Yıl 2021, Cilt 8 , Sayı 1, Sayfalar 135 - 144 2021-03-15

Kirkpatrick Model: Its Limitations as Used in Higher Education Evaluation

Michael CAHAPAY [1]

One of the widely known evaluation models adapted to education is the Kirkpatrick model. However, this model has limitations when used by evaluators especially in the complex environment of higher education. Addressing the scarcity of a collective effort on discussing these limitations, this review paper aims to present a descriptive analysis of the limitations of the Kirkpatrick evaluation model in the higher education field. Three themes of limitations were found out: propensity towards the use of the lower levels of the model; rigidity wich leaves out other essential aspects of the evaluand; and paucity of evidence on the causal chains among the levels. It is suggested that, when employing the Kirkpatrick model in higher education, evaluators should address these limitations by considering more appropriate methods, integrating contextual inputs in the evaluation framework, and establishing causal relationships among the levels. These suggestions to address the limitations of the model are discussed at the end of the study.
Kirkpatrick model, Program evaluation, Higher education, Limitation
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Birincil Dil en
Konular Eğitim, Bilimsel Disiplinler
Yayınlanma Tarihi March
Bölüm Makaleler

Orcid: 0000-0002-0588-0022
Yazar: Michael CAHAPAY
Kurum: Mindanao State University
Ülke: Philippines


Yayımlanma Tarihi : 15 Mart 2021

APA Cahapay, M . (2021). Kirkpatrick Model: Its Limitations as Used in Higher Education Evaluation . International Journal of Assessment Tools in Education , 8 (1) , 135-144 . DOI: 10.21449/ijate.856143