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Tarihi Muzaffer Muharebeler Yazar: Görkemli İnebahtı (1571) ve Unutulmuş Preveze (1538)

Yıl 2022, Sayı: 76, 63 - 94, 16.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.202204

Öz

Preveze ve İnebahtı deniz savaşları Avrupa’nın tarihsel hafızasında farklı biçimlerde tezahür etmektedir. İnebahtı Deniz Savaşı Avrupa’nın tarihsel hafızasında, herhangi bir mühim taktiksel yahut stratejik getiri ve toprak kazanımı sağlamamasına rağmen, yenilmez Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’na karşı Hıristiyan galibiyetinin sembolüdür. Öte yandan Preveze Deniz Muharebesi unutulmaya yüz tutmuştur. Bu iki muharebede ne gibi benzerlikler ve farklılıklar gözlemlenebilir? İki muharebenin tarihsel bağlamları paralellikler kurmaya elvermektedir. Her iki muharebe de oldukça geniş filolar arasında cereyan etmiş olmakla birlikte, askeri tarih bakımından kesin ve büyük sonuçlar yaratmamıştı. En belirgin farklardan biri 1538’deki Kutsal İttifak’a katılan Avusturya Habsburgları’nın 1571’deki ittifaka katılmayışıdır. İki muharebenin cereyan edişindeki taktiksel farklara ilaveten, bazı teknik gelişmeler de göz ardı edilemez. 1571 yılında Hıristiyan filolarında savaşan kadırgalar ile 1538 yılında savaşan kadırgalar arasında mühim farklar vardır.

Kaynakça

  • Âgoston, Gabor, The LastMuslim Conquest. The Ottoman Empire and its wars in Europe, Oxford 2021.
  • Altarozzi, Girodano, “Diplomazia pontificia europea all’indomani di Lepanto”, The Proceedings of the “European Integration - Between Tradition and Modernity” Congress, 5. 2013, 978-986.
  • Alvar Ezquerra, Alfredo, Cervantes Genio y Libertad, Madrid 2005.
  • Barta, Gabor, Az erdelyi fejedelemseg születese, Budapest 1979.
  • Braudel, Fernand, A Földközi-tenger es aMediterrân VilâgII. Fülöp Korâban, I-III. kötet, Budapest 1996.
  • Bunes de Ibarra, Miguel Ângel, “Reunion en Mesina. Organizacion, log^stica y planes de la Liga Santa”, Lepanto La mar roja de sangre, Ed. Alex Claramunt Soto, Madrid 2021, 133-199.
  • , “La conquista de Tunez por los cronistas espanoles”, Tünez 1535 Voces para una campana europea, ed. M. Â. Bunes de Ibarra - R. Gonzalez Cuerva, Madrid 2017, 9-28.
  • Candiani, Guido, “La lucha en el cuerno izquierdo: Barbarigo y Querini contra Suluk Mehmed Pacha”, Lepanto La mar roja de sangre, ed. Alex Claramunt Soto, Madrid 2021, 314-350.
  • Casillas Perez, Âlvaro, “Una certa debileza”, Andrea Doria y las campanas de la Preveza y Castelnuovo ante las embajadas de Genova y Venecia (1538-1539)”, Nuevas perspectivas de investigacion en Historia Moderna: Economia, Sociedad, Poltticay Cultura en elMundo Hispânico, ed. Ma Ângeles Perez Samper - Jose Luis Betran Moya, Madrid 2018, 670-679.
  • Cerezo Martmez, Ricardo, Las Armadas de Felipe II., Madrid 1988.
  • Claramunt Soto, Alex, “La lucha en el cuerno derecho: Gian Andrea Doria contra Uluj AH”, Lepanto. La mar roja de sangre, ed. Alex Claramunt Soto, Madrid 2021, 351-381.
  • Crowley, Roger, Tengeri birodalmak. A keresztenyseg es az iszlâm harca a Földközi-tengerfeletti uralomert, Budapest 2014.
  • Fernandez Âlvarez, Manuel, Carlos V. El Cesar y el Hombre, Madrid 1999.
  • Fernandez Duro, Cesareo, La Armada Espanola. Desde la union de los reinos de Castilla y Aragon, Tomo I-II, Madrid 1895.
  • Fodor, Pal, The Unbearable Weight of Empire: The Ottomans in Central Europe - A Failed Attempt at UniversalMonarchy (1390-1566), Budapest 2015.
  • Garda Cerezeda, Martm, Tratado de las campanas y otros acontecimientos de los ejercitos del Emperador Carlos Ven Italia, Francia, Austria, Berbenay Grecia desde 1521 hasta 1545, Madrid 1873.
  • Garda Hernan, David - Enrique Garda Hernan, Lepanto: El d^a despues, Madrid 1999.
  • Gil Fernandez, Juan, “El triste galardon del hercdsmo: Castilnovo (1539)”, Erytheia, 26 (2005), 177-185.
  • Giron, Pedro, Cronica delEmperador Carlos V., Madrid 1964.
  • Gonzalez Castrillo, Ricardo, “La perdida de Castelnuovo en 1539 segun fuentes espanolas”, Anaquel de EstudiosÂrabes, vol. 24 (2013), 73-84.
  • Guilmartin, John Francis Jr., Gunpowder and Galleys. Changing Technology and Medterranean Warfare at Sea in the Sixteenth Century, Cambridge University Press, 1974.
  • Guitman, Barnabas - Zoltan Korpas - Ferenc Toth - Janos B. Szabo, “A magyarorszagi török varhaboruk nemzetközi hattere 1547-1556”, Vilâgtörtenet, 2 (2019), 253-293.
  • Inigo Fernandez, Luis E., Breve historia de la batalla de Lepanto, 2015.
  • Karolyi, Ârpad, Adalekok a nagyvaradi beke s az 1536-1538. evek törtenetehez, Budapest 1878.
  • Kasza, Peter, Buda Oppugnata. Forrasok Buda es Pest 1540-1542. evi ostromainak törtenetehez, Budapest 2021.
  • Jimenez de Quesada, Gonzalo, El Antijovio, Bogota 1952.
  • Korpas, Zoltan, “Buda-Algı'r-Buda. A magyarorszagi es a mediterran oszmanellenes küzdelmek kölcsönhatasai 1538-1542”, “Buda oppugnata”: 1541 - egy korszakhatar a magyar törtenelemben. (Tanulmanyok BudapestMûltjâböl), 2017, 85-102.
  • ________, V. Karoly es Magyarorszag, Szazadveg, Budapest 2008.
  • Kumrular, Özlem, “Lepanto: Antes y despues. La Republica, la Sublime Puerta y la Monarqma Catolica”, Studia historica. Historia moderna, N° 36 (2014), 101-120.
  • Lepanto La mar roja de sangre, ed. Alex Claramunt Soto, Madrid 2021.
  • Mercieca, Simon, “The Battle of Preveza 1538: the Knights of Malta’s perspective”, Preveza B. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium for the History and Culture of Preveza (16-20 September 2009), 107-120.
  • Mmguez, Vı'ctor, “Doria y Austria en Lepanto. Tapices y pinturas de Luca Cambiaso para una gesta naval”, Magnificencia y Arte Devenir de los tapices en la Historia, ed. Migel Ângel Zalama - Jesus F. Pascual Molian - Mana Jose Martmez Ruiz, Gijon 2018, 81-98.
  • Lombardo, Simone, “Tra Propaganda e realita: una ricostruzione della strana battaglia di Prevesa (1538)”, Studi Veneziani, N.S. LXXX (2019), 167-192.
  • O’Donell y Duque de Estrada, Hugo, “Proemio”, Lepanto. La mar roja de sangre, ed. Alex Claramunt Soto, Madrid 2021, 9-16.
  • Palffy, Geza, “The Habsburg-Ottoman Rivalry in Hungary and the Mediterranean in the Age of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent”, The Habsburg Mediterranean 1500-1800, ed. Stefan HanB - Dorothea McEwan, Vienna 2021, 147-174.
  • Parker, Geoffrey, Felipe II. La biografia definitiva, Barcelona 2016.
  • Pazzis Pi Corrales, Magdalena de, “Los tercios del mar en los siglos XVI y XVII.”, Historia de laInfantena de Marina. Ciclo de Conferencias junio-julio 2020, Cuaderno Monografico No. 81, Madrid 2020, 45-66.
  • Pujeau, Emmanuelle, “How to take a Fortress? The Wrong and the Right Way: Preveza 1538 & 1605”, Prevezanika Chronika 2017.
  • ________, “Preveza in 1538: The background of a very complex situation” Second International Symposium on the History and Culture ofPreveza, Sep 2009, Preveza, Greece, 121-138. Rivero Rodriguez, Manuel, La batalla de Lepanto. Cruzada, guerra santa e identidad confessional, Madrid 2008.
  • Rodriguez Gonzalez, Agustm Ramon, “La lucha en el Centro: Don Juan contra AH Pacha”, Lepanto. La mar roja de sangre, ed. Alex Claramunt Soto, Madrid 2021, 262-213.
  • Rodriguez Salgado, Mana Jose, “Carolus Africanus? El Emperador y el Turco”, Carlos Vy la quiebra del humanismopolttico enEuropa (1530-1558), coord. Jose Martmez Millan, Madrid 2001, 487-532.
  • ________, The Changing Face of Empire: Charles V, Philip II and Habsburg Authority, 1551-1559, Cambridge University Press, 2008.
  • Schmidt, Aniko, “A ciprusi hadjarat (1570-1573) muszlim indoklasa”, Leveltari Közlemenyek, 89. evf., 2020, 329-338.
  • ________, “A legjobb alkalom, mit a szazadok lattak”, A lepantoi csata emlekezete William Shakespeare es Miguel de Cervantes munkassagaban”, Keletkutatas, 2018 osz, 51-62.
  • ________, “A lepantoi csata ertekelese kortars beszâmolök alapjan”, Leveltâri Közlemenyek, 88. evf, 2017, 223-239.
  • ________, “Egy elszigetelt Gyozelem: Lepanto 1571“, Keletkutatas, 2010 tavasz, 77-92.
  • Varriale, Gennaro, “La batalla de las firmas: La negociacion de la Liga Santa”, Lepanto La mar roja de sangre, ed. Alex Claramunt Soto, Madrid 2021, 80-132.
  • Vila, Lara, “El sangriento destrozo y crudas muertes. Gloria y miseria en la poes^a de Lepanto”, Lepanto La mar roja de sangre, ed. Alex Claramunt Soto, Madrid 2021, 494-557.
  • Williams, Philip, “La Guerra en el Mediterraneo durante el siglo XVI”, Lepanto La mar roja de sangre, ed. Alex Claramunt Soto, Madrid 2021, 18-79.

History is Written by Victorious Battles: Glorious Lepanto (1571) and Forgotten Preveza (1538)

Yıl 2022, Sayı: 76, 63 - 94, 16.03.2022
https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.202204

Öz

The two battles - Preveza and Lepanto - are recorded in European historical memory in very different ways. In European historical memory, Lepanto has become the symbol of Christian victory over the invincible Ottoman Empire, even though it did not result in any significant tactical or strategic advantage or territorial change. The battle of Preveza, on the other hand, faded into oblivion. What similarities and differences can be drawn between the two battles? The historical context of the two battles provides an opportunity to draw parallels. Neither battle can be considered decisive in terms of military history. On 28 September 1538 and 7 October 1571, both battles saw two large enemy fleets clash. One of the most striking differences from the Holy League of 1538 was that in 1571 the Danubian Habsburg Monarchy did not join. In addition to the tactical and combat differences and analogies, we cannot ignore some technical developments: there are significant differences between the Christian galleys fighting in 1538 and 1571.

Kaynakça

  • Âgoston, Gabor, The LastMuslim Conquest. The Ottoman Empire and its wars in Europe, Oxford 2021.
  • Altarozzi, Girodano, “Diplomazia pontificia europea all’indomani di Lepanto”, The Proceedings of the “European Integration - Between Tradition and Modernity” Congress, 5. 2013, 978-986.
  • Alvar Ezquerra, Alfredo, Cervantes Genio y Libertad, Madrid 2005.
  • Barta, Gabor, Az erdelyi fejedelemseg születese, Budapest 1979.
  • Braudel, Fernand, A Földközi-tenger es aMediterrân VilâgII. Fülöp Korâban, I-III. kötet, Budapest 1996.
  • Bunes de Ibarra, Miguel Ângel, “Reunion en Mesina. Organizacion, log^stica y planes de la Liga Santa”, Lepanto La mar roja de sangre, Ed. Alex Claramunt Soto, Madrid 2021, 133-199.
  • , “La conquista de Tunez por los cronistas espanoles”, Tünez 1535 Voces para una campana europea, ed. M. Â. Bunes de Ibarra - R. Gonzalez Cuerva, Madrid 2017, 9-28.
  • Candiani, Guido, “La lucha en el cuerno izquierdo: Barbarigo y Querini contra Suluk Mehmed Pacha”, Lepanto La mar roja de sangre, ed. Alex Claramunt Soto, Madrid 2021, 314-350.
  • Casillas Perez, Âlvaro, “Una certa debileza”, Andrea Doria y las campanas de la Preveza y Castelnuovo ante las embajadas de Genova y Venecia (1538-1539)”, Nuevas perspectivas de investigacion en Historia Moderna: Economia, Sociedad, Poltticay Cultura en elMundo Hispânico, ed. Ma Ângeles Perez Samper - Jose Luis Betran Moya, Madrid 2018, 670-679.
  • Cerezo Martmez, Ricardo, Las Armadas de Felipe II., Madrid 1988.
  • Claramunt Soto, Alex, “La lucha en el cuerno derecho: Gian Andrea Doria contra Uluj AH”, Lepanto. La mar roja de sangre, ed. Alex Claramunt Soto, Madrid 2021, 351-381.
  • Crowley, Roger, Tengeri birodalmak. A keresztenyseg es az iszlâm harca a Földközi-tengerfeletti uralomert, Budapest 2014.
  • Fernandez Âlvarez, Manuel, Carlos V. El Cesar y el Hombre, Madrid 1999.
  • Fernandez Duro, Cesareo, La Armada Espanola. Desde la union de los reinos de Castilla y Aragon, Tomo I-II, Madrid 1895.
  • Fodor, Pal, The Unbearable Weight of Empire: The Ottomans in Central Europe - A Failed Attempt at UniversalMonarchy (1390-1566), Budapest 2015.
  • Garda Cerezeda, Martm, Tratado de las campanas y otros acontecimientos de los ejercitos del Emperador Carlos Ven Italia, Francia, Austria, Berbenay Grecia desde 1521 hasta 1545, Madrid 1873.
  • Garda Hernan, David - Enrique Garda Hernan, Lepanto: El d^a despues, Madrid 1999.
  • Gil Fernandez, Juan, “El triste galardon del hercdsmo: Castilnovo (1539)”, Erytheia, 26 (2005), 177-185.
  • Giron, Pedro, Cronica delEmperador Carlos V., Madrid 1964.
  • Gonzalez Castrillo, Ricardo, “La perdida de Castelnuovo en 1539 segun fuentes espanolas”, Anaquel de EstudiosÂrabes, vol. 24 (2013), 73-84.
  • Guilmartin, John Francis Jr., Gunpowder and Galleys. Changing Technology and Medterranean Warfare at Sea in the Sixteenth Century, Cambridge University Press, 1974.
  • Guitman, Barnabas - Zoltan Korpas - Ferenc Toth - Janos B. Szabo, “A magyarorszagi török varhaboruk nemzetközi hattere 1547-1556”, Vilâgtörtenet, 2 (2019), 253-293.
  • Inigo Fernandez, Luis E., Breve historia de la batalla de Lepanto, 2015.
  • Karolyi, Ârpad, Adalekok a nagyvaradi beke s az 1536-1538. evek törtenetehez, Budapest 1878.
  • Kasza, Peter, Buda Oppugnata. Forrasok Buda es Pest 1540-1542. evi ostromainak törtenetehez, Budapest 2021.
  • Jimenez de Quesada, Gonzalo, El Antijovio, Bogota 1952.
  • Korpas, Zoltan, “Buda-Algı'r-Buda. A magyarorszagi es a mediterran oszmanellenes küzdelmek kölcsönhatasai 1538-1542”, “Buda oppugnata”: 1541 - egy korszakhatar a magyar törtenelemben. (Tanulmanyok BudapestMûltjâböl), 2017, 85-102.
  • ________, V. Karoly es Magyarorszag, Szazadveg, Budapest 2008.
  • Kumrular, Özlem, “Lepanto: Antes y despues. La Republica, la Sublime Puerta y la Monarqma Catolica”, Studia historica. Historia moderna, N° 36 (2014), 101-120.
  • Lepanto La mar roja de sangre, ed. Alex Claramunt Soto, Madrid 2021.
  • Mercieca, Simon, “The Battle of Preveza 1538: the Knights of Malta’s perspective”, Preveza B. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium for the History and Culture of Preveza (16-20 September 2009), 107-120.
  • Mmguez, Vı'ctor, “Doria y Austria en Lepanto. Tapices y pinturas de Luca Cambiaso para una gesta naval”, Magnificencia y Arte Devenir de los tapices en la Historia, ed. Migel Ângel Zalama - Jesus F. Pascual Molian - Mana Jose Martmez Ruiz, Gijon 2018, 81-98.
  • Lombardo, Simone, “Tra Propaganda e realita: una ricostruzione della strana battaglia di Prevesa (1538)”, Studi Veneziani, N.S. LXXX (2019), 167-192.
  • O’Donell y Duque de Estrada, Hugo, “Proemio”, Lepanto. La mar roja de sangre, ed. Alex Claramunt Soto, Madrid 2021, 9-16.
  • Palffy, Geza, “The Habsburg-Ottoman Rivalry in Hungary and the Mediterranean in the Age of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent”, The Habsburg Mediterranean 1500-1800, ed. Stefan HanB - Dorothea McEwan, Vienna 2021, 147-174.
  • Parker, Geoffrey, Felipe II. La biografia definitiva, Barcelona 2016.
  • Pazzis Pi Corrales, Magdalena de, “Los tercios del mar en los siglos XVI y XVII.”, Historia de laInfantena de Marina. Ciclo de Conferencias junio-julio 2020, Cuaderno Monografico No. 81, Madrid 2020, 45-66.
  • Pujeau, Emmanuelle, “How to take a Fortress? The Wrong and the Right Way: Preveza 1538 & 1605”, Prevezanika Chronika 2017.
  • ________, “Preveza in 1538: The background of a very complex situation” Second International Symposium on the History and Culture ofPreveza, Sep 2009, Preveza, Greece, 121-138. Rivero Rodriguez, Manuel, La batalla de Lepanto. Cruzada, guerra santa e identidad confessional, Madrid 2008.
  • Rodriguez Gonzalez, Agustm Ramon, “La lucha en el Centro: Don Juan contra AH Pacha”, Lepanto. La mar roja de sangre, ed. Alex Claramunt Soto, Madrid 2021, 262-213.
  • Rodriguez Salgado, Mana Jose, “Carolus Africanus? El Emperador y el Turco”, Carlos Vy la quiebra del humanismopolttico enEuropa (1530-1558), coord. Jose Martmez Millan, Madrid 2001, 487-532.
  • ________, The Changing Face of Empire: Charles V, Philip II and Habsburg Authority, 1551-1559, Cambridge University Press, 2008.
  • Schmidt, Aniko, “A ciprusi hadjarat (1570-1573) muszlim indoklasa”, Leveltari Közlemenyek, 89. evf., 2020, 329-338.
  • ________, “A legjobb alkalom, mit a szazadok lattak”, A lepantoi csata emlekezete William Shakespeare es Miguel de Cervantes munkassagaban”, Keletkutatas, 2018 osz, 51-62.
  • ________, “A lepantoi csata ertekelese kortars beszâmolök alapjan”, Leveltâri Közlemenyek, 88. evf, 2017, 223-239.
  • ________, “Egy elszigetelt Gyozelem: Lepanto 1571“, Keletkutatas, 2010 tavasz, 77-92.
  • Varriale, Gennaro, “La batalla de las firmas: La negociacion de la Liga Santa”, Lepanto La mar roja de sangre, ed. Alex Claramunt Soto, Madrid 2021, 80-132.
  • Vila, Lara, “El sangriento destrozo y crudas muertes. Gloria y miseria en la poes^a de Lepanto”, Lepanto La mar roja de sangre, ed. Alex Claramunt Soto, Madrid 2021, 494-557.
  • Williams, Philip, “La Guerra en el Mediterraneo durante el siglo XVI”, Lepanto La mar roja de sangre, ed. Alex Claramunt Soto, Madrid 2021, 18-79.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Bölüm Araştırma Makaleleri
Yazarlar

Zoltán KORPÁS Bu kişi benim 0000-0002-0050-2700

Yayımlanma Tarihi 16 Mart 2022
Yayımlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022 Sayı: 76

Kaynak Göster

APA KORPÁS, Z. (2022). History is Written by Victorious Battles: Glorious Lepanto (1571) and Forgotten Preveza (1538). Tarih Dergisi(76), 63-94. https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.202204
AMA KORPÁS Z. History is Written by Victorious Battles: Glorious Lepanto (1571) and Forgotten Preveza (1538). Tarih Dergisi. Mart 2022;(76):63-94. doi:10.26650/iutd.202204
Chicago KORPÁS, Zoltán. “History Is Written by Victorious Battles: Glorious Lepanto (1571) and Forgotten Preveza (1538)”. Tarih Dergisi, sy. 76 (Mart 2022): 63-94. https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.202204.
EndNote KORPÁS Z (01 Mart 2022) History is Written by Victorious Battles: Glorious Lepanto (1571) and Forgotten Preveza (1538). Tarih Dergisi 76 63–94.
IEEE Z. KORPÁS, “History is Written by Victorious Battles: Glorious Lepanto (1571) and Forgotten Preveza (1538)”, Tarih Dergisi, sy. 76, ss. 63–94, Mart 2022, doi: 10.26650/iutd.202204.
ISNAD KORPÁS, Zoltán. “History Is Written by Victorious Battles: Glorious Lepanto (1571) and Forgotten Preveza (1538)”. Tarih Dergisi 76 (Mart 2022), 63-94. https://doi.org/10.26650/iutd.202204.
JAMA KORPÁS Z. History is Written by Victorious Battles: Glorious Lepanto (1571) and Forgotten Preveza (1538). Tarih Dergisi. 2022;:63–94.
MLA KORPÁS, Zoltán. “History Is Written by Victorious Battles: Glorious Lepanto (1571) and Forgotten Preveza (1538)”. Tarih Dergisi, sy. 76, 2022, ss. 63-94, doi:10.26650/iutd.202204.
Vancouver KORPÁS Z. History is Written by Victorious Battles: Glorious Lepanto (1571) and Forgotten Preveza (1538). Tarih Dergisi. 2022(76):63-94.