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Bisfenoller ve Fitalatların Halk Sağlığı Üzerine Etkileri

Yıl 2020, Cilt 17, Sayı 1, 68 - 75, 23.03.2020
https://doi.org/10.32707/ercivet.655008

Öz

2000’li yıllardan önce gıdalardaki biyolojik tehlikeler endişe yaratırken kimyasal endüstrisindeki atılımlar gıdalardaki kimyasal tehlikeleri ön plana taşımıştır. İkinci dünya savaşından sonra kimyasal kullanımı kırılmaz biberondan, ev eşyasına ve yemek servisine kadar hayatın her alanında yaygınlaşmıştır. Günlük hayatımızda kullandığımız eşyaların yapısında 80 binden fazla kimyasal bulunmaktadır. Bu kimyasalların çoğu halk sağlığı açısından henüz test edilmiş değildir. Kimyasallara; “aksi kanıtlanmadığı sürece masumdur” yaklaşımı uygulanmaktadır ki bu yaklaşım halk sağlığı açısından risk teşkil etmektedir. Günümüzde normal bir insanın kanında ve idrarında 200’den fazla kimyasal bulunmaktadır. Bu kimyasallar amniyotik sıvıdan, anne sütünden, bebek kordonundan ve mekonyumdan da analiz edilebilmektedir. Erken dönemde maruz kalınan kimyasallar ileri yaşlardaki kronik hastalıkların temelini oluşturmaktadır. Bu toksikantlardan en çok fitalatlar ve bisfenol-A (BPA) üzerinde durulmaktadır. Fitalatlar, plastikleri yumuşatmak, bisfenol-A ise sertleştirmek için kullanılmakta, fitalatlar aynı zamanda kozmetiklerde de kullanılmaktadır. Bu kimyasallar vücutta hormonları taklit ederek endokrin sistemi ve fizyolojik fonksiyonları bozmaktadır. Gebelik esnasında maruz kalındığında bu kimyasallar; hamileliğin hangi döneminde maruz kalındığına bağlı olarak hem anneyi hem de fötal gelişimi etkilemekte, başta erkek çocuklar olmak üzere beyin ve üreme organlarının gelişimini engellemektedir. Bu kimyasalların etkileri, ne miktarda, ne kadar süre alındıklarına ve bireylerin yaşam tarzlarına göre değişmektedir. Bu kimyasallar beyinde üretilen hormonları da etkileyerek çocuklarda disleksi ve hafıza problemlerine neden olabilmektedir. Erken yaşlarda maruziyet ileriki yaşlarda davranış bozuklukları, depresyon, anksiyete, allerji, solunum yolu hastalıklarına sebebiyet vermekte, pubertal gelişimi, obezite, diyabet ve tümörogenesisi tetiklemektedir. Özellikle anne karnında, düşük dozdaki kimyasallar bile bebek beyninde büyük hasarlara neden olabilmekte, ileride hızlı düşünmeyi ve tepki vermeyi engelleyebilmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Arbuckle TE, Davis K, Marro L, Fisher M, Legrand M, LeBlanc A, Gaudreau E, Foster WG, Choeurng V, Fraser WD; MIREC Study Group. Phthalate and bisphenol A exposure among pregnant women in Canada--results from the MIREC study. Environ Int 2014; 68: 55-65.
  • Biedermann S, Tschudin P, Grob K. Transfer of bisphenol A from thermal printer paper to the skin. Anal Bioanal Chem 2010; 398:571-6.
  • Bosnir J, Puntaric D, Galic A, Skes I, Dijanic T, Klaric M, Grgic M, Curkovic M, Smit Z. Migration of phthalates from plastic containers into soft drinks and mineral water. Food Technol Biotechnol 2007; 45(1): 91-5.
  • Braun JM, Bellinger DC, Hauser R, Wright RO, Chen A, Calafat AM, Yolton K, Lanphear BP. Prenatal phthalate, triclosan, and bisphenol A exposures and child visual-spatial abilities. Neurotoxicology 2017; 58: 75-83.
  • Braun JM, Kalkbrenner AE, Calafat AM, Bernert JT, Ye X, Silva MJ, Barr DB, Sathyanarayana S, Lanphear BP. Variability and predictors of urinary bisphenol A concentrations during pregnancy. Environ Health Perspect 2011; 119(1): 131-7.
  • Brede C, Fjeldal P, Skjevrak I, Herikstad H. Increased migration levels of bisphenol A from polycarbonate baby bottles after dishwashing, boiling and brushing. Food Addit Contam 2003; 20: 684-9.
  • Bu Z, Wang J, Yu W, Li B. Dermal exposure to phthalates in home environment: Handwipes, influencing factors and implications. Building and Environment 2018; 133: 1-7.
  • Calafat AM, Longnecker MP, Koch HM, Swan SH, Hauser R, Goldman LR, Lanphear BP, Rudel RA, Engel SM, Teitelbaum SL, Whyatt RM, Wolff MS. Optimal exposure biomarkers for nonpersistent chemicals in environmental epidemiology. Environ Health Perspect 2015; 123(7): A166.
  • CPSC (U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission). McDonald's recalls movie themed drinking glasses due to potential cadmium risk. Release #10e257, June 4 2010a. https://www.cpsc.gov/Recalls/2010/mcdonalds-recalls-moviethemed-drinking-glasses-due-to-potential-cadmium-risk, Erişim tarihi: 20.7.2017.
  • EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2015. Scientific opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of bisphenol A (BPA) in foodstuffs: Executive summary. EFSA Journal 2015; 13(1): 3978.
  • Jaakkola JJ, Knight TL. The role of exposure to phthalates from polyvinyl chloride products in the development of asthma and allergies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect 2008; 116(7): 845-53.
  • Jalal N, Surendranathb AR, Pathaka JL, Yua S, Chung CY. Bisphenol A (BPA) the mighty and the mutagenic. Toxicology Reports 2018; 5: 76-84.
  • Larsson K, Ljung Björklund K, Palm B, Wennberg M, Kaj L, Lindh CH, Jönsson BA, Berglund M. Exposure determinants of phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A and triclosan in Swedish mothers and their children. Environment International 2014; 73: 323-33.
  • Lee CK, Kim SH, Moon DH, Kim JH, Son BC, Kim DH, Lee CH, Kim HD, Kim JW, Kim JE, Lee CU. Effects of bisphenol A on the placental function and reproduction in rats. J Prev Med Pub Health 2005; 38: 330-6.
  • Legler J, Fletcher T, Govarts E, Porta M, Blumberg B, Heindel JJ, Trasande L. Obesity, diabetes, and associated costs of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the European Union. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2015; 100(4): 1278-88.
  • Lin LY, Tsai MS, Chen MH, Ng S, Hsieh CJ, Lin CC, Lu FL, Hsieh WS, Chen PC. Childhood exposure to phthalates and pulmonary function. Science of the Total Environment 2018; 615: 1282-9.
  • Minatoya M, Araki A, Miyashita C, Ait Bamai Y, Itoh S, Yamamoto J, Onoda Y, Ogasawara K, Matsumura T, Kishi R. Association between prenatal bisphenol A and phthalate exposures and fetal metabolic related biomarkers: The Hokkaido study on environment and children's health. Environmental Research 2018; 161: 505-11.
  • Montouri P, Jover E, Morgantin M, Nayona J, Triassi M. Assessing human exposure to phthalic acid and phthalate esters from mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate and glass bottles. Food Addit Contam 2008; 25: 511-8.
  • Negev M, Berman T, Reicher S, Sadeh M, Ardi R, Shammai Y. Concentrations of trace metals, phthalates, bisphenol A and flame-retardants in toys and other children's products in Israel. Chemosphere 2018; 192: 217-24.
  • Padmanabhan V, Siefert K, Ransom S, Johnson T, Pinkerton J, Anderson L, Tao L, Kannan K. Maternal bisphenol-A levels at delivery: a looming problem? J Perinatol 2008; 28: 258-63.
  • Pant N, Pant A, Shukla M, Mathur N, Gupta Y, Sexana D. Environmental and experimental exposure of phthalate esters: The toxicological consequence on human sperm. Hum Exp Toxicol 2011; 30(6): 507-14.
  • Park C, Choi W, Hwang M, Lee Y, Kim S, Yu S, Lee I, Paek D, Choi K. Associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A levels, and serum thyroid hormones among the Korean adult population - Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012-2014. Sci Total Environ 2017; 584-585: 950-7.
  • Philips EM, Jaddoe VWV, Asimakopoulos AG, Kannan K, Steegers EAP, Santos S, Trasande L. Bisphenol and phthalate concentrations and its determinants among pregnant women in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands, 2004-5. Environ Res 2018; 161: 562-72.
  • Prentice P, Viner RM. Pubertal timing and adult obesity and cardiometabolic risk in women and men: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Obes 2013; 37: 1036-43. Rochester JR. Bisphenol A and human health: A review of the literature. Reprod Toxicol 2013; 42: 132-55.
  • Roen EL, Wang Y, Calafat AM, Wang S, Margolis A, Herbstman J, Hoepner LA, Rauh V, Perera FP. Bisphenol A exposure and behavioral problems among inner city children at 7-9 years of age. Environ Res 2015; 142: 739-45.
  • Schettler T. Human exposure to phthalates via consumer products. Int J Androl 2006; 29: 134-9.
  • Schönfelder G, Wittfoht W, Hopp H, Talsness CE, Paul M, Chahoud I. Parent bisphenol A accumulation in the human maternal-fetal-placental unit. Environ Health Perspect 2002; 110: 703-7.
  • Serrano SE, Braun J, Trasande L, Dills R, Sathyanarayana, S. Phthalates and diet: A review of the food monitoring and epidemiology data. Environ Health 2014; 13(1): 43.
  • Shalitin S, Kiess W,. Putative effects of obesity on linear growth and puberty. Horm Res Paediatr 2017; 88(1): 101-10.
  • Téllez-Rojo MM, Cantoral A, Cantonwine DE, Schnaas L, Peterson K, Hu H, Meeker JD. Prenatal urinary phthalate metabolites levels and neurodevelopment in children at two and three years of age. Sci Total Environ 2013; 461-462: 386-90.
  • Toner F, Allan G, Dimond SS, Waechter JM Jr, Beyer D. In vitro percutaneous absorption and metabolism of Bisphenol A (BPA) through fresh human skin. Toxicology in Vitro 2018; 47: 147-55.
  • Vafeiadi M, Roumeliotaki T, Myridakis A, Chalkiadaki G, Fthenou E, Dermitzaki E, Karachaliou M, Sarri K, Vassilaki M, Stephanou EG, Kogevinas M, Chatzi L. Association of early life exposure to bisphenol A with obesity and cardiometabolic traits in childhood. Environ Res 2016; 146: 379-87.
  • Vernet C, Pin I, Giorgis-Allemand L, Philippat C, Benmerad M, Quentin J, Calafat AM, Ye X, Annesi-Maesano I, Siroux V, Slama R; EDEN Mother–Child Cohort Study Group. In utero exposure to select phenols and phthalates and respiratory health in five-year-old boys: a prospective study. Environ Health Perspect 2017; 125(9): 097006.
  • Watkins DJ, Milewski S, Domino SE, Meeker JD, Padmanabhan V. Maternal phthalate exposure during early pregnancy and at delivery in relation to gestational age and size at birth: A preliminary analysis. Reproductive Toxicol 2016; 65: 59-66.
  • Watkins DJ, Sánchez BN, Téllez-Rojo MM, Lee JM, Mercado-García A, Blank-Goldenberg C, Peterson KE, Meeker JD. Phthalate and bisphenol A exposure during in utero windows of susceptibility in relation to reproductive hormones and pubertal development in girls. Environmental Research 2017; 159: 143-51.
  • Weschler CJ, Nazaroff WW. Dermal uptake of organic vapors commonly found in indoor air, Environ Sci Technol 2014; 48: 1230-37.
  • Wolstenholme JT, Rissman EF, Connelly JJ. 2011. The role of bisphenol A in shaping the brain, epigenome and behavior. Horm Behav 2011; 59(3): 296-305.
  • World Health Organization (WHO). (2013). World health organization, and united nations environment programme (UNEP). State of the Science: Endocrine disrupting chemicals-2012. https://www.who.int/ceh/publications/endocrine/en/ Erişim Tarihi: 05.01.2019.
  • Xie MY, Ni H, Zhao DS, Wen LY, Li KS, Yang HH, Wang SS, Zhang H, Su H. Exposure to bisphenol A and the development of asthma: A systematic review of cohort studies. Reproductive Toxicol 2016; 65: 224-9.
  • Yang X, Chen D, Lv B, Miao H, Wu Y, Zhao Y. Dietary exposure of the Chinese population to phthalate esters by a total diet study. Food Control 2018; 89: 314-21.
  • Zaater MF, Tahboub YR, Al Sayyed AN. Determination of phthalates in Jordanian bottled water using GC-MS and HPLC-UV: environmental study. J Chromatogr Sci 2014; 52: 447-52.
  • Zhang XM, Lou XY, Wu LH, Huanga C, Chena D, Guoa Y. Urinary phthalate metabolites and environmental phenols in university students in South China. Environl Res 2018; 165: 32-9.
  • Zhou C, Wang W, Peretz J, Flaws JA. Bisphenol A exposure inhibits germ cell nest breakdown by reducing apoptosis in cultured neonatal mouse ovaries. Reproductive Toxicol 2015; 57: 87-99.
  • Zota AR, Calafat AM, Woodruff TJ. Temporal trends in phthalate exposures: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010. Environ Health Perspect 2014; 122(3): 235-41.

Effects of Bisphenols and Phthalates on Public Health

Yıl 2020, Cilt 17, Sayı 1, 68 - 75, 23.03.2020
https://doi.org/10.32707/ercivet.655008

Öz

Before 2000s; biological hazards in foods were the major public health concerns however, great increase in plastic industry, has carried chemicals to the highest level of concern. After the Second World War, the use of chemicals in all areas of life, from baby bottles, furniture to food service, has become widespread. Currently, over 80,000 chemicals are used in everyday products. Most of them are not yet tested for their public health effects. “Innocent unless proven otherwise” approach is applied to the chemicals, which means a significant risk for public health. More than 200 chemicals are detected in the blood and urine of almost every individual. Chemicals can also be analyzed from amniotic fluid, mother milk, baby cord and meconium. Early exposure to chemicals forms the basis of chronic diseases in later ages. Phthalates and bisphenol-A (BPA) are the most emphasized toxicants. Both are used to soften and harden the plastics and phthalates are also used in cosmetics. They mimic the hormones and disrupt the endocrine system in human. When exposed during pregnancy, they affect the fetus by blocking the development of brain and reproductive organs especially in boys. Their effects vary depending on how much and how long they are exposed and people’s lifestyle. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals can also interfere with brain hormones causing dyslexia and memory problems in children. Exposure in early life causes behavioral disorders, depression, anxiety, allergy, respiratory diseases, early pubertal development, obesity, diabetes and tumorigenesis in later ages. Even low levels of chemicals can prevent rapid thinking and fast reacting.

Kaynakça

  • Arbuckle TE, Davis K, Marro L, Fisher M, Legrand M, LeBlanc A, Gaudreau E, Foster WG, Choeurng V, Fraser WD; MIREC Study Group. Phthalate and bisphenol A exposure among pregnant women in Canada--results from the MIREC study. Environ Int 2014; 68: 55-65.
  • Biedermann S, Tschudin P, Grob K. Transfer of bisphenol A from thermal printer paper to the skin. Anal Bioanal Chem 2010; 398:571-6.
  • Bosnir J, Puntaric D, Galic A, Skes I, Dijanic T, Klaric M, Grgic M, Curkovic M, Smit Z. Migration of phthalates from plastic containers into soft drinks and mineral water. Food Technol Biotechnol 2007; 45(1): 91-5.
  • Braun JM, Bellinger DC, Hauser R, Wright RO, Chen A, Calafat AM, Yolton K, Lanphear BP. Prenatal phthalate, triclosan, and bisphenol A exposures and child visual-spatial abilities. Neurotoxicology 2017; 58: 75-83.
  • Braun JM, Kalkbrenner AE, Calafat AM, Bernert JT, Ye X, Silva MJ, Barr DB, Sathyanarayana S, Lanphear BP. Variability and predictors of urinary bisphenol A concentrations during pregnancy. Environ Health Perspect 2011; 119(1): 131-7.
  • Brede C, Fjeldal P, Skjevrak I, Herikstad H. Increased migration levels of bisphenol A from polycarbonate baby bottles after dishwashing, boiling and brushing. Food Addit Contam 2003; 20: 684-9.
  • Bu Z, Wang J, Yu W, Li B. Dermal exposure to phthalates in home environment: Handwipes, influencing factors and implications. Building and Environment 2018; 133: 1-7.
  • Calafat AM, Longnecker MP, Koch HM, Swan SH, Hauser R, Goldman LR, Lanphear BP, Rudel RA, Engel SM, Teitelbaum SL, Whyatt RM, Wolff MS. Optimal exposure biomarkers for nonpersistent chemicals in environmental epidemiology. Environ Health Perspect 2015; 123(7): A166.
  • CPSC (U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission). McDonald's recalls movie themed drinking glasses due to potential cadmium risk. Release #10e257, June 4 2010a. https://www.cpsc.gov/Recalls/2010/mcdonalds-recalls-moviethemed-drinking-glasses-due-to-potential-cadmium-risk, Erişim tarihi: 20.7.2017.
  • EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2015. Scientific opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of bisphenol A (BPA) in foodstuffs: Executive summary. EFSA Journal 2015; 13(1): 3978.
  • Jaakkola JJ, Knight TL. The role of exposure to phthalates from polyvinyl chloride products in the development of asthma and allergies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect 2008; 116(7): 845-53.
  • Jalal N, Surendranathb AR, Pathaka JL, Yua S, Chung CY. Bisphenol A (BPA) the mighty and the mutagenic. Toxicology Reports 2018; 5: 76-84.
  • Larsson K, Ljung Björklund K, Palm B, Wennberg M, Kaj L, Lindh CH, Jönsson BA, Berglund M. Exposure determinants of phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A and triclosan in Swedish mothers and their children. Environment International 2014; 73: 323-33.
  • Lee CK, Kim SH, Moon DH, Kim JH, Son BC, Kim DH, Lee CH, Kim HD, Kim JW, Kim JE, Lee CU. Effects of bisphenol A on the placental function and reproduction in rats. J Prev Med Pub Health 2005; 38: 330-6.
  • Legler J, Fletcher T, Govarts E, Porta M, Blumberg B, Heindel JJ, Trasande L. Obesity, diabetes, and associated costs of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the European Union. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2015; 100(4): 1278-88.
  • Lin LY, Tsai MS, Chen MH, Ng S, Hsieh CJ, Lin CC, Lu FL, Hsieh WS, Chen PC. Childhood exposure to phthalates and pulmonary function. Science of the Total Environment 2018; 615: 1282-9.
  • Minatoya M, Araki A, Miyashita C, Ait Bamai Y, Itoh S, Yamamoto J, Onoda Y, Ogasawara K, Matsumura T, Kishi R. Association between prenatal bisphenol A and phthalate exposures and fetal metabolic related biomarkers: The Hokkaido study on environment and children's health. Environmental Research 2018; 161: 505-11.
  • Montouri P, Jover E, Morgantin M, Nayona J, Triassi M. Assessing human exposure to phthalic acid and phthalate esters from mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate and glass bottles. Food Addit Contam 2008; 25: 511-8.
  • Negev M, Berman T, Reicher S, Sadeh M, Ardi R, Shammai Y. Concentrations of trace metals, phthalates, bisphenol A and flame-retardants in toys and other children's products in Israel. Chemosphere 2018; 192: 217-24.
  • Padmanabhan V, Siefert K, Ransom S, Johnson T, Pinkerton J, Anderson L, Tao L, Kannan K. Maternal bisphenol-A levels at delivery: a looming problem? J Perinatol 2008; 28: 258-63.
  • Pant N, Pant A, Shukla M, Mathur N, Gupta Y, Sexana D. Environmental and experimental exposure of phthalate esters: The toxicological consequence on human sperm. Hum Exp Toxicol 2011; 30(6): 507-14.
  • Park C, Choi W, Hwang M, Lee Y, Kim S, Yu S, Lee I, Paek D, Choi K. Associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A levels, and serum thyroid hormones among the Korean adult population - Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012-2014. Sci Total Environ 2017; 584-585: 950-7.
  • Philips EM, Jaddoe VWV, Asimakopoulos AG, Kannan K, Steegers EAP, Santos S, Trasande L. Bisphenol and phthalate concentrations and its determinants among pregnant women in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands, 2004-5. Environ Res 2018; 161: 562-72.
  • Prentice P, Viner RM. Pubertal timing and adult obesity and cardiometabolic risk in women and men: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Obes 2013; 37: 1036-43. Rochester JR. Bisphenol A and human health: A review of the literature. Reprod Toxicol 2013; 42: 132-55.
  • Roen EL, Wang Y, Calafat AM, Wang S, Margolis A, Herbstman J, Hoepner LA, Rauh V, Perera FP. Bisphenol A exposure and behavioral problems among inner city children at 7-9 years of age. Environ Res 2015; 142: 739-45.
  • Schettler T. Human exposure to phthalates via consumer products. Int J Androl 2006; 29: 134-9.
  • Schönfelder G, Wittfoht W, Hopp H, Talsness CE, Paul M, Chahoud I. Parent bisphenol A accumulation in the human maternal-fetal-placental unit. Environ Health Perspect 2002; 110: 703-7.
  • Serrano SE, Braun J, Trasande L, Dills R, Sathyanarayana, S. Phthalates and diet: A review of the food monitoring and epidemiology data. Environ Health 2014; 13(1): 43.
  • Shalitin S, Kiess W,. Putative effects of obesity on linear growth and puberty. Horm Res Paediatr 2017; 88(1): 101-10.
  • Téllez-Rojo MM, Cantoral A, Cantonwine DE, Schnaas L, Peterson K, Hu H, Meeker JD. Prenatal urinary phthalate metabolites levels and neurodevelopment in children at two and three years of age. Sci Total Environ 2013; 461-462: 386-90.
  • Toner F, Allan G, Dimond SS, Waechter JM Jr, Beyer D. In vitro percutaneous absorption and metabolism of Bisphenol A (BPA) through fresh human skin. Toxicology in Vitro 2018; 47: 147-55.
  • Vafeiadi M, Roumeliotaki T, Myridakis A, Chalkiadaki G, Fthenou E, Dermitzaki E, Karachaliou M, Sarri K, Vassilaki M, Stephanou EG, Kogevinas M, Chatzi L. Association of early life exposure to bisphenol A with obesity and cardiometabolic traits in childhood. Environ Res 2016; 146: 379-87.
  • Vernet C, Pin I, Giorgis-Allemand L, Philippat C, Benmerad M, Quentin J, Calafat AM, Ye X, Annesi-Maesano I, Siroux V, Slama R; EDEN Mother–Child Cohort Study Group. In utero exposure to select phenols and phthalates and respiratory health in five-year-old boys: a prospective study. Environ Health Perspect 2017; 125(9): 097006.
  • Watkins DJ, Milewski S, Domino SE, Meeker JD, Padmanabhan V. Maternal phthalate exposure during early pregnancy and at delivery in relation to gestational age and size at birth: A preliminary analysis. Reproductive Toxicol 2016; 65: 59-66.
  • Watkins DJ, Sánchez BN, Téllez-Rojo MM, Lee JM, Mercado-García A, Blank-Goldenberg C, Peterson KE, Meeker JD. Phthalate and bisphenol A exposure during in utero windows of susceptibility in relation to reproductive hormones and pubertal development in girls. Environmental Research 2017; 159: 143-51.
  • Weschler CJ, Nazaroff WW. Dermal uptake of organic vapors commonly found in indoor air, Environ Sci Technol 2014; 48: 1230-37.
  • Wolstenholme JT, Rissman EF, Connelly JJ. 2011. The role of bisphenol A in shaping the brain, epigenome and behavior. Horm Behav 2011; 59(3): 296-305.
  • World Health Organization (WHO). (2013). World health organization, and united nations environment programme (UNEP). State of the Science: Endocrine disrupting chemicals-2012. https://www.who.int/ceh/publications/endocrine/en/ Erişim Tarihi: 05.01.2019.
  • Xie MY, Ni H, Zhao DS, Wen LY, Li KS, Yang HH, Wang SS, Zhang H, Su H. Exposure to bisphenol A and the development of asthma: A systematic review of cohort studies. Reproductive Toxicol 2016; 65: 224-9.
  • Yang X, Chen D, Lv B, Miao H, Wu Y, Zhao Y. Dietary exposure of the Chinese population to phthalate esters by a total diet study. Food Control 2018; 89: 314-21.
  • Zaater MF, Tahboub YR, Al Sayyed AN. Determination of phthalates in Jordanian bottled water using GC-MS and HPLC-UV: environmental study. J Chromatogr Sci 2014; 52: 447-52.
  • Zhang XM, Lou XY, Wu LH, Huanga C, Chena D, Guoa Y. Urinary phthalate metabolites and environmental phenols in university students in South China. Environl Res 2018; 165: 32-9.
  • Zhou C, Wang W, Peretz J, Flaws JA. Bisphenol A exposure inhibits germ cell nest breakdown by reducing apoptosis in cultured neonatal mouse ovaries. Reproductive Toxicol 2015; 57: 87-99.
  • Zota AR, Calafat AM, Woodruff TJ. Temporal trends in phthalate exposures: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010. Environ Health Perspect 2014; 122(3): 235-41.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Fen
Bölüm Derlemeler
Yazarlar

Yeliz YILDIRIM
ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0001-8783-3889
Türkiye


Nurhan ERTAŞ ONMAZ Bu kişi benim
ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ
Türkiye


Zafer GÖNÜLALAN Bu kişi benim
ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ
Türkiye


Harun HIZLISOY Bu kişi benim
ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ
Türkiye


Serhat AL
ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0003-2721-9275
Türkiye


Candan CANDEMİR GÜNGÖR Bu kişi benim
ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ
Türkiye


Hüseyin Burak DİŞLİ Bu kişi benim
ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ
Türkiye


Adalet DIŞHAN Bu kişi benim
ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ
Türkiye


Mukaddes BAREL Bu kişi benim
ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 23 Mart 2020
Başvuru Tarihi 15 Ocak 2019
Kabul Tarihi 15 Nisan 2019
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 17, Sayı 1

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Bibtex @derleme { ercivet655008, journal = {Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi}, issn = {1304-7280}, eissn = {2667-5498}, address = {}, publisher = {Erciyes Üniversitesi}, year = {2020}, volume = {17}, number = {1}, pages = {68 - 75}, doi = {10.32707/ercivet.655008}, title = {Bisfenoller ve Fitalatların Halk Sağlığı Üzerine Etkileri}, key = {cite}, author = {Yıldırım, Yeliz and Ertaş Onmaz, Nurhan and Gönülalan, Zafer and Hızlısoy, Harun and Al, Serhat and Candemir Güngör, Candan and Dişli, Hüseyin Burak and Dışhan, Adalet and Barel, Mukaddes} }
APA Yıldırım, Y. , Ertaş Onmaz, N. , Gönülalan, Z. , Hızlısoy, H. , Al, S. , Candemir Güngör, C. , Dişli, H. B. , Dışhan, A. & Barel, M. (2020). Bisfenoller ve Fitalatların Halk Sağlığı Üzerine Etkileri . Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi , 17 (1) , 68-75 . DOI: 10.32707/ercivet.655008
MLA Yıldırım, Y. , Ertaş Onmaz, N. , Gönülalan, Z. , Hızlısoy, H. , Al, S. , Candemir Güngör, C. , Dişli, H. B. , Dışhan, A. , Barel, M. "Bisfenoller ve Fitalatların Halk Sağlığı Üzerine Etkileri" . Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 17 (2020 ): 68-75 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ercivet/issue/53273/655008>
Chicago Yıldırım, Y. , Ertaş Onmaz, N. , Gönülalan, Z. , Hızlısoy, H. , Al, S. , Candemir Güngör, C. , Dişli, H. B. , Dışhan, A. , Barel, M. "Bisfenoller ve Fitalatların Halk Sağlığı Üzerine Etkileri". Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 17 (2020 ): 68-75
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Bisfenoller ve Fitalatların Halk Sağlığı Üzerine Etkileri AU - Yeliz Yıldırım , Nurhan Ertaş Onmaz , Zafer Gönülalan , Harun Hızlısoy , Serhat Al , Candan Candemir Güngör , Hüseyin Burak Dişli , Adalet Dışhan , Mukaddes Barel Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.32707/ercivet.655008 DO - 10.32707/ercivet.655008 T2 - Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 68 EP - 75 VL - 17 IS - 1 SN - 1304-7280-2667-5498 M3 - doi: 10.32707/ercivet.655008 UR - https://doi.org/10.32707/ercivet.655008 Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi Bisfenoller ve Fitalatların Halk Sağlığı Üzerine Etkileri %A Yeliz Yıldırım , Nurhan Ertaş Onmaz , Zafer Gönülalan , Harun Hızlısoy , Serhat Al , Candan Candemir Güngör , Hüseyin Burak Dişli , Adalet Dışhan , Mukaddes Barel %T Bisfenoller ve Fitalatların Halk Sağlığı Üzerine Etkileri %D 2020 %J Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi %P 1304-7280-2667-5498 %V 17 %N 1 %R doi: 10.32707/ercivet.655008 %U 10.32707/ercivet.655008
ISNAD Yıldırım, Yeliz , Ertaş Onmaz, Nurhan , Gönülalan, Zafer , Hızlısoy, Harun , Al, Serhat , Candemir Güngör, Candan , Dişli, Hüseyin Burak , Dışhan, Adalet , Barel, Mukaddes . "Bisfenoller ve Fitalatların Halk Sağlığı Üzerine Etkileri". Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 17 / 1 (Mart 2020): 68-75 . https://doi.org/10.32707/ercivet.655008
AMA Yıldırım Y. , Ertaş Onmaz N. , Gönülalan Z. , Hızlısoy H. , Al S. , Candemir Güngör C. , Dişli H. B. , Dışhan A. , Barel M. Bisfenoller ve Fitalatların Halk Sağlığı Üzerine Etkileri. Erciyes Üniv Vet Fak Derg. 2020; 17(1): 68-75.
Vancouver Yıldırım Y. , Ertaş Onmaz N. , Gönülalan Z. , Hızlısoy H. , Al S. , Candemir Güngör C. , Dişli H. B. , Dışhan A. , Barel M. Bisfenoller ve Fitalatların Halk Sağlığı Üzerine Etkileri. Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi. 2020; 17(1): 68-75.
IEEE Y. Yıldırım , N. Ertaş Onmaz , Z. Gönülalan , H. Hızlısoy , S. Al , C. Candemir Güngör , H. B. Dişli , A. Dışhan ve M. Barel , "Bisfenoller ve Fitalatların Halk Sağlığı Üzerine Etkileri", Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, c. 17, sayı. 1, ss. 68-75, Mar. 2020, doi:10.32707/ercivet.655008