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DOĞA TABANLI ÇÖZÜMLER İLE SÜRDÜRÜLEBİLİR SOKAK PLANLAMASI

Yıl 2023, Cilt: 5 Sayı: 2, 11 - 29, 28.02.2023
https://doi.org/10.56809/icujtas.1133114

Öz

İklim değişikliği, kentlerin inşasında doğadan kopuşun bir yansıması olarak düşünüldüğünde, bu soruna karşı geliştirilecek çözümler doğaya uyumlu yapılaşmayı beraberinde getirir. Zira sert zemin ve beton odaklı yapılaşmalar, kentleri zamanla kentsel ısı adası etkisi, su baskınları vs. gibi iklimsel sorunların odağı hâline getirmektedir. Mekânsal planlamaya doğaya saygılı çözümleri adapte etmek, hiç şüphesiz kentsel sistemlerde fayda unsurunu ön plana çıkaracaktır. Doğa tabanlı çözümler isimli yenilikçi müdahalelerle bu adaptasyona, sosyal kurgunun temelini oluşturan bir ulaşım alanı ve tarih boyunca kentlerdeki en önemli kamusal mekânlardan biri olan sokak mekânından başlamak, dirençli ve sürdürülebilir kentlerin oluşmasına katkı sağlayacaktır. Bu çözümlerin sokak bazında adaptasyonu için kentsel dönüşüm projeleri bir fırsattır. Çalışmanın amacı iklim değişikliğine karşı sürdürülebilir sokak planlamasında doğa tabanlı çözümlerin katkısını incelemektir. Literatür araştırmasının ardından çözümlerin sağladığı faydaları somutlaştırmak adına İklime Dayanıklı Şehir Araç Kutusu (Climate Proof City Toolbox) ile interaktif harita üzerinde, halihazırda kentsel dönüşüm alanında bulunan Edirne’de bir bölge çalışılmıştır ve sonucunda sürdürülebilir sokak planlamasına dair önerilerde bulunulmuştur.

Kaynakça

  • Arkun, A. K. (2020). Türkiye’de Sürdürülebilir Kentsel tasarım Modeli ve Değerlendirme Sistemi Geliştirmek. Şehir ve Medeniyet, S, 6(12), 109-134.
  • Barker, A., Clay, G., Rothwell, J., Gilchrist, A., Tantanasi, I., Morrison, R., & Payne, S. (2019). ‘‘Understanding GreenInfrastructure at Different Scales: a signposting guide’’, The University of Manchester. https://doi. org/10.13140/RG.2.2.26366.95045
  • Bevan, T. A., McKenzie, J.A., Sklenar, O., & Derry, W.E. (2007). ‘‘Sustainable urban street design and assessment’’. Proceedings of the 3rd Urban Street Symposium: Uptown, Downtown, or Small Town – Designing Streets that Work. Seattle, USA
  • Chapman, L. (2007). Transport and climate change: A review. Journal of Transport Geography, 15(5), 354.
  • City of Copenhagen. (2014). Copenhagen Solutions for Sustainable Cities. City of Copenhagen. Erişim Adresi: https://www.arup.com/perspectives/publications/research/section/copenhagen--solutions-for-sustainable-cities
  • CNT. (2010). ‘‘The Value of Green Infrastructure: A Guide to Recognizing Its Economic, Environmental and Social Benefits’’, Center for Neighborhood Technology, Chicago Erişim Adresi: https://cnt.org/publications/the-value-of-green-infrastructure-a-guide-to-recognizing-its-economic-environmental-and
  • Cohen-Shacham, E., Walters, G., Janzen, C., Maginnis, S. (2016). ‘‘Nature-Based Solutions to Address Global Societal Challenges’’. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.CH.2016.13.en
  • Cohen-Shacham, E. (2020). ‘‘Nature-based Solutions: from definition to implementation’’, CEM Ecosystem Restoration Thematic Group webinar series, Erişim Adresi: https://www.iucn.org/sites/dev/files/content/documents/nbs_ertg_sep_2020.pdf
  • Corbella, C. (2017). ‘‘CONSTRUCTED WETLAND - MICROBIAL FUEL CELLS: electricity generation, treatment efficiency improvement, COD bioindication and clogging assessment’’ Doktora Tezi, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, İspanya
  • Çalışkan, Z., D., Kurt, Ü., Timur, M., C. (2017). ‘‘İklim Değişikliği ve Ulaşım Sektörü İlişkisinin Ekonometrik Analizi: Türkiye Örneği’’, ENSCON, International Congress of Energy, Economy and Policy, Proceedings Book, İstanbul
  • Debele, S.E., Kumar, P., Sahani, J., Marti-Cardona, B., Mickovski, S.B., Leo, L.S., Porcù, F., Bertini, F., Montesi, D., Vojinovic, Z., Di Sabatino, S. (2019). ‘‘Nature-based solutions for hydro-meteorological hazards: revised concepts, classification schemes and databases’’, Environ. Res. 179, 1–20.
  • Dizdaroglu, D., Yigitcanlar, T. ve Dawes, L. A. (2009). ‘‘Sustainable Urban Futures: An Ecological Approach to Sustainable Urban Development’’, Proceedings of the Second Infrastructure Theme Postgraduate Conference, Queensland University Of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland.
  • Doğru, M. (2022). ‘‘Yeşil Cepheler, Dikey Bahçeler ve Çatılar Nedir?’’, [EcoBlog] Erişim Adresi: https://www.ecobuild.com.tr/post/ye%C5%9Fil-cepheler-dikey-bah%C3%A7eler-ve-%C3%A7at%C4%B1lar-nedir
  • Faivre, N., Fritz, M., Freitas, T., Boissezon, B., & Vandewoestijne, S. (2017). ‘‘Nature Based Solutions in the EU: Innovating with nature to address social, economic and environmental challenges’’, Environmental Research, 159, 509-518. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2017.08.032. Erişim Adresi: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0013935117316080
  • Greenberg, E. (2008). ‘‘Sustainable streets: An emerging practice’’, ITE Journal, 78(5), 20-30
  • GreenUp. (2018). ‘‘New Strategy for Re-Naturing Cities through Nature-Based Solutions – URBAN GreenUP, NBS Catalogue’’, SCC-02-2016-2017, Innovation Action – GRANT AGREEMENT No. 730426 Erişim Adresi: https://www.urbangreenup.eu/insights/deliverables/d1-1---nbs-catalogue.kl
  • Hensel, M. (2014). “Energieeffiziente Gebäude” Energieeffizienz bei Gebäuden - Zentraler Baustein einer modernen Energie- und Klimapolitik, Energieeffiziente Gebäude BDI initiativ, BDI-Publikations-Nr.: 0013, Industrie-Förderung GmbH, Berlin.
  • Hoffert, M. I., Caldeira, K., Benford, G., Criswell, D., R., Green, C., Herzog, H., Jain, A., K., Kheshgi, H., S., Lackner, K., S., Lewis, J., S., Lightfoot, H., D., Manheimer, W., Mankins, J., C., Mauel, M., E., Perkins, L., J., Schlesinger, M., E., Volk, T., Wigley, T., M., L. (2002). ‘‘Advanced Technology Paths to Global Climate Stability: Energy for a Greenhouse Planet’’, Science 298/5595: 981–987
  • Im, J. (2019). ‘‘Green streets to serve urban sustainability: Benefits and typology’’, Sustainability, 11(22), 6483.
  • Kabisch, N., Frantzeskaki, N., Pauleit, S., Naumann, S., Davis, M., Artmann, M., Haase, D., Knapp, S., Korn, H., Stadler, J., Zaunberger, K., & Bonn, A. (2016). Nature-based solutions to climate change mitigation and adaptation in urban areas: perspectives on indicators, knowledge gaps, barriers, and opportunities for action. Ecology and Society, 21(2). Erişim Adresi: http://www.jstor.org/stable/26270403
  • Karali, E., Mattern K. (2017). ‘‘Communicating Climate Change Adaptation Information Using Web-Based Platforms’’, Advances in Science & Research, 14, 241–245
  • King, M. (2010). ‘‘Dünyanın Geçici Bekçileri’’, (N. Akın, E. Eğilmez, Çev) Carretta Yayıncılık, İstanbul
  • Kott, J. (2011). ‘‘Streets of Clay: Design and Assessment of Sustainable Urban and Suburban Streets’’. PhD. Thesis, Faculty of Humanities Curtin University Sustainability Policy Institute, Australia
  • Künar, A. (2018). ‘‘Binalarda Enerji Verimliliği ve Yeşil Bina Uygulamaları’’, ENDOKS ESCO Koordinatörlüğü, DEK, Ankara Erişim Adresi: https://www.dunyaenerji.org.tr/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/ArifKunar3Ders.pdf
  • Lipiec, E., (2020). ‘‘Nature-Based Infrastructure: NOAA’s Role’’, Congressional Research Service Report, R46145, Version 1. Erişim Adresi: https://sgp.fas.org/crs/misc/R46145.pdf
  • Lösch, H. (2014) “Energieeffiziente Gebäude” Energieeffizienz bei Gebäuden - Zentraler Baustein einer modernen Energie- und Klimapolitik, Energieeffiziente Gebäude BDI initiativ, BDI-Publikations-Nr.: 0013, Industrie-Förderung GmbH, Berlin.
  • Lukes, R., Kloss, C. (2008). ‘‘Municipal Handbook: Green Streets; Managing Wet Weather with Green Infrastructure’’, Low Impact Development Center, EPA-833-F-08-009; US Environmental Protection Agency: Washington, DC, USA
  • McCarney, P., Blanco, H., Carmin, J. ve Colley, M. (2012). ‘‘Cities and Climate Change’’, [Rosenzweig, C., Solecki, W.D., Hammer, S.A. ve Mehrotra, S. (der.)] ‘‘Climate Change and Cities: First Assessment Report of the Urban Climate Change Research Network’’, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 249- 270.
  • NACTO, GDCI. (2016) National Association of City Transportation Officials, & Global Designing Cities Initiative. ‘‘Global Street Design Guide’’. Island Press, ISBN: 978-1-61091-494-9 Erişim Adresi: https://globaldesigningcities.org/publication/global-street-design-guide/
  • Nations Development Programme. (2019). ‘‘Accelerating Climate Ambition and Impact: Toolkit for Mainstreaming Nature-Based Solutions into Nationally Determined Contributions’’, New York, USA: UNDP.
  • Nesshöver, C., Assmuth, T., Irvine, K. N., Rusch, G. M., Waylen, K. A., Delbaere, B., … Wittmer, H. (2016). The science, policy and practice of nature-based solutions: an interdisciplinary perspective. Science of the Total Environment, 579, 1215–1227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.11.106
  • Newman, P., & Kenworthy, J. R. (1999). ‘‘Sustainability and Cities: Overcoming Automobile Dependence’’, Washington, DC: Island Press.
  • NOAA, (2020). ‘‘Nature-Based Solutions Practices and Benefits’’, Office for Coastal Management Erişim Adresi: https://coast.noaa.gov/data/digitalcoast/pdf/gi-practices-and-benefits.pdf
  • Ortega, E., Ferrer, Y., Salas, J.J., Aragón, C., Real, A. (2010). ‘‘Manual para la implantación de sistemas de depuración en pequeñas poblaciones’’, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Medio Rural y Marino. ISBN: 978-84-491-1071-9
  • Özcan, A. (2007). ‘‘Ekolojik temele dayalı sürdürülebilir kentsel gelişme: Malatya Kent Örneği Üzerinden bir Değerlendirme’’, 38. Uluslararası Asya ve Kuzey Afrika Çalışmaları Kongresi (IcAnAS), 2(1), 685-707.
  • Özçağ, M. (2004). ‘‘Sürdürülebilir Kalkınma Sürecinde İklim Değişikliği ve Türkiye Analizi’’, Yayımlanmamış doktora tezi, Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Aydın. Erişim Adresi: http://adudspace.adu.edu.tr:8080/xmlui/handle/11607/354?show=full
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SUSTAINABLE STREET PLANNING WITH NATURE-BASED SOLUTIONS

Yıl 2023, Cilt: 5 Sayı: 2, 11 - 29, 28.02.2023
https://doi.org/10.56809/icujtas.1133114

Öz

When climate change is considered as a reflection of the break with nature in the construction of cities, solutions to this problem bring along nature-compatible construction. Because hard ground and concrete-oriented constructions, urban heat island effect, floods, etc. makes it the focus of climatic problems such as Adapting nature-friendly solutions to spatial planning will undoubtedly bring the benefit element to the fore in urban systems. Starting this adaptation with innovative interventions called nature-based solutions will contribute to the formation of resilient and sustainable cities, starting with a transportation area that forms the basis of social construction and the street space, which has been one of the most important public spaces in cities throughout history. Urban transformation projects are an opportunity for the street-based adaptation of these solutions. The aim of the study is to examine the contribution of nature-based solutions in sustainable street planning against climate change. After the literature review, in order to embody the benefits of the solutions, a region in Edirne, which is currently in the urban transformation area, was studied on the interactive map with the Climate Proof City Toolbox, and as a result, suggestions for sustainable street planning were made.

Kaynakça

  • Arkun, A. K. (2020). Türkiye’de Sürdürülebilir Kentsel tasarım Modeli ve Değerlendirme Sistemi Geliştirmek. Şehir ve Medeniyet, S, 6(12), 109-134.
  • Barker, A., Clay, G., Rothwell, J., Gilchrist, A., Tantanasi, I., Morrison, R., & Payne, S. (2019). ‘‘Understanding GreenInfrastructure at Different Scales: a signposting guide’’, The University of Manchester. https://doi. org/10.13140/RG.2.2.26366.95045
  • Bevan, T. A., McKenzie, J.A., Sklenar, O., & Derry, W.E. (2007). ‘‘Sustainable urban street design and assessment’’. Proceedings of the 3rd Urban Street Symposium: Uptown, Downtown, or Small Town – Designing Streets that Work. Seattle, USA
  • Chapman, L. (2007). Transport and climate change: A review. Journal of Transport Geography, 15(5), 354.
  • City of Copenhagen. (2014). Copenhagen Solutions for Sustainable Cities. City of Copenhagen. Erişim Adresi: https://www.arup.com/perspectives/publications/research/section/copenhagen--solutions-for-sustainable-cities
  • CNT. (2010). ‘‘The Value of Green Infrastructure: A Guide to Recognizing Its Economic, Environmental and Social Benefits’’, Center for Neighborhood Technology, Chicago Erişim Adresi: https://cnt.org/publications/the-value-of-green-infrastructure-a-guide-to-recognizing-its-economic-environmental-and
  • Cohen-Shacham, E., Walters, G., Janzen, C., Maginnis, S. (2016). ‘‘Nature-Based Solutions to Address Global Societal Challenges’’. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature. https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.CH.2016.13.en
  • Cohen-Shacham, E. (2020). ‘‘Nature-based Solutions: from definition to implementation’’, CEM Ecosystem Restoration Thematic Group webinar series, Erişim Adresi: https://www.iucn.org/sites/dev/files/content/documents/nbs_ertg_sep_2020.pdf
  • Corbella, C. (2017). ‘‘CONSTRUCTED WETLAND - MICROBIAL FUEL CELLS: electricity generation, treatment efficiency improvement, COD bioindication and clogging assessment’’ Doktora Tezi, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, İspanya
  • Çalışkan, Z., D., Kurt, Ü., Timur, M., C. (2017). ‘‘İklim Değişikliği ve Ulaşım Sektörü İlişkisinin Ekonometrik Analizi: Türkiye Örneği’’, ENSCON, International Congress of Energy, Economy and Policy, Proceedings Book, İstanbul
  • Debele, S.E., Kumar, P., Sahani, J., Marti-Cardona, B., Mickovski, S.B., Leo, L.S., Porcù, F., Bertini, F., Montesi, D., Vojinovic, Z., Di Sabatino, S. (2019). ‘‘Nature-based solutions for hydro-meteorological hazards: revised concepts, classification schemes and databases’’, Environ. Res. 179, 1–20.
  • Dizdaroglu, D., Yigitcanlar, T. ve Dawes, L. A. (2009). ‘‘Sustainable Urban Futures: An Ecological Approach to Sustainable Urban Development’’, Proceedings of the Second Infrastructure Theme Postgraduate Conference, Queensland University Of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland.
  • Doğru, M. (2022). ‘‘Yeşil Cepheler, Dikey Bahçeler ve Çatılar Nedir?’’, [EcoBlog] Erişim Adresi: https://www.ecobuild.com.tr/post/ye%C5%9Fil-cepheler-dikey-bah%C3%A7eler-ve-%C3%A7at%C4%B1lar-nedir
  • Faivre, N., Fritz, M., Freitas, T., Boissezon, B., & Vandewoestijne, S. (2017). ‘‘Nature Based Solutions in the EU: Innovating with nature to address social, economic and environmental challenges’’, Environmental Research, 159, 509-518. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2017.08.032. Erişim Adresi: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0013935117316080
  • Greenberg, E. (2008). ‘‘Sustainable streets: An emerging practice’’, ITE Journal, 78(5), 20-30
  • GreenUp. (2018). ‘‘New Strategy for Re-Naturing Cities through Nature-Based Solutions – URBAN GreenUP, NBS Catalogue’’, SCC-02-2016-2017, Innovation Action – GRANT AGREEMENT No. 730426 Erişim Adresi: https://www.urbangreenup.eu/insights/deliverables/d1-1---nbs-catalogue.kl
  • Hensel, M. (2014). “Energieeffiziente Gebäude” Energieeffizienz bei Gebäuden - Zentraler Baustein einer modernen Energie- und Klimapolitik, Energieeffiziente Gebäude BDI initiativ, BDI-Publikations-Nr.: 0013, Industrie-Förderung GmbH, Berlin.
  • Hoffert, M. I., Caldeira, K., Benford, G., Criswell, D., R., Green, C., Herzog, H., Jain, A., K., Kheshgi, H., S., Lackner, K., S., Lewis, J., S., Lightfoot, H., D., Manheimer, W., Mankins, J., C., Mauel, M., E., Perkins, L., J., Schlesinger, M., E., Volk, T., Wigley, T., M., L. (2002). ‘‘Advanced Technology Paths to Global Climate Stability: Energy for a Greenhouse Planet’’, Science 298/5595: 981–987
  • Im, J. (2019). ‘‘Green streets to serve urban sustainability: Benefits and typology’’, Sustainability, 11(22), 6483.
  • Kabisch, N., Frantzeskaki, N., Pauleit, S., Naumann, S., Davis, M., Artmann, M., Haase, D., Knapp, S., Korn, H., Stadler, J., Zaunberger, K., & Bonn, A. (2016). Nature-based solutions to climate change mitigation and adaptation in urban areas: perspectives on indicators, knowledge gaps, barriers, and opportunities for action. Ecology and Society, 21(2). Erişim Adresi: http://www.jstor.org/stable/26270403
  • Karali, E., Mattern K. (2017). ‘‘Communicating Climate Change Adaptation Information Using Web-Based Platforms’’, Advances in Science & Research, 14, 241–245
  • King, M. (2010). ‘‘Dünyanın Geçici Bekçileri’’, (N. Akın, E. Eğilmez, Çev) Carretta Yayıncılık, İstanbul
  • Kott, J. (2011). ‘‘Streets of Clay: Design and Assessment of Sustainable Urban and Suburban Streets’’. PhD. Thesis, Faculty of Humanities Curtin University Sustainability Policy Institute, Australia
  • Künar, A. (2018). ‘‘Binalarda Enerji Verimliliği ve Yeşil Bina Uygulamaları’’, ENDOKS ESCO Koordinatörlüğü, DEK, Ankara Erişim Adresi: https://www.dunyaenerji.org.tr/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/ArifKunar3Ders.pdf
  • Lipiec, E., (2020). ‘‘Nature-Based Infrastructure: NOAA’s Role’’, Congressional Research Service Report, R46145, Version 1. Erişim Adresi: https://sgp.fas.org/crs/misc/R46145.pdf
  • Lösch, H. (2014) “Energieeffiziente Gebäude” Energieeffizienz bei Gebäuden - Zentraler Baustein einer modernen Energie- und Klimapolitik, Energieeffiziente Gebäude BDI initiativ, BDI-Publikations-Nr.: 0013, Industrie-Förderung GmbH, Berlin.
  • Lukes, R., Kloss, C. (2008). ‘‘Municipal Handbook: Green Streets; Managing Wet Weather with Green Infrastructure’’, Low Impact Development Center, EPA-833-F-08-009; US Environmental Protection Agency: Washington, DC, USA
  • McCarney, P., Blanco, H., Carmin, J. ve Colley, M. (2012). ‘‘Cities and Climate Change’’, [Rosenzweig, C., Solecki, W.D., Hammer, S.A. ve Mehrotra, S. (der.)] ‘‘Climate Change and Cities: First Assessment Report of the Urban Climate Change Research Network’’, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 249- 270.
  • NACTO, GDCI. (2016) National Association of City Transportation Officials, & Global Designing Cities Initiative. ‘‘Global Street Design Guide’’. Island Press, ISBN: 978-1-61091-494-9 Erişim Adresi: https://globaldesigningcities.org/publication/global-street-design-guide/
  • Nations Development Programme. (2019). ‘‘Accelerating Climate Ambition and Impact: Toolkit for Mainstreaming Nature-Based Solutions into Nationally Determined Contributions’’, New York, USA: UNDP.
  • Nesshöver, C., Assmuth, T., Irvine, K. N., Rusch, G. M., Waylen, K. A., Delbaere, B., … Wittmer, H. (2016). The science, policy and practice of nature-based solutions: an interdisciplinary perspective. Science of the Total Environment, 579, 1215–1227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.11.106
  • Newman, P., & Kenworthy, J. R. (1999). ‘‘Sustainability and Cities: Overcoming Automobile Dependence’’, Washington, DC: Island Press.
  • NOAA, (2020). ‘‘Nature-Based Solutions Practices and Benefits’’, Office for Coastal Management Erişim Adresi: https://coast.noaa.gov/data/digitalcoast/pdf/gi-practices-and-benefits.pdf
  • Ortega, E., Ferrer, Y., Salas, J.J., Aragón, C., Real, A. (2010). ‘‘Manual para la implantación de sistemas de depuración en pequeñas poblaciones’’, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Medio Rural y Marino. ISBN: 978-84-491-1071-9
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  • Özçağ, M. (2004). ‘‘Sürdürülebilir Kalkınma Sürecinde İklim Değişikliği ve Türkiye Analizi’’, Yayımlanmamış doktora tezi, Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Aydın. Erişim Adresi: http://adudspace.adu.edu.tr:8080/xmlui/handle/11607/354?show=full
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Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil Türkçe
Konular Kentsel Politika, Mimarlık
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Özlem BADOĞLU 0000-0002-6942-1300

Ozdemir SONMEZ 0000-0001-6421-7071

Yayımlanma Tarihi 28 Şubat 2023
Gönderilme Tarihi 20 Haziran 2022
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2023 Cilt: 5 Sayı: 2

Kaynak Göster

APA BADOĞLU, Ö., & SONMEZ, O. (2023). DOĞA TABANLI ÇÖZÜMLER İLE SÜRDÜRÜLEBİLİR SOKAK PLANLAMASI. İstanbul Ticaret Üniversitesi Teknoloji Ve Uygulamalı Bilimler Dergisi, 5(2), 11-29. https://doi.org/10.56809/icujtas.1133114