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THE EFFECT OF COVID-19 PANDEMIC ON CHILDREN'S FEAR, ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION LEVELS

Yıl 2021, Cilt 24, Sayı 3, 304 - 310, 25.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.17049/ataunihem.943465

Öz

Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on children's fear, anxiety and depression levels.
Method: The research was conducted in a descriptive and relationship-seeking manner. From different provinces of Turkey's population of the study, participants were created to reach online survey. The sample consisted of volunteer participants who agreed to participate in the study and were not infected with COVID-19. The research was completed with 304 children. The data were collected using the Personal Information Form, “The Fear of COVID-19 Scale and the Child Depression and Anxiety Scale. The coding and evaluation of the data were done in a computer environment using SPSS 21 package program. In evaluating the data, number, mean, percentage distributions, standard deviation, Cronbach alpha coefficient and Pearson Correlation analyzes were used.
Results: It was determined that the mean total score of the participants on the depression scale was 20.81 ± 5.55, the total score average of the anxiety scale was 31.81 ± 7.60, and the total score average of the COVID-19 fear scale was 18.82 ± 5.28. It was determined that there was a statistically significant positive correlation between the anxiety and depression total score averages of the participants and the fear of COVID-19 total score averages.
Conclusion: It was found that during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic, children experienced moderate levels of fear of COVID-19, depression and anxiety. In addition, it was determined that the fear of COVID-19 experienced by children was associated with their depression and anxiety levels.

Kaynakça

  • 1. World Health Organization. Laboratory Biosafety Guidance Related To Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): Interim Guidance, World Health Organization. 2020.
  • 2. Dhama K, Sharun K, Tiwari R, Dadar M, Malik YS, Singh KP, et al. COVID-19, an Emerging Coronavirus Infection: Advances and Prospects in Designing and Developing Vaccines, İmmunotherapeutics, and Therapeutics. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 2020; 16(6):1232-8.
  • 3. Mahase E. Covid-19: Death Rate is 0.66% and Increases with Age, Study Estimates. British Medical Journal 2020;369: m1327.
  • 4. Fu W, Wang C, Zou L, Guo Y, Lu Z, Yan S, et al. Psychological Health, Sleep Quality, and Coping Styles to Stress Facing the COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. Translational Psychiatry 2020;10:1-9.
  • 5. Casagrande M, Favieri F, Tambelli R, Forte G. The Enemy Who Sealed the World: Effects Quarantine Due to The COVID-19 on Sleep Quality, Anxiety, and Psychological Distress in the Italian Population. Sleep Medicine 2020;75:12-20.
  • 6. Ludvigsson JF. Systematic Review of COVID-19 in Children Shows Milder Cases and a Better Prognosis Than Adults. Acta Paediatrica 2020;109(6):1088-95.
  • 7. Salje H, Kiem CT, Lefrancq N, Courtejoie N, Bosetti P, Paireau J, et al. Estimating the Burden of SARS-Cov-2 in France. Science 2020;369(6500):208-11.
  • 8. Jiao WY, Wang LN, Liu J, Fang SF, Jiao FY, Pettoello-Mantovani M, et al. Behavioral and Emotional Disorders in Children During the COVID-19 Epidemic. The Journal of Pediatrics 2020;221:264.
  • 9. Wang G, Zhang Y, Zhao J, Zhang J, Jiang F. Mitigate the Effects of Home Confinement on Children During the COVID-19 Outbreak. The Lancet 2020;395(10228):945-7.
  • 10. Courtney D, Watson P, Battaglia M, Mulsant BH, Szatmari P. COVID-19 Impacts on Child and Youth Anxiety and Depression: Challenges and Opportunities. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 2020;65(10):688-91.
  • 11. Fore HH. A Wake-Up Call: COVID-19 and its Impact on Children's Health and Wellbeing. The Lancet Global Health 2020;8(7):861-2.
  • 12. Duan L, Shao X, Wang Y, Huang Y, Miao J, Yang X, et al. An Investigation of Mental Health Status of Children and Adolescents in China During the Outbreak of COVID-19. Journal of Affective Disorders 2020;275:112-8.
  • 13. Tsang HW, Scudds RJ, Chan EY. Psychosocial Impact of SARS. Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal 2004;10(7):1326-7.
  • 14. Hoven CW, Duarte CS, Lucas CP, Wu P, Mandell DJ, Goodwin RD. Psychopathology among New York City Public School Children 6 Months After September 11. Archives of General Psychiatry 2005;62:545-2.
  • 15. Lazarus PJ, Jimerson SR, Brock SE. Helping Children after a Natural Disaster: Information for Parents and Teachers. National Association of School Psychologists 2003;1:1-10.
  • 16. Roussos A, Goenjian AK, Steinberg AM, Sotiropoulou C, Kakaki M, Kabakos C, et al. Posttraumatic Stress and Depressive Reactions Among Children and Adolescents After the 1999 Earthquake in Ano Liosia, Greece. American Journal of Psychiatry 2005;162(3):530-7.
  • 17. Laor N, Wolmer L, Mayes LC, Gershon A, Weizman R, Cohen DJ. Israeli Preschool Children Under Scuds: A 30-Month Follow-Up. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 1997;36(3):349-56.
  • 18. Altena E, Baglioni C, Espie CA, Ellis J, Gavriloff D, Holzinger B, et al. Dealing with Sleep Problems During Home Confinement Due to the COVID‐19 Outbreak: Practical Recommendations from a Task Force of the European CBT‐I Academy. Journal of Sleep Research 2020;29(4):1-7.
  • 19. Roy D, Tripathy S, Kar SK, Sharma N, Verma SK, Kaushal V. Study of Knowledge, Attitude, Anxiety & Perceived Mental Healthcare Need in Indian Population During COVID-19 Pandemic. Asian Journal of Psychiatry 2020;51:1-7.
  • 20. Huang Y, Zhao N. Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Quality During COVID-19 Outbreak in China: A Web-Based Cross-Sectional Survey. Psychiatry Research 2020;288:1-6.
  • 21. Ma H, Hu J, Tian J, Zhou X, Li H, Laws MT, et al. A Single-Center, Retrospective Study of COVID-19 Features in Children: A Descriptive Investigation. BMC Medicine 2020;18: 1-11.
  • 22. Dong Y, Mo X, Hu Y, Qi X, Jian, F, Jiang Z, et al. Epidemiology of COVID-19 Among Children in China. Pediatrics 2020;145(6):1-12.
  • 23. Qiu H, Wu J, Hong L, Luo Y, Song Q, Chen D. Clinical and Epidemiological Features of 36 Children with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Zhejiang, China: An Observational Cohort Study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 20201;1-8.
  • 24. She, J., Liu, L., & Liu, W. COVID‐19 Epidemic: Disease Characteristics in Children. Journal of Medical Virology 2020;92:747-54.
  • 25. Ahorsu DK, Lin C-Y, Imani V, Saffari M, Griffiths MD, Pakpour AH. The Fear of COVID19 Scale: Development and Initial Validation. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. 2020;1-9. DOI: 10.1007/s11469-020-00270-8
  • 26. Satici B, Gocet-Tekin E, Deniz ME, Satici SA. Adaptation of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale: Its Association with Psychological Distress and Life Satisfaction in Turkey. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction 2020;1-9. DOI: 10.1007/s11469-020-00294-0
  • 27. Ebesutani C, Reise S, Chorpita B, Ale C, Regan J, Young J, et al. The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-Short Version: Scale Reduction Via Exploratory Bifactor Modeling of the Broad Anxiety Factor. Psychological Assessment, 2012;24(4):833-45.
  • 28. Seçer İ, Gülbahçe A. Çocuklarda Anksiyete Duyarlılık Ölçeğinin Türk Kültürüne Uyarlanması: Güvenirlik ve Geçerlilik Çalışması. Middle Eastern & African Journal of Educational Research 2013;3:91-106.
  • 29. Pakpour AH, Griffiths MD. The Fear of COVID-19 And Its Role in Preventive Behaviors. Journal of Concurrent Disorders 2020;2(1):58-63.
  • 30. Ornell F, Schuch JB, Sordi AO, Kessler FHP. “Pandemic Fear” and COVID-19: Mental Health Burden and Strategies. Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry 2020;42(3):232-5.
  • 31. Lin CY. Social Reaction Toward the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19). Social Health and Behavior 2020;3(1):1-2.
  • 32. De Miranda DM, da Silva Athanasio B, de Sena Oliveira AC, Silva ACS. How is COVID-19 Pandemic Impacting Mental Health of Children and Adolescents? International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 2020;51:1-10.
  • 33. Gormez V, Kılınçaslan A, Orengul AC, Ebesutani C, Kaya I, Ceri V, et al. Psychometric Properties of the Turkish Version of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale–Child Version in a Clinical Sample. Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology 2017;27(1):84-92.
  • 34. Reznik A, Gritsenko V, Konstantinov V, Khamenka N, Isralowitz R. COVID-19 Fear in Eastern Europe: Validation of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction 2020; DOI: 10.1007/s11469-020-00283-3
  • 35. Byrne B. Relationship between anxiety, fear, self-esteem, and coping strategies in adolescence. Adolescence 2000;35(137):201-7.
  • 36. Ollendick TH, Yule W, Oilier K. Fears in British Children and Their Relationship to Manifest Anxiety and Depression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 1991;32(2):321-31.

COVID-19 PANDEMİSİNİN ÇOCUKLARIN KORKU, KAYGI VE DEPRESYON DÜZEYLERİNE ETKİSİ

Yıl 2021, Cilt 24, Sayı 3, 304 - 310, 25.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.17049/ataunihem.943465

Öz

Amaç: Bu araştırmanın amacı, COVID-19 pandemisinin çocukların korku, kaygı ve depresyon düzeylerine etkisini belirlemektir.
Yöntem: Araştırma tanımlayıcı ve ilişki arayıcı türde yapıldı. Araştırmanın evrenini Türkiye’nin farklı illerinden online araştırma formlarına ulaşılabilecek katılımcılar oluşturdu. Örneklemi ise çalışmaya katılmayı kabul eden ve COVID-19 ile enfekte olmayan gönüllü katılımcılar oluşturdu. Araştırma 304 çocukla tamamlandı. Veriler Kişisel Bilgi Formu, “COVID-19 Korkusu Ölçeği ve Çocuklar için Depresyon ve Anksiyete Ölçeği kullanılarak toplandı. Verilerin kodlanması ve değerlendirilmesi bilgisayar ortamında SPSS 21 paket programında yapıldı. Verilerin değerlendirilmesinde; sayı, ortalama, yüzdelik dağılımlar, standart sapma, Cronbach alpha katsayısı ve Pearson Korelasyon analizleri kullanıldı.
Bulgular: Katılımcıların depresyon ölçeği toplam puan ortalamasının 20.81±5.55 olduğu, anksiyete ölçeği toplam puan ortalamasının 31.81±7.60, COVID-19 korku ölçeği toplam puan ortalamasının ise 18.82±5.28 olduğu belirlendi. Katılımcıların anksiyete ve depresyon toplam puan ortalamaları ile COVID-19 korkusu toplam puan ortalamaları arasında pozitif yönde istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki olduğu belirlendi.
Sonuç: COVID-19 pandemisi döneminde çocukların orta düzeyde COVID-19 korkusu, depresyon ve anksiyete deneyimledikleri bulundu. Ayrıca çocukların yaşadıkları COVID-19 korkusunun depresyon ve anksiyete düzeyleri ile ilişkili olduğu belirlendi. 

Kaynakça

  • 1. World Health Organization. Laboratory Biosafety Guidance Related To Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): Interim Guidance, World Health Organization. 2020.
  • 2. Dhama K, Sharun K, Tiwari R, Dadar M, Malik YS, Singh KP, et al. COVID-19, an Emerging Coronavirus Infection: Advances and Prospects in Designing and Developing Vaccines, İmmunotherapeutics, and Therapeutics. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 2020; 16(6):1232-8.
  • 3. Mahase E. Covid-19: Death Rate is 0.66% and Increases with Age, Study Estimates. British Medical Journal 2020;369: m1327.
  • 4. Fu W, Wang C, Zou L, Guo Y, Lu Z, Yan S, et al. Psychological Health, Sleep Quality, and Coping Styles to Stress Facing the COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. Translational Psychiatry 2020;10:1-9.
  • 5. Casagrande M, Favieri F, Tambelli R, Forte G. The Enemy Who Sealed the World: Effects Quarantine Due to The COVID-19 on Sleep Quality, Anxiety, and Psychological Distress in the Italian Population. Sleep Medicine 2020;75:12-20.
  • 6. Ludvigsson JF. Systematic Review of COVID-19 in Children Shows Milder Cases and a Better Prognosis Than Adults. Acta Paediatrica 2020;109(6):1088-95.
  • 7. Salje H, Kiem CT, Lefrancq N, Courtejoie N, Bosetti P, Paireau J, et al. Estimating the Burden of SARS-Cov-2 in France. Science 2020;369(6500):208-11.
  • 8. Jiao WY, Wang LN, Liu J, Fang SF, Jiao FY, Pettoello-Mantovani M, et al. Behavioral and Emotional Disorders in Children During the COVID-19 Epidemic. The Journal of Pediatrics 2020;221:264.
  • 9. Wang G, Zhang Y, Zhao J, Zhang J, Jiang F. Mitigate the Effects of Home Confinement on Children During the COVID-19 Outbreak. The Lancet 2020;395(10228):945-7.
  • 10. Courtney D, Watson P, Battaglia M, Mulsant BH, Szatmari P. COVID-19 Impacts on Child and Youth Anxiety and Depression: Challenges and Opportunities. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 2020;65(10):688-91.
  • 11. Fore HH. A Wake-Up Call: COVID-19 and its Impact on Children's Health and Wellbeing. The Lancet Global Health 2020;8(7):861-2.
  • 12. Duan L, Shao X, Wang Y, Huang Y, Miao J, Yang X, et al. An Investigation of Mental Health Status of Children and Adolescents in China During the Outbreak of COVID-19. Journal of Affective Disorders 2020;275:112-8.
  • 13. Tsang HW, Scudds RJ, Chan EY. Psychosocial Impact of SARS. Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal 2004;10(7):1326-7.
  • 14. Hoven CW, Duarte CS, Lucas CP, Wu P, Mandell DJ, Goodwin RD. Psychopathology among New York City Public School Children 6 Months After September 11. Archives of General Psychiatry 2005;62:545-2.
  • 15. Lazarus PJ, Jimerson SR, Brock SE. Helping Children after a Natural Disaster: Information for Parents and Teachers. National Association of School Psychologists 2003;1:1-10.
  • 16. Roussos A, Goenjian AK, Steinberg AM, Sotiropoulou C, Kakaki M, Kabakos C, et al. Posttraumatic Stress and Depressive Reactions Among Children and Adolescents After the 1999 Earthquake in Ano Liosia, Greece. American Journal of Psychiatry 2005;162(3):530-7.
  • 17. Laor N, Wolmer L, Mayes LC, Gershon A, Weizman R, Cohen DJ. Israeli Preschool Children Under Scuds: A 30-Month Follow-Up. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 1997;36(3):349-56.
  • 18. Altena E, Baglioni C, Espie CA, Ellis J, Gavriloff D, Holzinger B, et al. Dealing with Sleep Problems During Home Confinement Due to the COVID‐19 Outbreak: Practical Recommendations from a Task Force of the European CBT‐I Academy. Journal of Sleep Research 2020;29(4):1-7.
  • 19. Roy D, Tripathy S, Kar SK, Sharma N, Verma SK, Kaushal V. Study of Knowledge, Attitude, Anxiety & Perceived Mental Healthcare Need in Indian Population During COVID-19 Pandemic. Asian Journal of Psychiatry 2020;51:1-7.
  • 20. Huang Y, Zhao N. Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Quality During COVID-19 Outbreak in China: A Web-Based Cross-Sectional Survey. Psychiatry Research 2020;288:1-6.
  • 21. Ma H, Hu J, Tian J, Zhou X, Li H, Laws MT, et al. A Single-Center, Retrospective Study of COVID-19 Features in Children: A Descriptive Investigation. BMC Medicine 2020;18: 1-11.
  • 22. Dong Y, Mo X, Hu Y, Qi X, Jian, F, Jiang Z, et al. Epidemiology of COVID-19 Among Children in China. Pediatrics 2020;145(6):1-12.
  • 23. Qiu H, Wu J, Hong L, Luo Y, Song Q, Chen D. Clinical and Epidemiological Features of 36 Children with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Zhejiang, China: An Observational Cohort Study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 20201;1-8.
  • 24. She, J., Liu, L., & Liu, W. COVID‐19 Epidemic: Disease Characteristics in Children. Journal of Medical Virology 2020;92:747-54.
  • 25. Ahorsu DK, Lin C-Y, Imani V, Saffari M, Griffiths MD, Pakpour AH. The Fear of COVID19 Scale: Development and Initial Validation. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. 2020;1-9. DOI: 10.1007/s11469-020-00270-8
  • 26. Satici B, Gocet-Tekin E, Deniz ME, Satici SA. Adaptation of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale: Its Association with Psychological Distress and Life Satisfaction in Turkey. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction 2020;1-9. DOI: 10.1007/s11469-020-00294-0
  • 27. Ebesutani C, Reise S, Chorpita B, Ale C, Regan J, Young J, et al. The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-Short Version: Scale Reduction Via Exploratory Bifactor Modeling of the Broad Anxiety Factor. Psychological Assessment, 2012;24(4):833-45.
  • 28. Seçer İ, Gülbahçe A. Çocuklarda Anksiyete Duyarlılık Ölçeğinin Türk Kültürüne Uyarlanması: Güvenirlik ve Geçerlilik Çalışması. Middle Eastern & African Journal of Educational Research 2013;3:91-106.
  • 29. Pakpour AH, Griffiths MD. The Fear of COVID-19 And Its Role in Preventive Behaviors. Journal of Concurrent Disorders 2020;2(1):58-63.
  • 30. Ornell F, Schuch JB, Sordi AO, Kessler FHP. “Pandemic Fear” and COVID-19: Mental Health Burden and Strategies. Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry 2020;42(3):232-5.
  • 31. Lin CY. Social Reaction Toward the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19). Social Health and Behavior 2020;3(1):1-2.
  • 32. De Miranda DM, da Silva Athanasio B, de Sena Oliveira AC, Silva ACS. How is COVID-19 Pandemic Impacting Mental Health of Children and Adolescents? International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 2020;51:1-10.
  • 33. Gormez V, Kılınçaslan A, Orengul AC, Ebesutani C, Kaya I, Ceri V, et al. Psychometric Properties of the Turkish Version of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale–Child Version in a Clinical Sample. Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology 2017;27(1):84-92.
  • 34. Reznik A, Gritsenko V, Konstantinov V, Khamenka N, Isralowitz R. COVID-19 Fear in Eastern Europe: Validation of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction 2020; DOI: 10.1007/s11469-020-00283-3
  • 35. Byrne B. Relationship between anxiety, fear, self-esteem, and coping strategies in adolescence. Adolescence 2000;35(137):201-7.
  • 36. Ollendick TH, Yule W, Oilier K. Fears in British Children and Their Relationship to Manifest Anxiety and Depression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 1991;32(2):321-31.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Sağlık Bilimleri ve Hizmetleri
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

İbrahim OZLU> (Sorumlu Yazar)
ATATÜRK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-0821-7592
Türkiye


Zeynep ÖZTÜRK>
ATATÜRK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-3368-4288
Türkiye


Zeynep KARAMAN ÖZLÜ>
ATATÜRK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-8896-5461
Türkiye


Beyzanur KIZILOĞLU>
Erzurum Bölge Eğitim Araştırma Hastanesi
0000-0001-9329-9360
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 25 Eylül 2021
Başvuru Tarihi 26 Mayıs 2021
Kabul Tarihi 30 Haziran 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 24, Sayı 3

Kaynak Göster

Vancouver Ozlu İ. , Öztürk Z. , Karaman Özlü Z. , Kızıloğlu B. COVID-19 PANDEMİSİNİN ÇOCUKLARIN KORKU, KAYGI VE DEPRESYON DÜZEYLERİNE ETKİSİ. Anadolu Hemşirelik ve Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi. 2021; 24(3): 304-310.

Dergimiz 2019 dan itibaren EBSCO CINAHL Database'de listelenmektedir.

Anadolu Hemşirelik ve Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 (CC BY-NC 4.0) ile lisanslanmıştır.

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