Yıl 2019, Cilt 17 , Sayı 4, Sayfalar 526 - 537 2019-12-31

Fenolik Bileşiklerin Bağlı Formları ve Biyoyararlılığı
Bound Forms of Phenolic Compounds and their Bioavailability

Gülşah Karabulut [1] , Oktay Yemiş [2]


Bu derleme kapsamında gıdaların yapısında bulunan bağlı (ekstrakte edilemeyen) fenolik bileşiklerin özellikleri, oluşturduğu komplekslerden protein-fenolik ve karbonhidrat-fenolik ilişkisi, sindirimdeki metabolizması ve biyoyararlılığı üzerinde durulmuştur. Gıdaların yapısındaki fenolik bileşikler organik solventlerin kullanıldığı klasik metotlar ile belirlenmektedir. Ancak ekstraksiyon kalıntısında kalan ve toplam fenolik bileşiklerin önemli bir kısmını oluşturan bağlı formları çoğunlukla göz ardı edilmektedir. Bu nedenle, özellikle bağlı fenolik madde içeriği yüksek olan gıdaların toplam fenolik madde içeriği, bağlı formaları dikkate alınmadığından geçmişte doğru şekilde ortaya koyulamamıştır. Meyve, sebze, tahıl ve baklagil ürünlerindeki toplam fenolik içeriğinin %20-60’ına karşılık gelen bağlı fenolik bileşikler, fenolik kompozisyonun belirlenmesinde artık dikkate alınmaktadır. Bağlı fenolikler hücre duvarındaki selüloz, pektin, protein gibi yapılara ester, eter veya asetal bağlarıyla kovalent olarak bağlanabilmektedirler. Fenolik bileşikler sahip oldukları aromatik halkalar ve hidroksil gruplarından dolayı hidrofobik ve hidrofilik interaksiyonlarla, hidrojen ve kovalent bağlarla hücre duvarına ve ortamdaki protein, karbonhidrat, lipit gibi yapılara bağlanabilme yeteneğine sahiptirler. Fenoliklerin makro moleküllerle etkileşiminde molekül ağırlığı, polimerizasyon derecesi, aromatik grupların sayısı gibi birçok etkili faktör bulunmaktadır. Oluşan bu kompleksin sağlık üzerine bir çok olumlu etkisi olduğu bilinmektedir. Gıdalardaki fenolik bileşiklerin biyoyararlılığı, sindirim veya bağırsak sisteminde gıda matriksinden salınımına, emilimine ve kan dolaşım sistemine geçişine bağlıdır. Özellikle bazı gıdalardaki polifenoller hücre duvarı yapısındaki protein, karbonhidrat, lipit gibi makromoleküllere bağlanarak mide-bağırsak sistemindeki biyoyararlılığı büyük ölçüde etkilemektedir. Hücre duvarı materyallerinin sindiriminin zor olması nedeniyle bağlı fenolik bileşikler mide-bağırsak sisteminde değişime uğramadan kolona ulaşabilmektedir.
In this review, the properties of bound (unextractable) phenolic compound forms in food structure, protein-phenolic and carbohydrate-phenolic relationships, metabolism and bioavailability in digestion are discussed. Phenolic compounds in foods are determined by conventional methods using organic solvents. However, bound forms which remain in the extraction residue and constitute a significant portion of the total phenolic compounds are ignored. Therefore, the total phenolic content of foods, especially those with high phenolic content, has not been accurately determined in the past. Bound phenolic compounds which account for 20-60% of the total phenolic content of fruit, vegetables, cereals and legumes are now taken into account in determining the phenolic composition. Bound phenolics can be covalently attached to the cell wall by structures such as cellulose, pectin, protein by ester, ether or acetal bonds. Due to their aromatic rings and hydroxyl groups, phenolic compounds have the ability to bind to the cell wall and to structures such as protein, carbohydrate, lipid by hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions, hydrogen and covalent bonds. There are many factors in the interaction of phenolics with macromolecules such as molecular weight, degree of polymerization, and number of aromatic groups. This complex is known to have many positive effects on human health. The bioavailability of phenolic compounds in foods depends on their release, absorption and passage into the bloodstream during digestive or intestinal fermentations. In particular, polyphenols in certain foods bind to macromolecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids in the cell wall structure and greatly affect the bioavailability of the gastrointestinal tract. Due to the difficult digestion of cell wall materials, bound phenolic compounds can reach the colon without alteration in the gastrointestinal tract.
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Yazarlar

Orcid: 0000-0002-4540-3044
Yazar: Gülşah Karabulut
Kurum: Sakarya Üniversitesi, Mühendislik Fakültesi, Gıda Mühendisliği Bölümü
Ülke: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0002-7461-5185
Yazar: Oktay Yemiş (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: Sakarya Üniversitesi, Mühendislik Fakültesi, Gıda Mühendisliği Bölümü
Ülke: Turkey


Tarihler

Yayımlanma Tarihi : 31 Aralık 2019

Bibtex @derleme { akademik-gida667270, journal = {Akademik Gıda}, issn = {1304-7582}, eissn = {2148-015X}, address = {Fevzipaşa Bulv. Çelik İş Merkezi, No: 162, Kat: 3, D:302, Çankaya, İzmir}, publisher = {Sidas Medya Ajans Tanıtım Danışmanlık Ltd. Şti.}, year = {2019}, volume = {17}, pages = {526 - 537}, doi = {10.24323/akademik-gida.667270}, title = {Fenolik Bileşiklerin Bağlı Formları ve Biyoyararlılığı}, key = {cite}, author = {Karabulut, Gülşah and Yemiş, Oktay} }
APA Karabulut, G , Yemiş, O . (2019). Fenolik Bileşiklerin Bağlı Formları ve Biyoyararlılığı. Akademik Gıda , 17 (4) , 526-537 . DOI: 10.24323/akademik-gida.667270
MLA Karabulut, G , Yemiş, O . "Fenolik Bileşiklerin Bağlı Formları ve Biyoyararlılığı". Akademik Gıda 17 (2019 ): 526-537 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/akademik-gida/issue/51394/667270>
Chicago Karabulut, G , Yemiş, O . "Fenolik Bileşiklerin Bağlı Formları ve Biyoyararlılığı". Akademik Gıda 17 (2019 ): 526-537
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Fenolik Bileşiklerin Bağlı Formları ve Biyoyararlılığı AU - Gülşah Karabulut , Oktay Yemiş Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.24323/akademik-gida.667270 DO - 10.24323/akademik-gida.667270 T2 - Akademik Gıda JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 526 EP - 537 VL - 17 IS - 4 SN - 1304-7582-2148-015X M3 - doi: 10.24323/akademik-gida.667270 UR - https://doi.org/10.24323/akademik-gida.667270 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Akademik Gıda Fenolik Bileşiklerin Bağlı Formları ve Biyoyararlılığı %A Gülşah Karabulut , Oktay Yemiş %T Fenolik Bileşiklerin Bağlı Formları ve Biyoyararlılığı %D 2019 %J Akademik Gıda %P 1304-7582-2148-015X %V 17 %N 4 %R doi: 10.24323/akademik-gida.667270 %U 10.24323/akademik-gida.667270
ISNAD Karabulut, Gülşah , Yemiş, Oktay . "Fenolik Bileşiklerin Bağlı Formları ve Biyoyararlılığı". Akademik Gıda 17 / 4 (Aralık 2020): 526-537 . https://doi.org/10.24323/akademik-gida.667270
AMA Karabulut G , Yemiş O . Fenolik Bileşiklerin Bağlı Formları ve Biyoyararlılığı. Akademik Gıda. 2019; 17(4): 526-537.
Vancouver Karabulut G , Yemiş O . Fenolik Bileşiklerin Bağlı Formları ve Biyoyararlılığı. Akademik Gıda. 2019; 17(4): 537-526.