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İnsan Hakları Normları ve İnsan Hakları Hiyerarşisi

Yıl 2021, Cilt 6, Sayı 2, 464 - 482, 27.08.2021
https://doi.org/10.30784/epfad.885226

Öz

Evrensel, bölünemez ve birbirleriyle bağlantılı insan hakları normlarının hepsi aynı derecede mi önemlidir yoksa temel hakların olağan haklara karşı hiyerarşik bir üstünlüğü var mıdır sorusu, insan hakları öğretisi tarafından tartışılan ve insan hakları alanında çalışan bilim insanlarını meşgul eden önemli sorulardan biridir. İnsan hakları normları arasında teorik olarak bir hiyerarşi bulunup bulunmadığı tartışmalı olsa da, uygulama aşamasında kaynakların yetersizliği, siyasi çıkarlar, farklı haklar arasındaki çatışmalı durumlar ve olağanüstü haller gibi sebeplerden dolayı insan hakları arasında hiyerarşi oluşabilmektedir. Mevcut uluslararası insan hakları hukukunun yapısından kaynaklanan veya insan haklarının uygulanması sırasında aktörler tarafından oluşturulan hiyerarşiler uzun vadede insan hakları normlarını ve temayül hukukunu etkiledikleri için incelenmeleri önem arz etmektedir. Bu makale insan hakları arasındaki hiyerarşi tartışmalarını analiz etmeyi amaçlamaktadır. Makale insan hakları normları arasında bir hiyerarşi olup olmadığını tartışan birinci, ikinci ve üçüncü kuşak hakların birbirleriyle ilişkisi, temel ve olağan insan hakları arasındaki farklar ve askıya alınamayan hakların statüsü gibi argümanları inceleyecek ve alternatif yaklaşımları örneklerle açıklayacaktır.

Kaynakça

  • An-Naim, A. (2002). Cultural transformation and human rights in Africa. London and New York: Zed Books.
  • Benhabib, S. (2004). The rights of others: Aliens residents and citizens. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Brauch, J. A. (2004). The margin of appreciation and the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights: Threat to the rule of law. Columbia Journal of European Law, 11(1), 113-150. Retrieved from http://blogs2.law.columbia.edu/cjel/
  • Brems, E. (2003). The margin of appreciation doctrine of the European Court of Human Rights: Accommodating diversity within Europe. In D. P. Forsythe and P. C. McMahon (Eds.), Human rights and diversity: Area studies revisited (pp. 81-110). London: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Brockett, C. (1978, August-September). A hierarchy of human rights. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, New York. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED161787.pdf
  • Deveaux, M. (2009). Normative liberal theory and the bifurcation of human rights. Ethics & Global Politics, 2(3), 171-191. https://doi.org/10.3402/egp.v2i3.2055
  • Donnelly, J. (1999). Human rights and Asian values: A defense of western universalism. In J. R. Bauer and D. Bell (Eds.), The East Asian challenge for human rights (pp. 60-87). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Donnelly, J. (2007). The relative universality of human rights. Human Rights Quarterly, 29(2), 281-306. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org
  • Donnelly, J. (2013). Universal human rights in theory and practice. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
  • Dubinsky, P., Higgins, T., Rosenfeld, M., Waldron, J. and Teitel, R. (1999). What is a human right? Universals and the challenge of cultural relativism. Pace International Law Review, 11(1), 107-159. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.pace.edu
  • Etzioni, A. (2010). Life: The most basic right. Journal of Human Rights, 9(1), 100-110. Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com
  • Farer, T. (1992). The hierarchy of human rights. American University International Law Review, 8(1), 115-119. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu/auilr
  • Gerards, J. (2011). Pluralism, deference and the margin of appreciation doctrine. European Law Journal, 17(1), 80-120. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0386.2010.00540.x
  • Gross, O. and Aolain, N. (2001). From discretion to scrutiny: Revisiting the application of the margin of appreciation doctrine in the context of article 15 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Human Rights Quarterly, 23, 625-649. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org
  • Hafner-Burton, E., Helfer, L. and Fariss, C. (2011). Emergency and escape: Explaining derogations from human rights treaties. International Organisation, 65(4), 673-707. doi:10.1017/S002081831100021X
  • Hannum, H. (2016). Reinvigorating human rights for the twenty-first century. Human Rights Law Review, 16, 409-451. doi:10.1093/hrlr/ngw015
  • Hutchinson, M. (1999). The margin of appreciation and the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights. International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 48(3), 638-650. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org
  • Ibhawoh, B. (2000). Between culture and constitution: Evaluating the cultural legitimacy of human rights in the Africa state. Human Rights Quarterly, 22(3), 838-860. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org
  • Ignatieff, M. (2001). Human rights as politics and idolatry. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Jootaek, L. (2020). Paradox of hierarchy and conflicts of values: International law, human rights, and global governance. Northwest Journal of Human Rights, 18(1), 73-72. Retrieved from https://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/njihr/
  • Joseph, S. and Kyriakakis, J. (2010). The United Nations and human rights. In S. Joseph and A. McBeth (Eds.), Research handbook on international human rights law (pp. 1-36). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Klotz, L. C. (2012). A hierarchy of human rights: An analysis of the challenges facing the right to food. A Journal of Human Rights, 2(1), 1-12. Retrieved from http://blogs.webster.edu/humanrights
  • Klein, E. (2008). Establishing a hierarchy of human rights: Ideal solution or fallacy. Israel Law Review, 41(3), 477-488. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021223700000327
  • Koji, T. (2001). Emerging hierarchy in international human rights and beyond: From the perspective of non derogable rights. European Journal of International Law, 12(5), 917-941. Retrieved from http://www.ejil.org
  • Koskenniemi, M. (1997). Hierarchy in international law: A sketch. European Journal of International Law, 8(4), 566-582. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.ejil.a015607
  • Kratochvíl, J. (2011). The inflation of the margin of appreciation by the European Court of Humans Rights. Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights, 29(3), 324-357. Retrieved from https://journals.sagepub.com/home/nqh
  • Lee, J. (2020) Paradox of hierarchy and conflicts of values: International law, human rights, and global governance. Northwestern Journal of Human Rights, 18(1), 73-92. Retrieved from https://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu
  • Lenzerini, F. (2014). The culturalisation of human rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Meron, T. (1986). On a hierarchy of international human rights. The American Journal of International Law, 80(1), 1-23. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org
  • Montgomery, D. J. (2002). Is there a hierarchy of human rights? Journal of Human Rights, 1(3), 373-385. https://doi.org/10.1080/14754830210156607
  • Mutua, M. (2016). Human rights standards. Hegemony law and politics. New York: SUNY Press.
  • Müller, S. F. (2019). The hierarchy of human rights and the transcendental system of right. Human Rights Review, 20(1), 47-66. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12142-018-0537-z
  • Nickel, J. (2005). Poverty and rights. The Philosophical Quarterly, 55(220), 385-403. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0031-8094.2005.00406.x
  • Quintavalla, A. and Heine, K. (2019). Priorities and human rights. The International Journal of Human Rights, 23(4), 679-697. https://doi.org/10.1080/13642987.2018.1562917
  • Rawls, J. (1999). The law of peoples. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Sangiavonni, A. (2017). Humanity without dignity. Moral equality, respect and human rights. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Shue, H. (1980). Basic rights. subsistence, affluence, and U.S. foreign policy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Thoreson, R. (2018). The limits of moral limitations: Reconceptualising morals in human rights law. Harvard International Law Journal, 59(1), 197-244. Retrieved from https://harvardilj.org
  • Uluslararası İnsan Hakları Konferansı Nihai Senedi, Tahran, 1968. BM Doc. A / CONF. 32/41 at 3 Erişim adresi: http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/instree/l2ptichr.htm
  • Vašák, K. (1977). Human rights: A thirty-year struggle: The sustained efforts to give force of law to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. UNESCO Courier, 11, 29–32.
  • Wuerffel, K. (1998). Discriminating among rights? A nation's legislating a hierarchy of human rights in the context of international human rights customary law. Valparaiso University Law Review, 33(1), 369-412. Retrieved from https://heinonline.org/

Human Rights Norms and Hierarchy of Human Rights

Yıl 2021, Cilt 6, Sayı 2, 464 - 482, 27.08.2021
https://doi.org/10.30784/epfad.885226

Öz

The question of whether universal, indivisible, and interdependent human rights norms have all the same importance or do fundamental rights have a hierarchical superiority to ordinary rights poses a severe challenge to the human rights scholar. Although it is controversial whether there is a hierarchy among human rights norms at a theoretical level, a hierarchy of human rights can occur at a practical level due to scarcity of resources, political interests, conflict between different rights, and emergencies. It is essential to examine the hierarchies arising from the structural framework of human rights law or practices of human rights by actors during the implementation of human rights, as the prioritization of specific human rights over others has the potential to shape the human rights norms. This article will illustrate alternative approaches supporting or opposing the hierarchy of human rights arguments, such as the relationship between the fundamental and ordinary rights, first and second-generation rights, and the non-derogatory status of specific rights. The illustration and examination of these diverse positions on the hierarchy of human rights will help us the alternative explanations regarding the hierarchy of human rights norms.

Kaynakça

  • An-Naim, A. (2002). Cultural transformation and human rights in Africa. London and New York: Zed Books.
  • Benhabib, S. (2004). The rights of others: Aliens residents and citizens. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Brauch, J. A. (2004). The margin of appreciation and the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights: Threat to the rule of law. Columbia Journal of European Law, 11(1), 113-150. Retrieved from http://blogs2.law.columbia.edu/cjel/
  • Brems, E. (2003). The margin of appreciation doctrine of the European Court of Human Rights: Accommodating diversity within Europe. In D. P. Forsythe and P. C. McMahon (Eds.), Human rights and diversity: Area studies revisited (pp. 81-110). London: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Brockett, C. (1978, August-September). A hierarchy of human rights. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, New York. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED161787.pdf
  • Deveaux, M. (2009). Normative liberal theory and the bifurcation of human rights. Ethics & Global Politics, 2(3), 171-191. https://doi.org/10.3402/egp.v2i3.2055
  • Donnelly, J. (1999). Human rights and Asian values: A defense of western universalism. In J. R. Bauer and D. Bell (Eds.), The East Asian challenge for human rights (pp. 60-87). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Donnelly, J. (2007). The relative universality of human rights. Human Rights Quarterly, 29(2), 281-306. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org
  • Donnelly, J. (2013). Universal human rights in theory and practice. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
  • Dubinsky, P., Higgins, T., Rosenfeld, M., Waldron, J. and Teitel, R. (1999). What is a human right? Universals and the challenge of cultural relativism. Pace International Law Review, 11(1), 107-159. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.pace.edu
  • Etzioni, A. (2010). Life: The most basic right. Journal of Human Rights, 9(1), 100-110. Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com
  • Farer, T. (1992). The hierarchy of human rights. American University International Law Review, 8(1), 115-119. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu/auilr
  • Gerards, J. (2011). Pluralism, deference and the margin of appreciation doctrine. European Law Journal, 17(1), 80-120. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0386.2010.00540.x
  • Gross, O. and Aolain, N. (2001). From discretion to scrutiny: Revisiting the application of the margin of appreciation doctrine in the context of article 15 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Human Rights Quarterly, 23, 625-649. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org
  • Hafner-Burton, E., Helfer, L. and Fariss, C. (2011). Emergency and escape: Explaining derogations from human rights treaties. International Organisation, 65(4), 673-707. doi:10.1017/S002081831100021X
  • Hannum, H. (2016). Reinvigorating human rights for the twenty-first century. Human Rights Law Review, 16, 409-451. doi:10.1093/hrlr/ngw015
  • Hutchinson, M. (1999). The margin of appreciation and the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights. International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 48(3), 638-650. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org
  • Ibhawoh, B. (2000). Between culture and constitution: Evaluating the cultural legitimacy of human rights in the Africa state. Human Rights Quarterly, 22(3), 838-860. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org
  • Ignatieff, M. (2001). Human rights as politics and idolatry. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Jootaek, L. (2020). Paradox of hierarchy and conflicts of values: International law, human rights, and global governance. Northwest Journal of Human Rights, 18(1), 73-72. Retrieved from https://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/njihr/
  • Joseph, S. and Kyriakakis, J. (2010). The United Nations and human rights. In S. Joseph and A. McBeth (Eds.), Research handbook on international human rights law (pp. 1-36). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Klotz, L. C. (2012). A hierarchy of human rights: An analysis of the challenges facing the right to food. A Journal of Human Rights, 2(1), 1-12. Retrieved from http://blogs.webster.edu/humanrights
  • Klein, E. (2008). Establishing a hierarchy of human rights: Ideal solution or fallacy. Israel Law Review, 41(3), 477-488. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021223700000327
  • Koji, T. (2001). Emerging hierarchy in international human rights and beyond: From the perspective of non derogable rights. European Journal of International Law, 12(5), 917-941. Retrieved from http://www.ejil.org
  • Koskenniemi, M. (1997). Hierarchy in international law: A sketch. European Journal of International Law, 8(4), 566-582. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.ejil.a015607
  • Kratochvíl, J. (2011). The inflation of the margin of appreciation by the European Court of Humans Rights. Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights, 29(3), 324-357. Retrieved from https://journals.sagepub.com/home/nqh
  • Lee, J. (2020) Paradox of hierarchy and conflicts of values: International law, human rights, and global governance. Northwestern Journal of Human Rights, 18(1), 73-92. Retrieved from https://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu
  • Lenzerini, F. (2014). The culturalisation of human rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Meron, T. (1986). On a hierarchy of international human rights. The American Journal of International Law, 80(1), 1-23. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org
  • Montgomery, D. J. (2002). Is there a hierarchy of human rights? Journal of Human Rights, 1(3), 373-385. https://doi.org/10.1080/14754830210156607
  • Mutua, M. (2016). Human rights standards. Hegemony law and politics. New York: SUNY Press.
  • Müller, S. F. (2019). The hierarchy of human rights and the transcendental system of right. Human Rights Review, 20(1), 47-66. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12142-018-0537-z
  • Nickel, J. (2005). Poverty and rights. The Philosophical Quarterly, 55(220), 385-403. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0031-8094.2005.00406.x
  • Quintavalla, A. and Heine, K. (2019). Priorities and human rights. The International Journal of Human Rights, 23(4), 679-697. https://doi.org/10.1080/13642987.2018.1562917
  • Rawls, J. (1999). The law of peoples. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Sangiavonni, A. (2017). Humanity without dignity. Moral equality, respect and human rights. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Shue, H. (1980). Basic rights. subsistence, affluence, and U.S. foreign policy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Thoreson, R. (2018). The limits of moral limitations: Reconceptualising morals in human rights law. Harvard International Law Journal, 59(1), 197-244. Retrieved from https://harvardilj.org
  • Uluslararası İnsan Hakları Konferansı Nihai Senedi, Tahran, 1968. BM Doc. A / CONF. 32/41 at 3 Erişim adresi: http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/instree/l2ptichr.htm
  • Vašák, K. (1977). Human rights: A thirty-year struggle: The sustained efforts to give force of law to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. UNESCO Courier, 11, 29–32.
  • Wuerffel, K. (1998). Discriminating among rights? A nation's legislating a hierarchy of human rights in the context of international human rights customary law. Valparaiso University Law Review, 33(1), 369-412. Retrieved from https://heinonline.org/

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Siyasi Bilimler
Yayınlanma Tarihi Ağustos 2021
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Melek SARAL (Sorumlu Yazar)
İSTANBUL SABAHATTİN ZAİM ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-7429-924X
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 27 Ağustos 2021
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2021, Cilt 6, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Saral, M. (2021). İnsan Hakları Normları ve İnsan Hakları Hiyerarşisi . Ekonomi Politika ve Finans Araştırmaları Dergisi , 6 (2) , 464-482 . DOI: 10.30784/epfad.885226

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