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Nature of Science in the 5th Grade Science Textbook: Content Analysis Based on a Holistic Approach

Yıl 2023, Cilt: 43 Sayı: 3, 1521 - 1560, 30.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.17152/gefad.1291416

Öz

Many approaches have been proposed by philosophers of science and educators about the nature of science (NOS). “Reconceptualized Family Resemblance Approach to NOS” proposed by Erduran and Dagher (2014) and named by Kaya and Erduran (2016) is a holistic approach explaining the epistemic-cognitive and social-institutional aspects of science. In this study, how the 5th grade science textbook represents the NOS has been examined. The textbook was divided into 3 sections for content analysis. These sections are (1) 'content' where the lectures are included, (2) 'activity' including experiment, discussion etc., and (3) questions at the end of the unit as 'assessment'. The results showed that the codes related to the NOS were mostly in the activity section and least in the assessment section. Most of the codes were found under scientific practices. Also, it was found that social-institutional categories were not adequately represented in the textbook. Besides, it is seen that the representation of the NOS does not differ between the units in the textbook. It is thought that it would be beneficial to revise the textbook to include all categories of the NOS approach throughout the units.

Kaynakça

  • Abd-El-Khalick, F., Bell, R. L., & Lederman, N. G. (1998). The nature of science and instructional practice: Making the unnatural natural. Science Education, 82, 417-436.
  • Abd-El-Khalick, F., & Lederman, N. G. (2000). Improving science teachers’ conceptions of nature of science: A critical review of the literature. International Journal of Science Education, 22 (7), 665-701.
  • Abd‐El‐Khalick, F., Waters, M., & Le, A. P. (2008). Representations of nature of science in high school chemistry textbooks over the past four decades. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 45(7), 835-855.
  • Akbayrak, M., & Kaya, E. (2020). Fifth-grade students’ understanding of social-institutional aspects of science. International Journal of Science Education, 42(11),1834-1861.
  • Akgun, S., & Kaya, E. (2020). How do university students perceive the nature of science?. Science & Education, 29, 1-32.
  • Allchin, D. (2011). Evaluating knowledge of (whole) science. Science Education, 95(3), 518- 542.
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS]. (1990). Science for all Americans. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Barak, M., Yachin, T., & Erduran, S. (2022). Tracing preservice teachers’ understanding of nature of science through their drawings and writing. Research in Science Education, 1-17.
  • Bayrakçı, M. (2005). Ders kitapları konusu ve ilköğretimde ücretsiz ders kitabı dağıtımı projesi. Millî Eğitim Dergisi, 165, 7-20.
  • Bolat, A., & Uluçınar Sağır, Ş. (2020). Altıncı sınıf fen bilimleri ders kitabının bilimin doğası temalarını kapsama bakımından incelenmesi. Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, (54), 361-381.
  • BouJaoude, S., Dagher, Z. R., & Refai, S. (2017). The portrayal of nature of science in Lebanese ninth grade science textbooks. In C. V. McDonald & F. Abd-El-Khalick (Eds.), Representations of nature of science in school science textbooks (pp. 79-97). New York: Routledge.
  • Campanile, M. F., Lederman, N. G., & Kampourakis, K. (2015). Mendelian genetics as a platform for teaching about nature of science and scientific inquiry: The value of textbooks. Science & Education, 24(1-2), 205-225.
  • Chiappetta, E. L., & Koballa, T.R. (2002). Science instruction in the middle and secondaryschools (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Chiappetta, E.L., Sethna, G.H., & Fillman, D.A. (1991). A method to quantify major themes of scientific literacy in science textbooks. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 28(8), 713-725.
  • Cullinane, A., & Erduran, S. (2023). Nature of science in preservice science teacher education–Case studies of Irish pre-service science teachers. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 34(2), 201-223.
  • Çilekrenkli, A., & Kaya, E. (2022). Learning science in context: Integrating a holistic approach to nature of science in the lower secondary classroom. Science & Education, 1-35.
  • Dagher, Z. R., & Erduran, S. (2017). Abandoning patchwork approaches to nature of science in science education. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 17(1), 46-52.
  • Duruk, Ü., & Akgün, A. (2020). Bilimin doğası bileşenlerinin fen bilimleri ders kitaplarında temsil edilme durumu. Amasya Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 9(2), 196-229.
  • Elo, S., & Kyngäs, H. (2008). The qualitative content analysis process. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 62(1), 107-115.
  • Erduran, S. & Dagher, Z. R. (2014). Reconceptualizing the nature of science forscience education: Scientific knowledge, practices and other family categories. Dordrecht: Springer.
  • Goren, D., & Kaya, E. (2022). How is students’ understanding of nature of science related with their metacognitive awareness?. Science & Education, 1-26.
  • Holbrook, J., & Rannikmae, M. (2007). The nature of science education for enhancing scientific literacy. International Journal of Science Education, 29(11), 1347-1362.
  • Irzik, G., & Nola, R. (2011). A family resemblance approach to the nature of science. Science & Education, 20(7), 591-607.
  • Irzik, G., & Nola, R. (2014). New directions for nature of science research. In M. Matthews (Ed.), International handbook of research in history, philosophy and science teaching (pp. 999-1021). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
  • Kampourakis, K. (2017). Nature of science representations in Greek secondary school biology textbooks. In C. V. McDonald & F. Abd-El-Khalick (Eds.), Representations of nature of science in school science textbooks (pp. 118-134). New York: Routledge.
  • Kaya, E., Erduran, S., Akgün, S., & Aksöz, B. (2017). Öğretmen eğitiminde bilimin doğası: Bütünsel bir yaklaşım. Necatibey Eğitim Fakültesi Elektronik Fen ve Matematik Eğitimi Dergisi, 11(2), 464-501.
  • Kaya, E., Erduran, S., Aksoz, B., & Akgun, S. (2019). Reconceptualised family resemblance approach to nature of science in pre-service science teacher education. International Journal of Science Education, 41(1), 21-47.
  • Kaya, E., & Erduran, S. (2016). From FRA to RFN, or how the Family Resemblance Approach can be transformed for science curriculum analysis on nature of science. Science & Education, 25(9-10), 1115-1133.
  • Korsager, M., Fiskum, K., Reitan, B., & Erduran, S. (2022). Nature of science in science textbooks for vocational training in Norway. Research in Science & Technological Education, 1-16.
  • Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Kurt, G. (2022). The inclusion of the nature of science in Turkish science curriculum/ Türkiye'deki fen bilimleri dersi öğretim programındaki bilimin doğası içeriğinin incelenmesi (Tez No. 755251). [Yüksek lisans tezi, Boğaziçi Üniversitesi]. Ulusal Tez Merkezi.
  • Lederman, N. G., & Lederman, J. S. (2014). Research on teaching and learning of nature of science. In Handbook of research on science education, volume II (pp. 614-634). Routledge.
  • Lederman, N. G. (1992). Students' and teachers' conceptions of the nature of science: A review of the research. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 29(4), 331-359.
  • Li, X., Tan, Z., Shen, J., Hu, W., Chen, Y., & Wang, J. (2018). Analysis of five junior high school physics textbooks used in China for representations of nature of science. Research in Science Education, 50(3), 833-844.
  • Matthews, M. (2012). Changing the focus: From nature of science (NOS) to features of science (FOS). In M. S. Khine (Ed.), Advances in nature of science research (pp. 3-26). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
  • McDonald, C. V., & Abd-El-Khalick, F. (2017). Representations of nature of science in school science textbooks. In Representations of nature of science in school science textbooks (pp. 1-19). Routledge.
  • McDonald, C. V. (2016). Evaluating junior secondary science textbook usage in Australian schools. Research in Science Education, 46, 481-509.
  • McDonald, C. V. (2017). Exploring representations of nature of science in Australian junior secondary school science textbooks: A case study of genetics. In C. V. McDonald & F. Abd-El-Khalick (Eds.), Representations of nature of science in school science textbooks (pp. 98-117). New York: Routledge.
  • Mercado, C. T., Macayana, F. B., & Urbiztondo, L. G. (2015). Examining education students’ nature of science (NOS) views. Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 3(5), 101-110.
  • McComas, W. F. (2003). A textbook case of the nature of science: Laws and theories in the science of biology. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 1(2), 141-155.
  • Mork, S. M., Haug, B. S., Sørborg, Ø., Parameswaran Ruben, S., & Erduran, S. (2022). Humanising the nature of science: an analysis of the science curriculum in Norway. International Journal of Science Education, 44(10), 1601-1618.
  • Özden, M., & Cavlazoğlu, B. (2015). İlköğretim fen dersi öğretim programlarında bilimin doğası: 2005 ve 2013 programlarının incelenmesi. Eğitimde Nitel Araştırmalar Dergisi, 3(2), 40-65.
  • Park, W., Yang, S., & Song, J. (2020). Eliciting students’ understanding of nature of science with text-based tasks: Insights from new Korean high school textbooks. International Journal of Science Education, 42(3), 426-450.
  • Reinisch, B., & Fricke, K. (2022). Broadening a nature of science conceptualization: Using school biology textbooks to differentiate the family resemblance approach. Science Education, 106(6), 1375-1407.
  • Stern, L., & Roseman, J. E. (2004). Can middle‐school science textbooks help students learn important ideas? Findings from Project 2061's curriculum evaluation study: Life science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching: The Official Journal of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, 41(6), 538-568.
  • Şahin, Ş., & Köseoğlu, F. (2016). Bilimin doğasına ilişkin kazanımlar açısından Türkiye’deki lise kimya ders kitapları. Cumhuriyet Uluslararası Eğitim Dergisi, 5(4), 103-125.
  • Takda, A., Jadmiko, B., & Erman, E. (2022). Development of INoSIT (Integration Nature of Science in Inquiry with Technology) learning models to improve science literacy: A preliminary studies. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA, 8(1), 18-31.
  • Uluçınar Sağır, Ş., & Soylu, Ü. İ. (2021). Yedinci sınıf fen bilimleri ders kitaplarında bilimin doğası temalarının incelenmesi: Kuvvet ve enerji ünitesi. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Buca Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, (52), 392-411.
  • Wei, B., Li, Y., & Chen, B. (2013). Representations of nature of science in selected histories of science in the integrated science textbooks in China. School Science and Mathematics, 113(4), 170-179.
  • Wu, J. Y., & Erduran, S. (2022). Investigating scientists’ views of the family resemblance approach to nature of science in science education. Science & Education, 1-30.

5. Sınıf Fen Bilimleri Ders Kitabında Bilimin Doğası: Bütünsel Bir Yaklaşıma Dayalı İçerik Analizi

Yıl 2023, Cilt: 43 Sayı: 3, 1521 - 1560, 30.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.17152/gefad.1291416

Öz

Bilimin doğası hakkında bilim felsefecileri ve eğitimcileri tarafından birçok yaklaşım öne sürülmüştür. Erduran ve Dagher (2014) tarafından önerilen ve Kaya ve Erduran (2016) tarafından isimlendirilen “Yeniden Kavramsallaştırılmış Aile Benzerliği Yaklaşımına Dayalı Bilimin Doğası” bilimin epistemik-bilişsel (örn., bilimsel pratikler ve bilimsel bilgi) ve sosyal-kurumsal yönlerini (örn., profesyonel etkinlikler ve finansal sistemler) bütünsel olarak açıklayan bir yaklaşımdır. Bu çalışmada 5. sınıf fen bilimleri ders kitabının bilimin doğasını nasıl temsil ettiği incelenmiştir. İçerik analizi yapmak için kitap 3 bölüme ayrılmıştır. Bu bölümler (1) konu anlatımlarının yer aldığı kısımlar ‘içerik’, (2) deney, araştırma, gözlem ve tartışma gibi kısımlar ‘aktivite’, (3) ünite sonlarındaki çoktan seçmeli ve açık uçlu sorular ise ‘değerlendirme’ olarak belirlenmiştir. Sonuçlar, bilimin doğasına ilişkin bulunan kodların kitapta en çok aktivite bölümünde, en az ise değerlendirme bölümünde olduğunu göstermiştir. En fazla kod bilimsel pratikler için bulunmuştur. Bu sonuçlar, 5. sınıf fen bilimleri ders kitabının, bilimin epistemik ve bilişsel kategorileri olan ve yeterince vurgulanmayan amaç ve değerler, bilimsel metotlar ve bilimsel bilgi kategorilerinin öğretilmesi açısından yeterli olmadığını göstermektedir. Sosyal kurumsal kategorilerin de ders kitabında yeterince temsil edilmediği görülmüştür. Ders kitabındaki üniteler incelendiğinde ise bilimin doğası temsilinin üniteler arasında farklılaşmadığı görülmüştür. Kitabın bilimin doğası yaklaşımının tüm kategorilerini üniteler boyunca içerecek şekilde revize edilmesinin faydalı olacağı düşünülmektedir.

Destekleyen Kurum

Boğaziçi Üniversitesi

Teşekkür

Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Bilimsel Araştırma Projeleri Birimine (BAP) desteklerinden ötürü teşekkürlerimizi iletiriz.

Kaynakça

  • Abd-El-Khalick, F., Bell, R. L., & Lederman, N. G. (1998). The nature of science and instructional practice: Making the unnatural natural. Science Education, 82, 417-436.
  • Abd-El-Khalick, F., & Lederman, N. G. (2000). Improving science teachers’ conceptions of nature of science: A critical review of the literature. International Journal of Science Education, 22 (7), 665-701.
  • Abd‐El‐Khalick, F., Waters, M., & Le, A. P. (2008). Representations of nature of science in high school chemistry textbooks over the past four decades. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 45(7), 835-855.
  • Akbayrak, M., & Kaya, E. (2020). Fifth-grade students’ understanding of social-institutional aspects of science. International Journal of Science Education, 42(11),1834-1861.
  • Akgun, S., & Kaya, E. (2020). How do university students perceive the nature of science?. Science & Education, 29, 1-32.
  • Allchin, D. (2011). Evaluating knowledge of (whole) science. Science Education, 95(3), 518- 542.
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS]. (1990). Science for all Americans. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Barak, M., Yachin, T., & Erduran, S. (2022). Tracing preservice teachers’ understanding of nature of science through their drawings and writing. Research in Science Education, 1-17.
  • Bayrakçı, M. (2005). Ders kitapları konusu ve ilköğretimde ücretsiz ders kitabı dağıtımı projesi. Millî Eğitim Dergisi, 165, 7-20.
  • Bolat, A., & Uluçınar Sağır, Ş. (2020). Altıncı sınıf fen bilimleri ders kitabının bilimin doğası temalarını kapsama bakımından incelenmesi. Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, (54), 361-381.
  • BouJaoude, S., Dagher, Z. R., & Refai, S. (2017). The portrayal of nature of science in Lebanese ninth grade science textbooks. In C. V. McDonald & F. Abd-El-Khalick (Eds.), Representations of nature of science in school science textbooks (pp. 79-97). New York: Routledge.
  • Campanile, M. F., Lederman, N. G., & Kampourakis, K. (2015). Mendelian genetics as a platform for teaching about nature of science and scientific inquiry: The value of textbooks. Science & Education, 24(1-2), 205-225.
  • Chiappetta, E. L., & Koballa, T.R. (2002). Science instruction in the middle and secondaryschools (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Chiappetta, E.L., Sethna, G.H., & Fillman, D.A. (1991). A method to quantify major themes of scientific literacy in science textbooks. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 28(8), 713-725.
  • Cullinane, A., & Erduran, S. (2023). Nature of science in preservice science teacher education–Case studies of Irish pre-service science teachers. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 34(2), 201-223.
  • Çilekrenkli, A., & Kaya, E. (2022). Learning science in context: Integrating a holistic approach to nature of science in the lower secondary classroom. Science & Education, 1-35.
  • Dagher, Z. R., & Erduran, S. (2017). Abandoning patchwork approaches to nature of science in science education. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 17(1), 46-52.
  • Duruk, Ü., & Akgün, A. (2020). Bilimin doğası bileşenlerinin fen bilimleri ders kitaplarında temsil edilme durumu. Amasya Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 9(2), 196-229.
  • Elo, S., & Kyngäs, H. (2008). The qualitative content analysis process. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 62(1), 107-115.
  • Erduran, S. & Dagher, Z. R. (2014). Reconceptualizing the nature of science forscience education: Scientific knowledge, practices and other family categories. Dordrecht: Springer.
  • Goren, D., & Kaya, E. (2022). How is students’ understanding of nature of science related with their metacognitive awareness?. Science & Education, 1-26.
  • Holbrook, J., & Rannikmae, M. (2007). The nature of science education for enhancing scientific literacy. International Journal of Science Education, 29(11), 1347-1362.
  • Irzik, G., & Nola, R. (2011). A family resemblance approach to the nature of science. Science & Education, 20(7), 591-607.
  • Irzik, G., & Nola, R. (2014). New directions for nature of science research. In M. Matthews (Ed.), International handbook of research in history, philosophy and science teaching (pp. 999-1021). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
  • Kampourakis, K. (2017). Nature of science representations in Greek secondary school biology textbooks. In C. V. McDonald & F. Abd-El-Khalick (Eds.), Representations of nature of science in school science textbooks (pp. 118-134). New York: Routledge.
  • Kaya, E., Erduran, S., Akgün, S., & Aksöz, B. (2017). Öğretmen eğitiminde bilimin doğası: Bütünsel bir yaklaşım. Necatibey Eğitim Fakültesi Elektronik Fen ve Matematik Eğitimi Dergisi, 11(2), 464-501.
  • Kaya, E., Erduran, S., Aksoz, B., & Akgun, S. (2019). Reconceptualised family resemblance approach to nature of science in pre-service science teacher education. International Journal of Science Education, 41(1), 21-47.
  • Kaya, E., & Erduran, S. (2016). From FRA to RFN, or how the Family Resemblance Approach can be transformed for science curriculum analysis on nature of science. Science & Education, 25(9-10), 1115-1133.
  • Korsager, M., Fiskum, K., Reitan, B., & Erduran, S. (2022). Nature of science in science textbooks for vocational training in Norway. Research in Science & Technological Education, 1-16.
  • Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Kurt, G. (2022). The inclusion of the nature of science in Turkish science curriculum/ Türkiye'deki fen bilimleri dersi öğretim programındaki bilimin doğası içeriğinin incelenmesi (Tez No. 755251). [Yüksek lisans tezi, Boğaziçi Üniversitesi]. Ulusal Tez Merkezi.
  • Lederman, N. G., & Lederman, J. S. (2014). Research on teaching and learning of nature of science. In Handbook of research on science education, volume II (pp. 614-634). Routledge.
  • Lederman, N. G. (1992). Students' and teachers' conceptions of the nature of science: A review of the research. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 29(4), 331-359.
  • Li, X., Tan, Z., Shen, J., Hu, W., Chen, Y., & Wang, J. (2018). Analysis of five junior high school physics textbooks used in China for representations of nature of science. Research in Science Education, 50(3), 833-844.
  • Matthews, M. (2012). Changing the focus: From nature of science (NOS) to features of science (FOS). In M. S. Khine (Ed.), Advances in nature of science research (pp. 3-26). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
  • McDonald, C. V., & Abd-El-Khalick, F. (2017). Representations of nature of science in school science textbooks. In Representations of nature of science in school science textbooks (pp. 1-19). Routledge.
  • McDonald, C. V. (2016). Evaluating junior secondary science textbook usage in Australian schools. Research in Science Education, 46, 481-509.
  • McDonald, C. V. (2017). Exploring representations of nature of science in Australian junior secondary school science textbooks: A case study of genetics. In C. V. McDonald & F. Abd-El-Khalick (Eds.), Representations of nature of science in school science textbooks (pp. 98-117). New York: Routledge.
  • Mercado, C. T., Macayana, F. B., & Urbiztondo, L. G. (2015). Examining education students’ nature of science (NOS) views. Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 3(5), 101-110.
  • McComas, W. F. (2003). A textbook case of the nature of science: Laws and theories in the science of biology. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 1(2), 141-155.
  • Mork, S. M., Haug, B. S., Sørborg, Ø., Parameswaran Ruben, S., & Erduran, S. (2022). Humanising the nature of science: an analysis of the science curriculum in Norway. International Journal of Science Education, 44(10), 1601-1618.
  • Özden, M., & Cavlazoğlu, B. (2015). İlköğretim fen dersi öğretim programlarında bilimin doğası: 2005 ve 2013 programlarının incelenmesi. Eğitimde Nitel Araştırmalar Dergisi, 3(2), 40-65.
  • Park, W., Yang, S., & Song, J. (2020). Eliciting students’ understanding of nature of science with text-based tasks: Insights from new Korean high school textbooks. International Journal of Science Education, 42(3), 426-450.
  • Reinisch, B., & Fricke, K. (2022). Broadening a nature of science conceptualization: Using school biology textbooks to differentiate the family resemblance approach. Science Education, 106(6), 1375-1407.
  • Stern, L., & Roseman, J. E. (2004). Can middle‐school science textbooks help students learn important ideas? Findings from Project 2061's curriculum evaluation study: Life science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching: The Official Journal of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, 41(6), 538-568.
  • Şahin, Ş., & Köseoğlu, F. (2016). Bilimin doğasına ilişkin kazanımlar açısından Türkiye’deki lise kimya ders kitapları. Cumhuriyet Uluslararası Eğitim Dergisi, 5(4), 103-125.
  • Takda, A., Jadmiko, B., & Erman, E. (2022). Development of INoSIT (Integration Nature of Science in Inquiry with Technology) learning models to improve science literacy: A preliminary studies. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA, 8(1), 18-31.
  • Uluçınar Sağır, Ş., & Soylu, Ü. İ. (2021). Yedinci sınıf fen bilimleri ders kitaplarında bilimin doğası temalarının incelenmesi: Kuvvet ve enerji ünitesi. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Buca Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, (52), 392-411.
  • Wei, B., Li, Y., & Chen, B. (2013). Representations of nature of science in selected histories of science in the integrated science textbooks in China. School Science and Mathematics, 113(4), 170-179.
  • Wu, J. Y., & Erduran, S. (2022). Investigating scientists’ views of the family resemblance approach to nature of science in science education. Science & Education, 1-30.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Fen Bilgisi Eğitimi
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Beyza OKAN 0000-0003-2013-3970

Ebru KAYA 0000-0001-8439-2395

Proje Numarası 17142
Yayımlanma Tarihi 30 Aralık 2023
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2023 Cilt: 43 Sayı: 3

Kaynak Göster

APA OKAN, B., & KAYA, E. (2023). 5. Sınıf Fen Bilimleri Ders Kitabında Bilimin Doğası: Bütünsel Bir Yaklaşıma Dayalı İçerik Analizi. Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 43(3), 1521-1560. https://doi.org/10.17152/gefad.1291416
AMA OKAN B, KAYA E. 5. Sınıf Fen Bilimleri Ders Kitabında Bilimin Doğası: Bütünsel Bir Yaklaşıma Dayalı İçerik Analizi. GEFAD. Aralık 2023;43(3):1521-1560. doi:10.17152/gefad.1291416
Chicago OKAN, Beyza, ve Ebru KAYA. “5. Sınıf Fen Bilimleri Ders Kitabında Bilimin Doğası: Bütünsel Bir Yaklaşıma Dayalı İçerik Analizi”. Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi 43, sy. 3 (Aralık 2023): 1521-60. https://doi.org/10.17152/gefad.1291416.
EndNote OKAN B, KAYA E (01 Aralık 2023) 5. Sınıf Fen Bilimleri Ders Kitabında Bilimin Doğası: Bütünsel Bir Yaklaşıma Dayalı İçerik Analizi. Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi 43 3 1521–1560.
IEEE B. OKAN ve E. KAYA, “5. Sınıf Fen Bilimleri Ders Kitabında Bilimin Doğası: Bütünsel Bir Yaklaşıma Dayalı İçerik Analizi”, GEFAD, c. 43, sy. 3, ss. 1521–1560, 2023, doi: 10.17152/gefad.1291416.
ISNAD OKAN, Beyza - KAYA, Ebru. “5. Sınıf Fen Bilimleri Ders Kitabında Bilimin Doğası: Bütünsel Bir Yaklaşıma Dayalı İçerik Analizi”. Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi 43/3 (Aralık 2023), 1521-1560. https://doi.org/10.17152/gefad.1291416.
JAMA OKAN B, KAYA E. 5. Sınıf Fen Bilimleri Ders Kitabında Bilimin Doğası: Bütünsel Bir Yaklaşıma Dayalı İçerik Analizi. GEFAD. 2023;43:1521–1560.
MLA OKAN, Beyza ve Ebru KAYA. “5. Sınıf Fen Bilimleri Ders Kitabında Bilimin Doğası: Bütünsel Bir Yaklaşıma Dayalı İçerik Analizi”. Gazi Üniversitesi Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, c. 43, sy. 3, 2023, ss. 1521-60, doi:10.17152/gefad.1291416.
Vancouver OKAN B, KAYA E. 5. Sınıf Fen Bilimleri Ders Kitabında Bilimin Doğası: Bütünsel Bir Yaklaşıma Dayalı İçerik Analizi. GEFAD. 2023;43(3):1521-60.