E. (2002). Systematic evaluation of professional performance: Legally supported procedure and process. Counselor Education and Supervision, 41, 321–334.
  • Koçyiğit-Özyiğit, M., & İşleyen, F. (2016). Supervisor training in counseling. Abant İzzet Baysal University Journal of Faculty of Education, 16(4), 1813-1831.
  • Lakeman, R. (2005) Reflections on the use of technology in clinical supervision: The medium and the message. Presented at Clinical Supervision Conference, Mornington Peninsula, Australia.
  • Leddick, G. R. (1994). Models of clinical supervision. EDO-CG-94-08, ERIC Digest, ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Student Services, Greensboro, NC. Retrieved from http://www.counseling.org/Resources/Library/ERIC%20Digests/94-08.pdf
  • Marini, I., & Stebnicki, M. A. (Eds.) (2009). The professional counselor’s desk reference. New York: Springer.
  • Meydan, B. (2014). A Supervision model for counseling practicum: Microcounseling supervision model. Ege Education Journal, 15(2), 358–374.
  • Meydan, B. (2015). Examining the effectiveness of microcounseling supervision model in individual counseling practice. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal, 5(43), 55-68.
  • Meydan, B. (2019). Facilitative and hindering factors regarding the supervisory relationship based on supervisors’ and undergraduate supervisees’ opinions. Pegem Education and Training Journal, 9, 171-208. http://dx.doi.org/10.14527/pegegog.2019.007
  • Meydan, B., & Denizli, S. (2018). Turkish undergraduate supervisees’ views regarding supervisory relationship. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 74, 1-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.14689/ejer.2018.74.1
  • Meydan B., & Kağnıcı D. Y. (2018) Establishing multicultural supervisory relationship. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal, 8(51), 2-28.
  • Meydan, B., & Koçyiğit-Özyiğit, M. (2016). Supervision relationship: A critical element of counseling supervision. Ege Education Journal, 17, 225-257.
  • Morissette, S., Bezyak, J. L., & Ososkie, J. N. (2012). A closer look at distance-based supervisory relationships in master’s level rehabilitation counseling programs. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 43(2), 3-7.
  • Pamuk, M., & Yıldırım, T. (2016). Counselors' individual counseling practices and their perceptions of their efficiencies in these practices. Inonu University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 17(2), 01-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.17679/iuefd.17275647
  • Ronnestad, M. H., & Skovholt, T. M. (2003). The journey of the counselor and therapist: research findings and perspectives on professional development. Journal of Career Development, 30, 5-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089484530303000102
  • Shepherd, J. B., Britton, P. J., & Kress, V. E. (2008). Reliability and validity of the professional counseling performance evaluation. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counseling, 18(2), 219-232.
  • Siviş-Çetinkaya, R., & Karaırmak, Ö. (2012). Supervision in counselor education. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal, 4(37), 107-121.
  • Tanhan, A. (2018). Beginning counselors’ supervision in counseling and challenges and supports they experience: Based on developmental models. Adıyaman University Journal of Educational Sciences, 8, 49-71.
  • Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Derneği (2011). Psikolojik danışma ve rehberlik alanında çalışanlar için etik kurallar (8th ed.). Ankara.
  • Watson, J. C. (2003). Computer-based supervision: Implementing computer technology into the delivery of counseling supervision. Journal of Technology in Counseling, 3(1).
  • Yılmaz, O., & Voltan Acar, N. (2015). The importance of supervision in psychological counselor training and its role in group counseling. Abant İzzet Baysal University Journal of Faculty of Education, 15, 342-356.
  • YOKAK (2018). Higher education quality assurance and higher education quality council regulation. Retrieved from http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/11/20181123-16.htm
  • YOKATLAS (2018). Counseling programs at universities. Retrieved from https://yokatlas.yok.gov.tr/lisans-bolum.php?b=10172

Psikolojik Danışman Eğitiminde Süpervizyon: Türkiye’deki Mevcut Durumun ve Standartların Araştırılması

Yıl 2019, Cilt 9, Sayı 2, 271 - 290, 31.12.2019
https://doi.org/10.17984/adyuebd.592894

Öz

Süpervizyon, psikolojik danışma ve psikolojik danışma eğitiminin ana unsurlarından biridir. Amerika Birleşik Devletleri’ndeki psikolojik danışma eğitimi programları, psikolojik danışmanlık eğitim müfredatının pratik bölümü olarak öğrencilerin süpervizyon altında danışmanlık uygulamasını ve stajını tamamlamalarını zorunlu tutmaktadır. Ancak, supervizyon Türkiye'de oldukça yeni bir alandır. Bu makale, süpervizyonun temelini, uluslararası ve ulusal standartlarla birlite açıklar. Daha sonra, süpervizör ve psikolojik danışman adayının süpervizyon sürecindeki rolünü ele alır ve sıkça kullanılan süpervizyon modellerini kısaca açıklar. Türkiye'de klinik süpervizyonunun güncel durumunu ve artan süpervizyon literatürünü 2010-2019 yılları arasında yayınlanmış süpervizyon ile ilgili makaleleri inceleyerek açıklar. Daha sonra ulusal standartlardaki süpervizyon eksikliğini ve süpervizyondaki sınırlılıkları tartışır. En son kısımda ise psikolojik danışma alan eğitimcileri, karar vericiler ve gelecek araştırmacılar için tavsiyeler sunar.

Kaynakça

  • Aladağ, M. (2014). Critical incidents in individual counseling practicum supervision across different levels of counselor education. Ege Education Journal, 15(2), 428-475.
  • Aladağ M., & Kemer, G. (2016) Clinical supervision: An emerging counseling specialty in Turkey. The Clinical Supervisor, 35(2), 175-191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07325223.2016.1223775
  • American Counseling Association (2014). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.
  • American Psychological Association (2010). Ethical principles of psychologist and code of conduct. Washington, DC: Author.
  • Association for Counselor Education and Supervision. (1993). Ethical guidelines for counseling supervisors. Retrieved from http://files.acesonline.net/doc/ethical_guidelines.htm
  • Atik, G., Çelik, E.G., Güç, E., & Tutal, N. (2016). Opinions of counseling students about the use of metaphor in the structured peer group supervision process. Ege Education Journal, 17(2), 597 – 619.
  • Bakalım, O., Şanal-Karahan, F., & Şensoy, G. (2018). The effect of group supervision on the psychological counseling self-efficacy levels of psychological counseling candidates. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry, 9(4), 412-428.
  • Beck, J. S., Sarnat, J. E., & Barenstein, V. (2008). Psychotherapy-based approaches to supervision. In C. A. Falender & E. P. Shafranske (Eds.), Casebook for clinical supervision: A competency-based approach (pp. 57-96). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Bernard, J. M., & Goodyear, R. K. (2014). Fundamentals of clinical supervision (5th ed.). Essex, UK: Pearson Education Limited.
  • Bilican, I., & Soygut, G. (2015). Professional development processes of trainee and experienced psychotherapists in Turkey. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 26(4), 249-60.
  • Borders, L. D., & Leddick, G. R. (1987). Handbook of counseling supervision. Alexandria, VA: Association for Counselor Education and Supervision.
  • Büyükgöze-Kavas, A. (2011). An evaluation regarding individual and group counseling practicums. Turkish Education Sciences Journal, 9, 411–432.
  • Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (2016). 2016 CACREP standards. Alexandria, VA: Author.
  • Council of Higher Education (CoHE). (2018). Guidance and Psychological Counseling Undergraduate Program. Retrieved from http://www.yok.gov.tr/documents/10279/41805112/Rehberlik_ve_Psikolojik_Danismanlik_Lisans_Programi.pdf
  • Coursol, D. (2004). Cybersupervision: Conducting supervision on the information superhighway. In G. R. Waltz & C.Kirkman (Eds.), Cyberbytes: Highlighting compelling issues of technology in counseling (pp. 83-85). Greensboro, NC: CAPS Publications.
  • Çekici, F., Avcı, R., & Çolakkadıoğlu, O. (2017). A postmodern approach to psychological counseling: Reflecting team technique. International Periodical for the Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic, 12(28), 175-192.
  • Daşçı, E., & Yalçın, İ. (2018). A review on supervision models for group counseling and group leaders. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance, 8(49), 19-43.
  • EPDAD (2016). Guidance and psychological counseling undergraduate education standards. Retrieved from https://epdad.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/RPD-LES-241216.pdf
  • EPDAD (n.d.). Accredited programs. Retrieved from https://epdad.org/akredite-edilen-programlar/
  • Erkan Atik, Arıcı, F., & Ergene, T. (2014). Supervision models and assessments of the models. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal, 5(42), 305-317.
  • Erkan Atik, Z., & Yıldırım, İ. (2017). Validity and reliability of Turkish form of the Evaluation Process within Supervision Inventory. Ege Education Journal, 18, 146-173.
  • Eryılmaz, A., & Mutlu, T. (2017). Developing the four-stage supervision model for counselor trainees. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 17, 597–629. http://dx.doi.org/10.12738/estp.2017.2.2253
  • Eryılmaz, A., & Mutlu, T. (2018). Counselor trainees’ opinions related to the developmentalcomprehensive supervision model. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences,17(65), 123-141.
  • Gök, A. C. (2015). Parallel process in psychotherapy supervision: A case study. AYNA Clinical Psychology Journal, 2(2), 39-50.
  • Hart, G. M. (1994). Strategies and methods of effective supervision. ED372341 ERIC Digest, ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Student Services, Greensboro, NC. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED372341.pdf
  • İlhan, T., Sarıkaya, Y., & Yöntem, M. K. (2018). The development of supervisor roles scale. Abant İzzet Baysal University Journal of Faculty of Education, 18(4), 2103-2122.
  • Kanz, J. E. (2001). Clinical-Supervision.com: Issues in the provision of online supervision. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 32(4), 415-420.
  • Kerl, S. B., Garcia, J. L., McCullough, C. S., & Maxwell, M. E. (2002). Systematic evaluation of professional performance: Legally supported procedure and process. Counselor Education and Supervision, 41, 321–334.
  • Koçyiğit-Özyiğit, M., & İşleyen, F. (2016). Supervisor training in counseling. Abant İzzet Baysal University Journal of Faculty of Education, 16(4), 1813-1831.
  • Lakeman, R. (2005) Reflections on the use of technology in clinical supervision: The medium and the message. Presented at Clinical Supervision Conference, Mornington Peninsula, Australia.
  • Leddick, G. R. (1994). Models of clinical supervision. EDO-CG-94-08, ERIC Digest, ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Student Services, Greensboro, NC. Retrieved from http://www.counseling.org/Resources/Library/ERIC%20Digests/94-08.pdf
  • Marini, I., & Stebnicki, M. A. (Eds.) (2009). The professional counselor’s desk reference. New York: Springer.
  • Meydan, B. (2014). A Supervision model for counseling practicum: Microcounseling supervision model. Ege Education Journal, 15(2), 358–374.
  • Meydan, B. (2015). Examining the effectiveness of microcounseling supervision model in individual counseling practice. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal, 5(43), 55-68.
  • Meydan, B. (2019). Facilitative and hindering factors regarding the supervisory relationship based on supervisors’ and undergraduate supervisees’ opinions. Pegem Education and Training Journal, 9, 171-208. http://dx.doi.org/10.14527/pegegog.2019.007
  • Meydan, B., & Denizli, S. (2018). Turkish undergraduate supervisees’ views regarding supervisory relationship. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 74, 1-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.14689/ejer.2018.74.1
  • Meydan B., & Kağnıcı D. Y. (2018) Establishing multicultural supervisory relationship. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal, 8(51), 2-28.
  • Meydan, B., & Koçyiğit-Özyiğit, M. (2016). Supervision relationship: A critical element of counseling supervision. Ege Education Journal, 17, 225-257.
  • Morissette, S., Bezyak, J. L., & Ososkie, J. N. (2012). A closer look at distance-based supervisory relationships in master’s level rehabilitation counseling programs. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 43(2), 3-7.
  • Pamuk, M., & Yıldırım, T. (2016). Counselors' individual counseling practices and their perceptions of their efficiencies in these practices. Inonu University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 17(2), 01-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.17679/iuefd.17275647
  • Ronnestad, M. H., & Skovholt, T. M. (2003). The journey of the counselor and therapist: research findings and perspectives on professional development. Journal of Career Development, 30, 5-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089484530303000102
  • Shepherd, J. B., Britton, P. J., & Kress, V. E. (2008). Reliability and validity of the professional counseling performance evaluation. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counseling, 18(2), 219-232.
  • Siviş-Çetinkaya, R., & Karaırmak, Ö. (2012). Supervision in counselor education. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal, 4(37), 107-121.
  • Tanhan, A. (2018). Beginning counselors’ supervision in counseling and challenges and supports they experience: Based on developmental models. Adıyaman University Journal of Educational Sciences, 8, 49-71.
  • Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Derneği (2011). Psikolojik danışma ve rehberlik alanında çalışanlar için etik kurallar (8th ed.). Ankara.
  • Watson, J. C. (2003). Computer-based supervision: Implementing computer technology into the delivery of counseling supervision. Journal of Technology in Counseling, 3(1).
  • Yılmaz, O., & Voltan Acar, N. (2015). The importance of supervision in psychological counselor training and its role in group counseling. Abant İzzet Baysal University Journal of Faculty of Education, 15, 342-356.
  • YOKAK (2018). Higher education quality assurance and higher education quality council regulation. Retrieved from http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2018/11/20181123-16.htm
  • YOKATLAS (2018). Counseling programs at universities. Retrieved from https://yokatlas.yok.gov.tr/lisans-bolum.php?b=10172

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Bilal KALKAN (Sorumlu Yazar)
ADIYAMAN UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-5010-4639
Türkiye


Nesime CAN
ANKARA UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-6448-1275
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2019
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2019, Cilt 9, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @derleme { adyuebd592894, journal = {Adıyaman University Journal of Educational Sciences}, eissn = {2149-2727}, address = {}, publisher = {Adıyaman Üniversitesi}, year = {2019}, volume = {9}, number = {2}, pages = {271 - 290}, doi = {10.17984/adyuebd.592894}, title = {Supervision in Counselor Education: Exploration of Current Status and Standards in Turkey}, key = {cite}, author = {Kalkan, Bilal and Can, Nesime} }
APA Kalkan, B. & Can, N. (2019). Supervision in Counselor Education: Exploration of Current Status and Standards in Turkey . Adıyaman University Journal of Educational Sciences , 9 (2) , 271-290 . DOI: 10.17984/adyuebd.592894
MLA Kalkan, B. , Can, N. "Supervision in Counselor Education: Exploration of Current Status and Standards in Turkey" . Adıyaman University Journal of Educational Sciences 9 (2019 ): 271-290 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/adyuebd/issue/51359/592894>
Chicago Kalkan, B. , Can, N. "Supervision in Counselor Education: Exploration of Current Status and Standards in Turkey". Adıyaman University Journal of Educational Sciences 9 (2019 ): 271-290
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Supervision in Counselor Education: Exploration of Current Status and Standards in Turkey AU - Bilal Kalkan , Nesime Can Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.17984/adyuebd.592894 DO - 10.17984/adyuebd.592894 T2 - Adıyaman University Journal of Educational Sciences JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 271 EP - 290 VL - 9 IS - 2 SN - -2149-2727 M3 - doi: 10.17984/adyuebd.592894 UR - https://doi.org/10.17984/adyuebd.592894 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Adıyaman Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi Supervision in Counselor Education: Exploration of Current Status and Standards in Turkey %A Bilal Kalkan , Nesime Can %T Supervision in Counselor Education: Exploration of Current Status and Standards in Turkey %D 2019 %J Adıyaman University Journal of Educational Sciences %P -2149-2727 %V 9 %N 2 %R doi: 10.17984/adyuebd.592894 %U 10.17984/adyuebd.592894
ISNAD Kalkan, Bilal , Can, Nesime . "Supervision in Counselor Education: Exploration of Current Status and Standards in Turkey". Adıyaman University Journal of Educational Sciences 9 / 2 (Aralık 2019): 271-290 . https://doi.org/10.17984/adyuebd.592894
AMA Kalkan B. , Can N. Supervision in Counselor Education: Exploration of Current Status and Standards in Turkey. AUJES. 2019; 9(2): 271-290.
Vancouver Kalkan B. , Can N. Supervision in Counselor Education: Exploration of Current Status and Standards in Turkey. Adıyaman University Journal of Educational Sciences. 2019; 9(2): 271-290.
IEEE B. Kalkan ve N. Can , "Supervision in Counselor Education: Exploration of Current Status and Standards in Turkey", Adıyaman University Journal of Educational Sciences, c. 9, sayı. 2, ss. 271-290, Ara. 2019, doi:10.17984/adyuebd.592894
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