Araştırma Makalesi

Yıl 2019,
Cilt: 6 Sayı: 2, 235 - 258, 15.07.2019
### Öz

### Anahtar Kelimeler

### Kaynakça

Technology and games are the areas where learners are most interested in today's world. If these two can be brought together within the framework of learning objectives, they can be an advantage for teachers and students. This study aims to investigate the learning environment supported by game and simulation. The games were used to evaluate the basic probability knowledge of the prospective teachers, to demonstrate the role of problem solving in the formation of the mathematical knowledge, and to enable discussing mathematical ideas in a worksheet. Simulations were used for visualization and a large number of experiments. The sampling of the study, by which case study research is adopted, is comprised of 40 prospective teachers at a state university in Turkey. The data were collected by introducing nine open-ended questions by means of games, worksheets and simulation activities. The questions asked relevant to the games include making predictions about the fairness of the games, playing the games in small numbers and in big numbers and the observation of the scores, calculation of the winning probabilities of the gamers both experimentally and theoretically, and their comparisons. The process of finding out the probability information underlying the games by the prospective teachers was analyzed qualitatively by means of worksheets, simulations and in-class observation, and the ways of thinking, intuitions, estimations, strategies, and opinions about the learning situation of the participants were tried to be determined. The results obtained put forward that the learning situation that was set up simultaneously contributed to the knowledge of probability and probability teaching of the prospective teachers; and that the candidates’ opinions about the learning situation are positive.

Probability teaching Educational game Simulation Experimental probability Theoretical probability

- Ahmad, W., Shafie, A., & Latif M. (2010). Role-playing game-based learning in mathematics. Electronic Journal of Mathematics & Technology, 4(2), 184-196.
- Akpınar, E. (2014). The Use of Interactive Computer Animations Based on POE as a Presentation Tool in Primary Science Teaching. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 23(4), 527-537.
- Batanero, C., Henry, M., & Parzysz, B. (2005). The nature of chance and probability. In G. A. Jones (Eds.), Exploring probability in school: Challenges for teaching and learning, (pp. 15-37). Netherlands: Kluwer.
- Batanero, C., Contreras, J. M. Fernándes, J. A. & Ojeda, M. M. (2010). Paradoxical games as a didactic tool to train teachers in probability. Publicación en C, Reading (Eds.), Proceedings of the Eight International Conference on Teaching Statistics [CD-ROM]. Lubjana: International Association for Statistical Education. ISBN: 978-90-77713-54-9. Tipo de contribución: Trabajo referido. 4 -6 Julio 2010. Begg, A. (1995). Statistics and the mathematical processes. Teaching Statistics, 17(2), 40–45.
- Ben-Zvi, D., & Garfield, J. (2004). The Challenge of developing statistical literacy, reasoning, and thinking, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
- Borovcnik, M., & Kapadia, R (2009). Research and developments in probability education. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics, 4(3), 111-130.
- Bragg, L. (2007). Students’ conflicting attitudes towards games as a vehicle for learning mathematics: A methodological dilemma. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 19(1), 29–44.
- Bulut, S., Yetkin İ. E., & Kazak S. (2002). Investigation of prospective mathematics teachers'probability Achievement, Attitudes Toward Probability and Mathematics with Respect to Gender. Hacettepe University Journal of Education. 22, 21-28.
- Burguillo, J. C. (2010). Using game theory and competition-based learning to stimulate student motivation and performance. Computers and Education, 55, 566–575.
- Gaise (2005). Guidelines for assessment and instruction in statistics education (GAISE) report: A curriculum framework for PreK-12 statistics education. The American Statistical Association (ASA). http://www.amstat.org/education/gaise/
- Gal, I. (2005). Towards “probability literacy” for all citizens: building blocks and instructional dilemmas. In G.A. Jones (Eds.) Exploring probability in school: Challenges for teaching and learning, (pp. 39–63). New York: Springer.
- Gürbüz, R. (2006). Olasılık kavramlarının öğretimi için örnek çalışma yapraklarının geliştirilmesi [Development of study sheets for the teaching of probability concepts]. Çukurova University Journal of Faculty of Education, 3(1), 111–123.
- Gürbüz, R. (2008). Olasılık konusunun öğretiminde kullanılabilecek bilgisayar destekli bir materyal [A computer aided material for teaching ‘probability’ topic]. Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Journal of Faculty of Education, 8(15), 41-52.
- Gürbüz, R., Erdem, E., & Uluat B. (2014). Reflections from the Process of Game-Based Teaching of Probability. Croatian Journal of Education, 16(3), 109-131.
- Greer, G., & Mukhopadhyay, S. (2005). Teaching and learning the mathematization of uncertainty: historical, cultural, social and political contexts. In: G.A. Jones (Eds.) Exploring probability in school: Challenges for teaching and learning, (pp. 297–324). New York: Springer.
- Hamalainen, R. (2008). Designing and evaluating collaboration in a virtual game environment for vocational learning. Computers & Education, 50, 98–109.
- Hawkins, A. (1990). Training teachers to teach statistics. Voorburg: International Statistical Institute.
- Hill, H. C., Sleep, L., Lewis, J. M., & Ball, D. L. (2007). Assessing teachers’ mathematical knowledge: What knowledge matters and what evidence counts? In F. Lester (Eds.), Second Handbook of Research on Mathematics Teaching and Learning, (pp. 111-155). Charlotte NC: Information Age Publishing.
- Jones, G.A., Langrall, C.W., & Mooney, E.S. (2007). Research in probability: responding to classroom realities. In: F.K. Lester Jr (Eds.) Second Handbook of Research on Mathematics Teaching and Learning, (pp. 909–955). Reston: The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
- Joyce, C. (2006). Predict, observe, explain (POE). http://arb.nzcer.org.nz/strategies/poe.php (accessed on 10 June 2017)
- Kamii, C., & Rummelsburg, J. (2008). Arithmetic for first graders lacking number concepts. Teaching Children Mathematics, 14(7), 389–394.
- Katmada, A., Mavridis, A., & Tsiatsos, T. (2014). Implementing a gam efor supporting learning in mathe-maticss. The Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 12(3), 230-242.
- Kaya, S., & Elgün, A. (2015). Eğitsel oyunlar ile desteklenmiş fen öğretiminin ilkokul öğrencilerinin akademik başarısına etkisi [The influence of instructional games in science teaching on primary students’ achievement]. Kastamonu Education Journal, 23(1), 329-342.
- Konold, C. & Miller, C. (2004). TinkerPlots™ Dynamic Data Exploration 1.0. Emeryville, CA.: Key Curriculum Press.
- Konold. C, Harradine A, & Kazak S. (2007). Understanding distributions by modeling them. International Journal of Computers for Mathematical Learning, 12(3), 217-230.
- Koparan. T., & Kaleli Yılmaz. G. (2015). The effect of simulation-based learning on prospective teachers’ ınference skills in teaching probability. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 3(11), 775-786.
- Koparan, T. (2015). Olasılık Öğretiminde Simülasyon Kullanımı [Using similation in teaching probability]. Ondokuz Mayis University Journal of Faculty of Education, 34(2), 22-36.
- Koparan, T. (2016). Using simulation as a problem solving method in dice problems. British Journal of Education, Society & Behavioural Science, 18(1), 1-16.
- Koparan, T. (2019). Examination of the dynamic software-supported learning environment in data analysis, International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 50(2), 277-291.
- Koparan, T., & Taylan Koparan, E. (2019). Empirical Approaches to Probability Problems: An Action Research. European Journal of Education Studies, 5(10), 100-117.
- Küçüközer, H. (2013). Designing a powerful learning environment to promote durable conceptual change. Computers & Education, 68, 482-491.
- Maxara C, & Biehler R. (2007). Constructing stochastic simulations with a computer tool students’ competencies and difficulties. In D. Pitta, Pantazi, & P. G. Philippou (Eds.), Proceedings of the Fifth Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education. Larnaca, Cyprus.
- Mills, J. (2002). Using computer simulation methods to teach statistics: A review of the literature. Journal of Statistics Education, 10(1), 1-20.
- National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), (2000). Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
- Nisbet, S., & Williams, A. (2009). Improving students’ attitudes to chance with games and activities. Australian Mathematics Teacher, 65(3), 25–37.
- Ponte, J. P., & Chapman, O. (2006). Mathematics teachers’ knowledge and practices. In A. Gutierrez & P. Boero (Eds.), Handbook of research on the psychology of mathematics education: Past, present and future, (pp. 461-494). Roterdham: Sense.
- Stohl, H. (2005). Probability in teacher education and development. In G. Jones (Ed.). Exploring probability in schools: Challenges for teaching and learningn (345-366). New York: Springer
- White, R., & Gunstone, R. F. (1992). Prediction-Observation-Explanation. In R. White & R. F. Gunstone, Probing understanding (pp. 44-46). London, England: The Falmer Press.

Yıl 2019,
Cilt: 6 Sayı: 2, 235 - 258, 15.07.2019
### Öz

### Anahtar Kelimeler

### Kaynakça

Technology and games are the areas where

learners are most interested in today's world. If these two can be brought

together within the framework of learning objectives, they can be an advantage

for teachers and students. This study aims to investigate the learning

environment supported by game and simulation. The games were used to evaluate

the basic probability knowledge of the prospective teachers, to demonstrate the

role of problem solving in the formation of the mathematical knowledge, and to

enable discussing mathematical ideas in a worksheet. Simulations were used for

visualization and a large number of experiments. The sampling of the study, by

which case study research is adopted, is comprised of 40 prospective teachers

at a state university in Turkey. The data were collected by introducing nine

open-ended questions by means of games, worksheets and simulation activities.

The questions asked relevant to the games include making predictions about the

fairness of the games, playing the games in small numbers and in big numbers

and the observation of the scores, calculation of the winning probabilities of

the gamers both experimentally and theoretically, and their comparisons. The

process of finding out the probability information underlying the games by the

prospective teachers was analyzed qualitatively by means of worksheets,

simulations and in-class observation, and the ways of thinking, intuitions,

estimations, strategies, and opinions about the learning situation of the

participants were tried to be determined. The results obtained put forward that

the learning situation that was set up simultaneously contributed to the

knowledge of probability and probability teaching of the prospective teachers;

and that the candidates’ opinions about the learning situation are positive.

learners are most interested in today's world. If these two can be brought

together within the framework of learning objectives, they can be an advantage

for teachers and students. This study aims to investigate the learning

environment supported by game and simulation. The games were used to evaluate

the basic probability knowledge of the prospective teachers, to demonstrate the

role of problem solving in the formation of the mathematical knowledge, and to

enable discussing mathematical ideas in a worksheet. Simulations were used for

visualization and a large number of experiments. The sampling of the study, by

which case study research is adopted, is comprised of 40 prospective teachers

at a state university in Turkey. The data were collected by introducing nine

open-ended questions by means of games, worksheets and simulation activities.

The questions asked relevant to the games include making predictions about the

fairness of the games, playing the games in small numbers and in big numbers

and the observation of the scores, calculation of the winning probabilities of

the gamers both experimentally and theoretically, and their comparisons. The

process of finding out the probability information underlying the games by the

prospective teachers was analyzed qualitatively by means of worksheets,

simulations and in-class observation, and the ways of thinking, intuitions,

estimations, strategies, and opinions about the learning situation of the

participants were tried to be determined. The results obtained put forward that

the learning situation that was set up simultaneously contributed to the

knowledge of probability and probability teaching of the prospective teachers;

and that the candidates’ opinions about the learning situation are positive.

Probability teaching Educational game Simulation Experimental probability Theoretical probability

- Ahmad, W., Shafie, A., & Latif M. (2010). Role-playing game-based learning in mathematics. Electronic Journal of Mathematics & Technology, 4(2), 184-196.
- Akpınar, E. (2014). The Use of Interactive Computer Animations Based on POE as a Presentation Tool in Primary Science Teaching. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 23(4), 527-537.
- Batanero, C., Henry, M., & Parzysz, B. (2005). The nature of chance and probability. In G. A. Jones (Eds.), Exploring probability in school: Challenges for teaching and learning, (pp. 15-37). Netherlands: Kluwer.
- Batanero, C., Contreras, J. M. Fernándes, J. A. & Ojeda, M. M. (2010). Paradoxical games as a didactic tool to train teachers in probability. Publicación en C, Reading (Eds.), Proceedings of the Eight International Conference on Teaching Statistics [CD-ROM]. Lubjana: International Association for Statistical Education. ISBN: 978-90-77713-54-9. Tipo de contribución: Trabajo referido. 4 -6 Julio 2010. Begg, A. (1995). Statistics and the mathematical processes. Teaching Statistics, 17(2), 40–45.
- Ben-Zvi, D., & Garfield, J. (2004). The Challenge of developing statistical literacy, reasoning, and thinking, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
- Borovcnik, M., & Kapadia, R (2009). Research and developments in probability education. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics, 4(3), 111-130.
- Bragg, L. (2007). Students’ conflicting attitudes towards games as a vehicle for learning mathematics: A methodological dilemma. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 19(1), 29–44.
- Bulut, S., Yetkin İ. E., & Kazak S. (2002). Investigation of prospective mathematics teachers'probability Achievement, Attitudes Toward Probability and Mathematics with Respect to Gender. Hacettepe University Journal of Education. 22, 21-28.
- Burguillo, J. C. (2010). Using game theory and competition-based learning to stimulate student motivation and performance. Computers and Education, 55, 566–575.
- Gaise (2005). Guidelines for assessment and instruction in statistics education (GAISE) report: A curriculum framework for PreK-12 statistics education. The American Statistical Association (ASA). http://www.amstat.org/education/gaise/
- Gal, I. (2005). Towards “probability literacy” for all citizens: building blocks and instructional dilemmas. In G.A. Jones (Eds.) Exploring probability in school: Challenges for teaching and learning, (pp. 39–63). New York: Springer.
- Gürbüz, R. (2006). Olasılık kavramlarının öğretimi için örnek çalışma yapraklarının geliştirilmesi [Development of study sheets for the teaching of probability concepts]. Çukurova University Journal of Faculty of Education, 3(1), 111–123.
- Gürbüz, R. (2008). Olasılık konusunun öğretiminde kullanılabilecek bilgisayar destekli bir materyal [A computer aided material for teaching ‘probability’ topic]. Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Journal of Faculty of Education, 8(15), 41-52.
- Gürbüz, R., Erdem, E., & Uluat B. (2014). Reflections from the Process of Game-Based Teaching of Probability. Croatian Journal of Education, 16(3), 109-131.
- Greer, G., & Mukhopadhyay, S. (2005). Teaching and learning the mathematization of uncertainty: historical, cultural, social and political contexts. In: G.A. Jones (Eds.) Exploring probability in school: Challenges for teaching and learning, (pp. 297–324). New York: Springer.
- Hamalainen, R. (2008). Designing and evaluating collaboration in a virtual game environment for vocational learning. Computers & Education, 50, 98–109.
- Hawkins, A. (1990). Training teachers to teach statistics. Voorburg: International Statistical Institute.
- Hill, H. C., Sleep, L., Lewis, J. M., & Ball, D. L. (2007). Assessing teachers’ mathematical knowledge: What knowledge matters and what evidence counts? In F. Lester (Eds.), Second Handbook of Research on Mathematics Teaching and Learning, (pp. 111-155). Charlotte NC: Information Age Publishing.
- Jones, G.A., Langrall, C.W., & Mooney, E.S. (2007). Research in probability: responding to classroom realities. In: F.K. Lester Jr (Eds.) Second Handbook of Research on Mathematics Teaching and Learning, (pp. 909–955). Reston: The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
- Joyce, C. (2006). Predict, observe, explain (POE). http://arb.nzcer.org.nz/strategies/poe.php (accessed on 10 June 2017)
- Kamii, C., & Rummelsburg, J. (2008). Arithmetic for first graders lacking number concepts. Teaching Children Mathematics, 14(7), 389–394.
- Katmada, A., Mavridis, A., & Tsiatsos, T. (2014). Implementing a gam efor supporting learning in mathe-maticss. The Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 12(3), 230-242.
- Kaya, S., & Elgün, A. (2015). Eğitsel oyunlar ile desteklenmiş fen öğretiminin ilkokul öğrencilerinin akademik başarısına etkisi [The influence of instructional games in science teaching on primary students’ achievement]. Kastamonu Education Journal, 23(1), 329-342.
- Konold, C. & Miller, C. (2004). TinkerPlots™ Dynamic Data Exploration 1.0. Emeryville, CA.: Key Curriculum Press.
- Konold. C, Harradine A, & Kazak S. (2007). Understanding distributions by modeling them. International Journal of Computers for Mathematical Learning, 12(3), 217-230.
- Koparan. T., & Kaleli Yılmaz. G. (2015). The effect of simulation-based learning on prospective teachers’ ınference skills in teaching probability. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 3(11), 775-786.
- Koparan, T. (2015). Olasılık Öğretiminde Simülasyon Kullanımı [Using similation in teaching probability]. Ondokuz Mayis University Journal of Faculty of Education, 34(2), 22-36.
- Koparan, T. (2016). Using simulation as a problem solving method in dice problems. British Journal of Education, Society & Behavioural Science, 18(1), 1-16.
- Koparan, T. (2019). Examination of the dynamic software-supported learning environment in data analysis, International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 50(2), 277-291.
- Koparan, T., & Taylan Koparan, E. (2019). Empirical Approaches to Probability Problems: An Action Research. European Journal of Education Studies, 5(10), 100-117.
- Küçüközer, H. (2013). Designing a powerful learning environment to promote durable conceptual change. Computers & Education, 68, 482-491.
- Maxara C, & Biehler R. (2007). Constructing stochastic simulations with a computer tool students’ competencies and difficulties. In D. Pitta, Pantazi, & P. G. Philippou (Eds.), Proceedings of the Fifth Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education. Larnaca, Cyprus.
- Mills, J. (2002). Using computer simulation methods to teach statistics: A review of the literature. Journal of Statistics Education, 10(1), 1-20.
- National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), (2000). Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
- Nisbet, S., & Williams, A. (2009). Improving students’ attitudes to chance with games and activities. Australian Mathematics Teacher, 65(3), 25–37.
- Ponte, J. P., & Chapman, O. (2006). Mathematics teachers’ knowledge and practices. In A. Gutierrez & P. Boero (Eds.), Handbook of research on the psychology of mathematics education: Past, present and future, (pp. 461-494). Roterdham: Sense.
- Stohl, H. (2005). Probability in teacher education and development. In G. Jones (Ed.). Exploring probability in schools: Challenges for teaching and learningn (345-366). New York: Springer
- White, R., & Gunstone, R. F. (1992). Prediction-Observation-Explanation. In R. White & R. F. Gunstone, Probing understanding (pp. 44-46). London, England: The Falmer Press.

Toplam 38 adet kaynakça vardır.

Birincil Dil | İngilizce |
---|---|

Konular | Eğitim Üzerine Çalışmalar |

Bölüm | Makaleler |

Yazarlar | |

Yayımlanma Tarihi | 15 Temmuz 2019 |

Gönderilme Tarihi | 13 Kasım 2018 |

Yayımlandığı Sayı | Yıl 2019 Cilt: 6 Sayı: 2 |