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ROL FARKLILAŞMASININ AHLAKİ YARGILAR ÜZERINDEKİ ETKİSİ: TÜKETİCİ AHLAKI VE İŞ AHLAKI ÇERÇEVESİNDE KARŞILAŞTIRMALI BİR ARAŞTIRMA

Yıl 2001, Cilt 19, Sayı 2, 79 - 96, 31.12.2001

Öz

Bu çalışmanın temel amacı, bireyin, farklı rolleri gereği farklı ahlaki yargılarının olabileceği varsayımını test etmektir. Bu amaçla, 123 yöneticinin tüketici ahlakı ve iş ahlakı konusundaki yargıları, anket yöntemiyle araştırılmıştır. Sonuçlara göre, bireyin ahlaki yargıları, tüketici olarak daha kuvvetli, yönetici olarak daha zayıftır. Ancak, eğitim düzeyi arttıkça, bu durumun tersi oluşmakta; yani, eğitim düzeyi arttıkça bireylerin tüketici ahlakı konusundaki yargıları zayıflamakta, buna karşın işlerindeki ahlaki yargıları kuvvetlenmektedir. Çalışmada ayrıca, işletmelerin gözönünde bulundurmaları gereken diğer sonuçlara ve değerlendirmelere de yer verilmiştir.

 

Kaynakça

  • Akaah, Ishmael P. (1993) ‘Organizational Culture and Ethical Research Behavior.’ Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 21, 59-63.
  • Akaah, Ishmael P., and Edward A. Riordan (1989) ‘Judgments of Marketing Professionals About Ethical Issues in Marketing Research: A Replication and Extension.’ Journal of Marketing Research. 26, (February) 112-120.
  • Biddle, Bruce J. and Edwin J.Thomas, eds. (1966). Role Theory: Concepts and Research. New York: John Wiley.
  • Bommer, Michael, Clarence Gratto, Jerry Gravander, and Mark Tuttle (1987) ‘A Behavioral Model of Ethical and Unethical Decision Making.’ Journal of Business Ethics. 6 (May):265-280.
  • Brun, Wibecke (1992) ‘Cognitive Components in Risk Perception: Natural Versus Manmade Risks.’ Journal of Behavioral Decision Making. 5, 117-132.
  • Buchanan, Allen (1996), ‘Perfecting Imperfect Duties:Collective Action to Create Moral Obligation’ Business Ethics Quarterly. 6(1), 27-42.
  • Carr, A.Z. (1968) ‘Is Business Bluffing Ethical?’ Harvard Business Review, 46, 143- 148.
  • Carlson, Patricia, Mark S. Blodgett (1997) ‘International Ethics Standards for Business: NAFTA, CAUX Principles and Corporate Codes Ethics.’ Review of Business, Spring, v.18, n.3, 20-24.
  • Collins, Denis (2000) ‘The Quest to Improve the Human Condition: The First 1 500 Articles Published in Journal of Business Ethics,’ Journal of Business Ethics, 26:1-73.
  • Davis, Joel J. (1994) ‘Good Ethics is good for business: Ethical Attributions and Response to Environmental Advertising.’ Journal of Business Ethics, 13(11), 873-886.
  • Deshpande, Satish P.(1997) ‘Managers’ Perception of Proper Ethical Conduct: The Effect of Sex, Age, and Level of Education,’ Journal of Business Ethics, 16:79-85.
  • Dubinsky, Alan J., Ingram, Thomas N. (1984) ‘Correlates of Salespeople`s Ethical Conflict: An Exploratory Investigation,’ Journal of Business Ethics, 3: 343- 353.
  • Dunfee, Thomas W., N. Craig Smith, William T. Ross Jr. (1999) ‘Social Contracts and Marketing Ethics.’ Journal of Marketing, Vol.63 (July), 14-32.
  • Ekin, S., S. H. Tezölmez (2000) ‘Türk İş Dünyasındaki Yöneticilerin İş Ahlakı Konusundaki Düşünce ve Kararları’ Prof.Dr.Nusret Ekin’e Armağan, TÜHİS, No:38 içerisinde, 941-968.
  • Ellen, Pam Scholder, Joshua Lyle Wiener and Cathy Cobb Walgren (1991) ‘ The Role of Perceived Consumer Effectiveness in Motivating Environmentally- Conscious Behaviors.’ Journal of Public Policy &Marketing, 10 (Fall) 102- 117.
  • Engel, James F. and Roger D. Blackwell (1982) Consumer Behavior, NewYork,The Dryden Press.
  • Ferrel, O.C, Larry G. Gresham.(1985) ‘A Contingency Framework for Understanding Ethical Decision Making in Marketing,’ Journal of Marketing. Summer 87- 96.
  • Glover, Saundra H., Minnette A.Bumpus, John E. Logan, James R.Ciesla. (1997) ‘Re- Examining the Influence of Individual Values on Ethical Decision Making,’ Journal of Business Ethics,16:1319-1329.
  • Goodwin, Cathy and Ivan Ross (1992) ‘Consumer Responses to Service Failures: Influence of Procedural and Interactional Fairness Perceptions.’ Journal of Business Research. 25, 149-163.
  • Griffin, Mitch, Barry J. Babin and William R. Darden (1992) ‘Consumer Assessment of Responsibility for Product-Related Injuries: The Impact of Regulation, Warnings and Promotional Policies.’ Advances in Consumer Research, 19, 870-878.
  • Hair, Joseph F., R.E. Anderson, R.L.Tatham, W.C.Black (1995) Multivariate Data Analysis with Readings, Fourth edition, Prentice-Hall.Inc.
  • Ho, Foo Nin, S.J. Vitell, J.H.Barnes, R. Desborde.(1997) ‘Ethical Correlates of Role Conflict and Ambiguity in Marketing: The Mediating Role of Cognitive Moral Development,’ Journal of The Marketing Science, 25,2, 117-126.
  • Hunt, S.D., and Vitell, S.(1986) ‘A General Theory of Marketing Ethics,’ Journal of Macromarketing, (Spring), 5-16
  • Jones, Thomas. (1991) ‘Ethical Decision Making by Individuals in Organizations: An Issue-Contingent Model,’ Academy of Management Review, 16,2,366-395.
  • Katz, Daniel, Robert L. Kahn. (1977) Örgütlerin Toplumsal Psikolojisi. Çev: Halil Can, Yavuz Bayar, Türkiye ve Orta Doğu Amme İdaresi Enstitüsü Yayını, No:107.
  • Kavak, Bahtışen (1999) A Descriptive Model of Consumers' Punishment and Rewarding Process via Purchasing Behaviour: A Cross-Cultural Testing of Students in Turkey and Kyrgyzstan., Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel.
  • --------------------(2000a) “Makyavelizm (Machiavellianism) ile Tüketicinin Ahlaki Yargıları Arasındaki İlişkiye Yönelik Ampirik Bir İnceleme” Beşinci Ulusal Pazarlama Kongresi, s.490 (Özet) Antalya, 16-18 Kasım.
  • --------------------(2000b) “ The Effects of Formal Education on Unethical Purchasing Decisions: Investigation on Faculty Members and University Students in Turkey and Kyrgyzstan” Boğazici Journal: Review of Social Economics and Administrative Studies. Vol:14, No:2, 99-113.
  • Kidwell, Jeaneen, R.E.Stevens, A.L. Bethke (1987) ‘Differences in Ethical Perceptions Between Male and Female Managers: Myth or Reality?’ Journal of Business Ethics, 6:489-493.
  • Loe, Terry W., Linda Ferrell, Phylis Mansfield (2000) ‘A Review of Empirical Studies Assessing Ethical Decision Making in Business,’ Journal of Business Ethics, 25:185-204.
  • Lund, Daulatram B. (2000) ‘An Empirical Examination of Marketing Professionals’ Ethical Behavior in Differing Situations,’ Journal of Business Ethics, 24, 331-342.
  • Müftüoğlu, Tamer (1997) ‘Türkiye’de Küçük ve Orta Ölçekli İşletmeler, Sorunlar- Öneriler’ EGS Bank Yayını, Ankara
  • Nunnally, J.C (1967) Pscyhometric Theory. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, NewYork.
  • Preble, John F., Arie Reichel (1988) ‘Attitudes towards Business Ethics of Future Managers in the U.S. and Israel.’ Journal of Business Ethics, 7, 941-949.
  • Rallapalli, Kumar C., Scott J. Vitell, Jr., Sheryl Szeinbach (2000) ‘Marketers’ Norms and Personal Values: An Empirical Study of Marketing Professionals.’ Journal of Business Ethics, 24, 65-75.
  • Rawwas, Mohammed Y.A. (1996) ‘Consumer Ethics: An Empirical Investigation of the Ethical Beliefs of Austrian Consumers.’ Journal of Business Ethics, 15:1009- 1019.
  • Roberts, John A. (1996) ‘Will the Real Socially Responsible Consumer Please Step Forward?’ Business Horizons, 39 (1), 79-88.
  • Serwinek, Paul J.(1992) ‘Demographic & Related Differences in Ethical Views Among Small Businesses,’ Journal of Business Ethics, 11:555-566.
  • Slovic, Paul, Donald McGregor and Nuncy N. Kraus (1987) ‘Perception of Risk from Automobile Safety Defects’, Accidents Analysis and Perception, 19, 359- 373.
  • Trevino, Linda Klebe (1986) ‘Ethical Decision-Making in Organisations: A Person- Situation Interactionist Model,’ Academy of Management Review, Vol.11.No.3, 601-617.
  • Whalen, Joel, Robert E. Pitts, John K. Wong (1991) ‘Exploring the Structure of Ethical Attributions as a Component of the Consumer Decision Model: The Vicarious versus Personal Perspective,’ Journal of Business Ethics, 10: 285-293.

The Effect Of Role Differentiation On Ethical Judgments: A Comparative Investigation On Consumer Ethics And Work Ethics

Yıl 2001, Cilt 19, Sayı 2, 79 - 96, 31.12.2001

Öz

The basic purpose of this study is to test the assumption that an individual may have different ethical judgments due to his/her different roles that she or he has. For this purpose, the ethical judgments of 123 managers on consumer ethics and work ethics are investigated by means of a questionnaire. The results indicate that  the ethical judgments of an individual as a consumer are stronger than those of individual’s  as a manager.  As the formal education level increases, the individuals’ judgments on consumer ethics are getting weaker while the work ethics judgments of the surveyed group are becoming stronger. In addition to these findings,  there are some other results and conclusions that should be considered by firms.   

Kaynakça

  • Akaah, Ishmael P. (1993) ‘Organizational Culture and Ethical Research Behavior.’ Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 21, 59-63.
  • Akaah, Ishmael P., and Edward A. Riordan (1989) ‘Judgments of Marketing Professionals About Ethical Issues in Marketing Research: A Replication and Extension.’ Journal of Marketing Research. 26, (February) 112-120.
  • Biddle, Bruce J. and Edwin J.Thomas, eds. (1966). Role Theory: Concepts and Research. New York: John Wiley.
  • Bommer, Michael, Clarence Gratto, Jerry Gravander, and Mark Tuttle (1987) ‘A Behavioral Model of Ethical and Unethical Decision Making.’ Journal of Business Ethics. 6 (May):265-280.
  • Brun, Wibecke (1992) ‘Cognitive Components in Risk Perception: Natural Versus Manmade Risks.’ Journal of Behavioral Decision Making. 5, 117-132.
  • Buchanan, Allen (1996), ‘Perfecting Imperfect Duties:Collective Action to Create Moral Obligation’ Business Ethics Quarterly. 6(1), 27-42.
  • Carr, A.Z. (1968) ‘Is Business Bluffing Ethical?’ Harvard Business Review, 46, 143- 148.
  • Carlson, Patricia, Mark S. Blodgett (1997) ‘International Ethics Standards for Business: NAFTA, CAUX Principles and Corporate Codes Ethics.’ Review of Business, Spring, v.18, n.3, 20-24.
  • Collins, Denis (2000) ‘The Quest to Improve the Human Condition: The First 1 500 Articles Published in Journal of Business Ethics,’ Journal of Business Ethics, 26:1-73.
  • Davis, Joel J. (1994) ‘Good Ethics is good for business: Ethical Attributions and Response to Environmental Advertising.’ Journal of Business Ethics, 13(11), 873-886.
  • Deshpande, Satish P.(1997) ‘Managers’ Perception of Proper Ethical Conduct: The Effect of Sex, Age, and Level of Education,’ Journal of Business Ethics, 16:79-85.
  • Dubinsky, Alan J., Ingram, Thomas N. (1984) ‘Correlates of Salespeople`s Ethical Conflict: An Exploratory Investigation,’ Journal of Business Ethics, 3: 343- 353.
  • Dunfee, Thomas W., N. Craig Smith, William T. Ross Jr. (1999) ‘Social Contracts and Marketing Ethics.’ Journal of Marketing, Vol.63 (July), 14-32.
  • Ekin, S., S. H. Tezölmez (2000) ‘Türk İş Dünyasındaki Yöneticilerin İş Ahlakı Konusundaki Düşünce ve Kararları’ Prof.Dr.Nusret Ekin’e Armağan, TÜHİS, No:38 içerisinde, 941-968.
  • Ellen, Pam Scholder, Joshua Lyle Wiener and Cathy Cobb Walgren (1991) ‘ The Role of Perceived Consumer Effectiveness in Motivating Environmentally- Conscious Behaviors.’ Journal of Public Policy &Marketing, 10 (Fall) 102- 117.
  • Engel, James F. and Roger D. Blackwell (1982) Consumer Behavior, NewYork,The Dryden Press.
  • Ferrel, O.C, Larry G. Gresham.(1985) ‘A Contingency Framework for Understanding Ethical Decision Making in Marketing,’ Journal of Marketing. Summer 87- 96.
  • Glover, Saundra H., Minnette A.Bumpus, John E. Logan, James R.Ciesla. (1997) ‘Re- Examining the Influence of Individual Values on Ethical Decision Making,’ Journal of Business Ethics,16:1319-1329.
  • Goodwin, Cathy and Ivan Ross (1992) ‘Consumer Responses to Service Failures: Influence of Procedural and Interactional Fairness Perceptions.’ Journal of Business Research. 25, 149-163.
  • Griffin, Mitch, Barry J. Babin and William R. Darden (1992) ‘Consumer Assessment of Responsibility for Product-Related Injuries: The Impact of Regulation, Warnings and Promotional Policies.’ Advances in Consumer Research, 19, 870-878.
  • Hair, Joseph F., R.E. Anderson, R.L.Tatham, W.C.Black (1995) Multivariate Data Analysis with Readings, Fourth edition, Prentice-Hall.Inc.
  • Ho, Foo Nin, S.J. Vitell, J.H.Barnes, R. Desborde.(1997) ‘Ethical Correlates of Role Conflict and Ambiguity in Marketing: The Mediating Role of Cognitive Moral Development,’ Journal of The Marketing Science, 25,2, 117-126.
  • Hunt, S.D., and Vitell, S.(1986) ‘A General Theory of Marketing Ethics,’ Journal of Macromarketing, (Spring), 5-16
  • Jones, Thomas. (1991) ‘Ethical Decision Making by Individuals in Organizations: An Issue-Contingent Model,’ Academy of Management Review, 16,2,366-395.
  • Katz, Daniel, Robert L. Kahn. (1977) Örgütlerin Toplumsal Psikolojisi. Çev: Halil Can, Yavuz Bayar, Türkiye ve Orta Doğu Amme İdaresi Enstitüsü Yayını, No:107.
  • Kavak, Bahtışen (1999) A Descriptive Model of Consumers' Punishment and Rewarding Process via Purchasing Behaviour: A Cross-Cultural Testing of Students in Turkey and Kyrgyzstan., Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel.
  • --------------------(2000a) “Makyavelizm (Machiavellianism) ile Tüketicinin Ahlaki Yargıları Arasındaki İlişkiye Yönelik Ampirik Bir İnceleme” Beşinci Ulusal Pazarlama Kongresi, s.490 (Özet) Antalya, 16-18 Kasım.
  • --------------------(2000b) “ The Effects of Formal Education on Unethical Purchasing Decisions: Investigation on Faculty Members and University Students in Turkey and Kyrgyzstan” Boğazici Journal: Review of Social Economics and Administrative Studies. Vol:14, No:2, 99-113.
  • Kidwell, Jeaneen, R.E.Stevens, A.L. Bethke (1987) ‘Differences in Ethical Perceptions Between Male and Female Managers: Myth or Reality?’ Journal of Business Ethics, 6:489-493.
  • Loe, Terry W., Linda Ferrell, Phylis Mansfield (2000) ‘A Review of Empirical Studies Assessing Ethical Decision Making in Business,’ Journal of Business Ethics, 25:185-204.
  • Lund, Daulatram B. (2000) ‘An Empirical Examination of Marketing Professionals’ Ethical Behavior in Differing Situations,’ Journal of Business Ethics, 24, 331-342.
  • Müftüoğlu, Tamer (1997) ‘Türkiye’de Küçük ve Orta Ölçekli İşletmeler, Sorunlar- Öneriler’ EGS Bank Yayını, Ankara
  • Nunnally, J.C (1967) Pscyhometric Theory. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, NewYork.
  • Preble, John F., Arie Reichel (1988) ‘Attitudes towards Business Ethics of Future Managers in the U.S. and Israel.’ Journal of Business Ethics, 7, 941-949.
  • Rallapalli, Kumar C., Scott J. Vitell, Jr., Sheryl Szeinbach (2000) ‘Marketers’ Norms and Personal Values: An Empirical Study of Marketing Professionals.’ Journal of Business Ethics, 24, 65-75.
  • Rawwas, Mohammed Y.A. (1996) ‘Consumer Ethics: An Empirical Investigation of the Ethical Beliefs of Austrian Consumers.’ Journal of Business Ethics, 15:1009- 1019.
  • Roberts, John A. (1996) ‘Will the Real Socially Responsible Consumer Please Step Forward?’ Business Horizons, 39 (1), 79-88.
  • Serwinek, Paul J.(1992) ‘Demographic & Related Differences in Ethical Views Among Small Businesses,’ Journal of Business Ethics, 11:555-566.
  • Slovic, Paul, Donald McGregor and Nuncy N. Kraus (1987) ‘Perception of Risk from Automobile Safety Defects’, Accidents Analysis and Perception, 19, 359- 373.
  • Trevino, Linda Klebe (1986) ‘Ethical Decision-Making in Organisations: A Person- Situation Interactionist Model,’ Academy of Management Review, Vol.11.No.3, 601-617.
  • Whalen, Joel, Robert E. Pitts, John K. Wong (1991) ‘Exploring the Structure of Ethical Attributions as a Component of the Consumer Decision Model: The Vicarious versus Personal Perspective,’ Journal of Business Ethics, 10: 285-293.

Ayrıntılar

Konular Sosyal
Bölüm Makaleler
Yazarlar

Bahtışen KAVAK
HACETTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, İKTİSADİ VE İDARİ BİLİMLER FAKÜLTESİ, İŞLETME BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-5252-5410

Yayımlanma Tarihi 31 Aralık 2001
Başvuru Tarihi 6 Haziran 2017
Kabul Tarihi
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2001, Cilt 19, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { huniibf319332, journal = {Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi}, issn = {1301-8752}, eissn = {1309-6338}, address = {}, publisher = {Hacettepe Üniversitesi}, year = {2001}, volume = {19}, pages = {79 - 96}, doi = {}, title = {ROL FARKLILAŞMASININ AHLAKİ YARGILAR ÜZERINDEKİ ETKİSİ: TÜKETİCİ AHLAKI VE İŞ AHLAKI ÇERÇEVESİNDE KARŞILAŞTIRMALI BİR ARAŞTIRMA}, key = {cite}, author = {Kavak, Bahtışen} }
APA Kavak, B. (2001). ROL FARKLILAŞMASININ AHLAKİ YARGILAR ÜZERINDEKİ ETKİSİ: TÜKETİCİ AHLAKI VE İŞ AHLAKI ÇERÇEVESİNDE KARŞILAŞTIRMALI BİR ARAŞTIRMA . Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi , 19 (2) , 79-96 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/huniibf/issue/29692/319332
MLA Kavak, B. "ROL FARKLILAŞMASININ AHLAKİ YARGILAR ÜZERINDEKİ ETKİSİ: TÜKETİCİ AHLAKI VE İŞ AHLAKI ÇERÇEVESİNDE KARŞILAŞTIRMALI BİR ARAŞTIRMA" . Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi 19 (2001 ): 79-96 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/huniibf/issue/29692/319332>
Chicago Kavak, B. "ROL FARKLILAŞMASININ AHLAKİ YARGILAR ÜZERINDEKİ ETKİSİ: TÜKETİCİ AHLAKI VE İŞ AHLAKI ÇERÇEVESİNDE KARŞILAŞTIRMALI BİR ARAŞTIRMA". Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi 19 (2001 ): 79-96
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - ROL FARKLILAŞMASININ AHLAKİ YARGILAR ÜZERINDEKİ ETKİSİ: TÜKETİCİ AHLAKI VE İŞ AHLAKI ÇERÇEVESİNDE KARŞILAŞTIRMALI BİR ARAŞTIRMA AU - Bahtışen Kavak Y1 - 2001 PY - 2001 N1 - DO - T2 - Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 79 EP - 96 VL - 19 IS - 2 SN - 1301-8752-1309-6338 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi ROL FARKLILAŞMASININ AHLAKİ YARGILAR ÜZERINDEKİ ETKİSİ: TÜKETİCİ AHLAKI VE İŞ AHLAKI ÇERÇEVESİNDE KARŞILAŞTIRMALI BİR ARAŞTIRMA %A Bahtışen Kavak %T ROL FARKLILAŞMASININ AHLAKİ YARGILAR ÜZERINDEKİ ETKİSİ: TÜKETİCİ AHLAKI VE İŞ AHLAKI ÇERÇEVESİNDE KARŞILAŞTIRMALI BİR ARAŞTIRMA %D 2001 %J Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi %P 1301-8752-1309-6338 %V 19 %N 2 %R %U
ISNAD Kavak, Bahtışen . "ROL FARKLILAŞMASININ AHLAKİ YARGILAR ÜZERINDEKİ ETKİSİ: TÜKETİCİ AHLAKI VE İŞ AHLAKI ÇERÇEVESİNDE KARŞILAŞTIRMALI BİR ARAŞTIRMA". Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi 19 / 2 (Aralık 2001): 79-96 .
AMA Kavak B. ROL FARKLILAŞMASININ AHLAKİ YARGILAR ÜZERINDEKİ ETKİSİ: TÜKETİCİ AHLAKI VE İŞ AHLAKI ÇERÇEVESİNDE KARŞILAŞTIRMALI BİR ARAŞTIRMA. Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi. 2001; 19(2): 79-96.
Vancouver Kavak B. ROL FARKLILAŞMASININ AHLAKİ YARGILAR ÜZERINDEKİ ETKİSİ: TÜKETİCİ AHLAKI VE İŞ AHLAKI ÇERÇEVESİNDE KARŞILAŞTIRMALI BİR ARAŞTIRMA. Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi. 2001; 19(2): 79-96.
IEEE B. Kavak , "ROL FARKLILAŞMASININ AHLAKİ YARGILAR ÜZERINDEKİ ETKİSİ: TÜKETİCİ AHLAKI VE İŞ AHLAKI ÇERÇEVESİNDE KARŞILAŞTIRMALI BİR ARAŞTIRMA", Hacettepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, c. 19, sayı. 2, ss. 79-96, Ara. 2002

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